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History is bat the CBicace of mniimenble bioKraphies."— Thomas Carfyit, 

THE 

TWENTIETH CENTURY 
BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 

OF 

NOTABLE AMERICANS 

•• • • • ,• 

• • • • • • * 

BRIEF BIGGRAPHIE&.^y zAc'u.THGRS 
A D M I N I S T R A T O ?l 8 ,"• :G C B R G Y M E N 
COMMANDERS, EDITORS, ENGINEERS 
JURISTS, MERCHANTS, OFFICIALS 
PHILANTHROPISTS, SCIENTISTS 
STATESMEN, AND OTHERS WHO 
ARE MAKING AMERICAN HISTORY 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 

ROSSITER JOHNSON, Ph. D., LL. D. 

XOnOK OP THB ANNUAL CYCLOP ADIA AND ASSOCIATE EDITOR OP THE AMERICAN CVCLOPJBDtA 

MANAGING EDITOR 

JOHN HOWARD BROWN 

WITH WHOM ARE ASSOCIATED MANY EMINENT CONTRIBUTORS 



VOLUME VII 
LODGE— MOUL 



BOSTON 
THE BIOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

1904 



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• • • • • • 






*C^yright,* igo4^ fy The Bicgra^hiaU Society 



Printers and Binders^ Norwood^ Mass. 

U. S. A, 



LIST OF FULL-PAGE PORTRAITS 



Vou I 


• 


John Adams 


Melville W. Fuller 


John Quincy Adams 


James A. Garfield 


John A. Andrew 


James, CARDINJAji t^rlDBONS \ • 

1 ' • • ' 


Chester A. Arthur 


Ulysses S. Grant., . 


Phillips Brooks 


Vol. V 


Vol. II 


Marcus Hanna : t'^!-' ;- 


James Buchanan 


William R. Harper 



John C. Calhoun 
Andrew Carnegie 
Henrt Clay 
Grover Cleveland 



Vol. hi 

Charles A. Dana 
Jefferson Davis 
George Dewey 
Thomas A. Edison 

Vol. IV 

David G. Farraqut 
Millard Fillmore 



Benjamin Harrison 
William Henry Harrison 
Nathaniel Hawthorns 
John Hay 

Rutherford B. Hayes 
Washington Irving 



Vol. VI 

Andrew Jackson 
Thomas Jefferson 
Andrew Johnson 
Robert Edward Lee 
Abraham Lincoln 



Vol. VII 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 
William McKinley 
* jA^ft§ 'Madison 

' • •• • ^ 

, tlAMEs Monroe 

' Samuel Finley Breesb Morsb 



•• 



Vol. Vm 

Oliver Hazard Perrt 
Franklin Pierce 
James Knox Polk 

Vol. IX 

Theodora Roosevelt 
Elihu Root 
William T. Sherman 

Vou X 

Zachary Taylor 
John Tyler 
Martin Van Buren 
George Washington 
Daniel Webster 



• • • 



• • •• • 

« • 



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•»• • • •#• •• • 

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• » • • • • 



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THE 



Tr\SrENTIETH CENTURY 

BiOGRAPHicAiv Dictionary 



OP 



NOTABLE AMERICANS. 



LODGE* Henry Cabot, statesman and author, 
was born in Boston, Mass., May 12, 1850 ; son of 
John EUlerton and Anna (Cabot) Lodge. He 
was graduated at Harvard, A.B., 1871, LL.B., 
1874, Ph.D. (history) 1876. He was admitted to 
the Suffolk bar in 1876 and devoted himself to 
literature and to the public service as a legislator. 
He was a representative in the Massachusetts 
legislature, 1^ and 1881 ; a representative from 
the sixth Massachusetts district in the 50th, 51st 
and 52d congresses, 1887-d3, and resigned his seat 
in 1893 on his election to the U.S. senate. He 
was re-elected in 1899. In the senate he was 
chairman of the committee on the Philippines and 
a member of the committees on civil service and 
retrenchments, foreign relations, immigration, 
railroads and the select committee on industrial 
exposition. He was a delegate to the Republican 
national convention of 1884, 1888, 1892, 1896 
and 1900, placed Thomas B. Reed in nomina- 
tion for President in 1896, and was permanent 
chairman of the convention at Philadelphia, 
June 19-22, 1900. He was married June 29, 
1871, to Anna Cabot Mills, daughter of Rear- Ad- 
miral Charles H. Davis, U.S.N. He delivered a 
course of lectures before the Lowell Institute, 
Boston, on the English Colonies in America 
(1880). He was university lecturer on American 
history at Harvard, 1876-79, and was editor of 
the Xorth American Review, 1878-76, and of 
the International Review, 1879-81. He re- 
ceived the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Williams in 1893. He is the author of: Life 
unci Letters of George Cabot (1877) ; Short His- 
tory of the English Colonies in America (1881) ; 
Life of Alexander Hamilton (1882) ; Life of Dan- 
iel Webster (1883) ; Studies in History (1886) ; 
Life of Washington (2 vols., 1889) ; History of 
Boston in "Historic Towns Series" (1891) ; His- 
torical and Political Essays (1892) ; Speeches 
(1895) ; Hero Tales from American History, with 
Theodore Roosevelt (1895) ; Certain Accepted 



Heroes, and Other Essays in Literature and Polir 
tics (1897) ; Story of the Revolution (2 vols., 
1898) ; Story of the Spanish War (1899). He 
edited Ballads and Lyrics (1881) ; Complete 
Works of Alexander Hamilton (9 vols., 1885). 

LOEBy Louis, artist, was born in Cleveland, 
Ohio, Nov. 7, 1866; son of Alexander and Sara 
(£hrman) Loeb. He received his first instruc- 
tion in art at the Art Students* league. New 
York city ; and studied in France, 1890-92. He 
exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1891 and subse- 
quently, and received the first prize of the atelier 
at the £cole des Beaux Arts, 1892. He returned 
to New York in 1892 ; was again in Paris, 1894-98, 
receiving at tlie Salon honorable .mention in 
1894 and the third-class medal in 1896, and in 
1898 resumed his work in New York. He won 
especial recognition as an illustrator. He was 
elected to the Society of American Artists in 1900. 

LOQANy Benjamlny pioneer, was born in Au- 
gusta county, Va., in 1743 ; son of David Logan, 
an Irishman, who settled in Augusta county, 
Va., where he died in 1757. His estate fell to 
Benjamin, the eldest son, who on reaching his 
majority in 1764 divided it with his mother, and 
his sisters and brothers, and removed to Holston 
river, where he married Ann, daughter of William 
Montgomery. He served in the wars against the 
Indians, 1764 ; with Patrick Henry against Gov- 
ernor Dunmore, 1774; joined Boone's party of 
settlers en route to Kentucky in 1775 and left the 
party and settled in what is now Lincoln county, 
Ky., where with the help of his brother John 
(who was a companion in most of his exploits 
and afterward a representative in the state legis- 
lature and secretary of the. state of Kentucky), 
he built Fort Logan, and removed his family 
thither in 1776. On May 20, 1777, the fort was 
besiege<l by a hundred Indians for weeks, until 
the ammunition and provisions were almost ex- 
hausted, wiien Logan and two companions left the 
fort under cover of night, and made a rapid jour- 



LOGAN 



LOGAN 



ney of 160 miles to the Holston settlement, where 
he procured powder and lead and hastily returned, 
leaving his companions to follow with a relief 
party under Col. John Bowman, who dispersed 
the savages. Li July, 1779, he was second in 
command of an army of over three hundred men 
under Ck>lonel Bowman in an expedition against 
the Indian settlement of ChiUicothe, and Logan 
with one half the army fell upon the Tillage ex- 
pecting to be supported by Bowman, who did not 
arrive. After most of hjis men had fled in dismay, 
Logan and his aides dashed into the bushes on 
horseback, forcing the Indians from their coverts 
and completely dispersing the enemy. In the 
summer of 1788 he again conducted an expedition 
against the Northwestern tribes. He was a dele- 
gate to the convention of 1792 that framed the 
first constitution of Kentucky, and to the second 
constitutional convention of 1799 in which his 
son William was also a delegate. He was also a 
representative in the Kentucky legislature for 
several years. Logan county, Ky., formed in 
1793, was named in his honor. He died in Shelby 
county, Ky., Dec. 11, 1803. 

LOGAN. Cella, author, was bom in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Dec. 17, 1837 ; daughter of Cornelius 
Ambrosius and Eliza (Acheley) Logan. She re- 
moved with her parents to Cincinnati, Ohio, 
where she spent her early childhood and was 
graduated from the High school of that city. 
She went on the stage at an early age with her 
sister Eliza, completed her education in London, 
and filled a position in a publishing house there 
as a critical reader of submitted manuscript. 
She was married, in 1859, to Miner K. Kellogg, 
an American painter. She had then left the 
stage, and in 1860 began a literary career in Lon- 
don, under the tutelage of Charles Reade. She 
became a correspondent of American journals, 
including the Boston Saturday Evening Oazette, 
and the Oolden Era of San Francisco, and con- 
tributed to magazines. During the civil war 
she resided in Milan, Italy, transli^ing war news 
for the Italian press. She returned to the United 
States in 1866, and settled in Washington, D.C., 
in 1868, and was associate editor of Tfie Capitol, 
with Don Piatt as chief. She was married 
secondly, in 1873, to James H. Connolly, author 
and journalist, and settled in New York city 
in 1874. She is the author of the following 
plays: Rose (1878), produced in San Fhincisco ; 
The Odd Trick ( 1873) ; The Homestead (1873) ; An 
American Marriage (1884). She later adapted 
and translated from the French, Qnston Cadol, or 
A Son of the Soil; The Sphinx; Miss Multon; 
Froment Jeune by Daudet, and A Marriage in 
High Life* She wrote the novels : Her Strange 
Fate, and Sarz, a Story of the Stage ; also How to 
Reduce Your Weight or to Increase it. 



LOGAN* Cornelias Ambrose, diplomatist, was 
born in Deerfield, Mass., Aug. 24, 1832 ; son of 
Cornelius Ambrosius and Eliza (Acheley) Logan. 
He was a student at Auburn academy and was 
graduated from the Miami Medical college, Ohio, 
in 1858 ; and from the Ohio Medical college in 
1858. He was resident physician to St. John's 
hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio ; assistant in chemistry 
im Miami Medical college, 1851-53, and a lecturer 
on chemistry in the sunmier school of that college, 
1863. He removed to LeaTenworth, Kan., in 1858, 
where he established with Dr. T. Sinks The Lea- 
venvyroth Medical Herald the first medical journal 
published in Kansas, and was its editor, 1861-73. 
He was also botanist on the first geological sur- 
vey of Kansas and president of the state board of 
medical examiners, 1861-65. He was U.S. minis- 
ter to Chile, 1873-77 ; practised medicine in Chi« 
cage. 111., 1877-79 ; was U.S. minister to the five 
Central American states with a residence at 
Guatemala, 1879-81 ; and again U.S. minister to 
Chile, 1882-86. He studied in the hospitals of 
London, Paris and Berlin, 1886-87, and then 
resumed his practice in Chicago. During his 
service in Chile, he succeeded in obtaining recog- 
nition for all the genuine medical schools in the 
United States, as only applicants holding a 
diploma from Harvard were at tliat time recog- 
nized by the board of medical examiners of Chile, 
as eligible to practice in that country. In 1890 
he was sent to Europe as the first commissioner 
to the World's Columbian exposition to be held 
in Chicago, 111., in 1893. He received the hono- 
rary degree of A.M. from Yale in 1868, that of 
M.D. from the Bellevue Hospital Medical college 
in 1868, and that of LL.D. from the National uni- 
versity of Chicago in 1885. He contributed to 
American and European scientific journals ; edi- 
ted The Works of John A. Logan (1886), and is 
the author of Reports on the Sanitary Relations 
of the State of Kansas (1866) ; On the Climatology 
of the Missouri Valley (1878) ; and Physics of Infee* 
turns Diseases (1878). He died in Los Angeles, 
Cal., Jan.30, 1899. 

LOGAN, Cornelius Ambrosius, dramatist, was 
bom in Baltimore, Md., May 4, 1806. He was 
educated for the priesthood at St. Mary's college 
near Baltimore, Md. He entered a shipping house 
in Baltimore after leaving college and visited 
Europe several times in its interest. He was 
assistant editor of the Baltimore Morning Chron- 
icle ; was dramatic critic of the Daily Chronicle, 
Philadelphia, Pa., and adopted the stage as a 
profession in 1835, first appearing in tragedy at 
the Bowery theatre. New York, 1838, and acting 
thereafter also in Canada. In 1840 he removed 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he opened the National 
theatre, and continued as a theatrical manager in 
that city, and in Pittsburg and Louisville for 



LOGAN 

seven] jreais, after which he tr&velled as & etar 
with his daughter Eliza, and became widely and 
favorably known as a comedian. Maoready was 
so impressed with his grave-di^er in "Hamlet" 
that he earnestly requested him lo go to England 
and appear with hira there ia that play. He was 
married in Philadelphia Sept. 1, 1826, to Eliza 
Acheley, and their children were : Eliza ; Thomas 
A. a lawyer in Cincinnati; Celia (q.v.) ; OliTe 
(q.v.); Alice ; Mrs. Oraoe Logan Spencer, 
of Boston and Dr. Cornelius A. Logan (q-v.)> 
Mr. Logan was one of the first successful Ameri- 
can dramatists, being the author of the following 
acted plays: Yankee Land (1884); The Wag of 
Maitte (lS^);The Wodt Dealer aSS6); Removing 
ihe Depoaitt; Aatarte, an adaptation from Shelley's 
'H^aoi"; A Bimdred Tears Henee,andChloroformt 
which last was one of the first plaj^s to have a 
long run in New York. His Ode to f Ae Mi»»ia- 
aippt was copied extensively and received unqual- 
ified praise in Blaekwood^t Magazine. He was 
an accomplished classical scholar, and he ably 
defended the stage against pulpit attacks hj 
eminent Boston clergymen. He died while 
travelling upon the Ohio River, Feb. 32, 1853. 

LOOAN, Eliza, aotrms, was bom in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Aug. 7, 1827 ; daughter of Cornelius 
Ambrosius and Eliza (Acheley) Logan. Her 
mother ( bom in Philadelphia, Nov. 11, 1806, 
died there. May 11, 187S) was the daughter cf 
Mary Acheley, who was born at East Egg Har- 
bor, N.J., in 1784, and married Captain Acheley, 
who died at sea. Eliza Logan was educated In 
the Young Lady's seminary at Lancaster, Pa, 
She made her first appeaninoe on the stage in 1840, 
as " Young 
I Norval " at the 
^ old Walnut 
A Street theatre 
I in Philadel- 
% phia, and af- 
*'i terward ap- 
^ peared at Bur- 
S ton's theatre. 
New York city, 
as Pauline in " The Lady of Lyons." The family 
then removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, and Eliza soon 
assumed all the leading roles under her father's 
management. At one time she played a long en- 
gagement in New York in sucoeeaful rivalry with 
Rachel, the French actress, an event of unusual 
interest in the history of the American stage. As 
Lady Macbeth, Ion, Juliet, and Julia In "The 
Hunchback " she achieved a wide reputation on 
the American stage. The elder Booth pronounced 
her Ion to be equal to that of Miss Ellen Tree. On 
her marriage in 1859 to Qeorge Wood, a theatri- 
cal manager, she retired from the stage. She 
died in New York city, Jan. 15, 1873. 



LOGAN 

LOQAN, Qeorge, senator, was born at Stenton, 
Pa., Sept. 9, 1753 ; son of William Logan, and 
grandson of James Logan the immigrant, 1699. 
His father was a prominent lawyer in Philadel- 
phia, city councillor, 1748-76, librarian of the 
Loganian library, founded by James Logan, 1751- 
76, and bequeathed to the library a collection of 
about 1300 volumes. George was graduated at 
Edinburgh, M.D., 1779, and devoted himself to 
agriculture. He was a member of the Society of 
Friends ; a representative in the state legislature, 
and in June, 1798, he went to France on his own 
responsibility and endeavored to avert war be- 
tween the United States and that country. He 
was successful In so modifying the embargo on 
American shippii^ as to pave the way for a peace 
negotiation. He was denounced by the Federalist 
party and an act was passed by congress forbid- 
ding any unofilcial pariicipaticn by a citizen in 
settling a controversy between the United States 
and a foreign power. He was choeen U.S. senator 
to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Peter Muhlenberg, and served 1801-07. Hewent 
to England in 1810 to attempt a reconciliation 
between Great Britain and the United States. 
He was a member of the American Philceophical 
society and of the Pennsylvania board of agri- 
culture. He is the author of ExperimenU on Qyp- 
gum, and Rotation of Cropi (1797). He died at 
Stenton, near Philadelphia, Pa., April 9, 1821. 

LOGAN) Henry, representative, was bom on 
Logania Plantation, near Dillsburg, York county. 
Pa., April 14, 1784; son of Henry and Susannah 
(Blair) Logan and grandson cf John and Ann 
Logan, native of Coot Hill, county Honaghan, 
Ireland, who settled in York county, Pa., 1749, 
where Logania Plantation was marked out and 
cultivated. Henry received his school training at 
the backwoods school and in 1614 volunteered for 
the defence of Baltimore ; was captain in the IBth 
regiment, 3d brigade, 5th division Pennsylvania 
militia, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 
Aug. 1, 1614. He was a representative from York 
county in the state legislature, 1818-19 ; state 
senator, 1828-31 ; representative in the 24th and 
25th congresses, 1835-89, and county commis- 
sioner, 1640. He was an iutimate friend of Presi- 
dent Jackson and frequently a guest at the White 
House. He was a member of the American Colo- 
nization Society. He was married Feb. 33, 1825, 
to Martha O'hail a descendant of Hugh O'hail an 
officer in the American Revolution ; and of their 
children seven survived them, three being sons ; 
James Jackson Logan, the Rev. William Henry 
Logan, a Presbyterian minister in Princess Anne, 
Md., and John N. Logan, a member of the York 
county bar. Colonel Logan passed the last 
twenty years of his life in retirement and died at 
his home near Dillsburg, Pa., Dec. 26, 1866. 



^^**«« o^raaiAi^ 



LOGAN 

LOQAN, James, jurist and educator, vras born 
In Lingan, countj Armngh, Ireland, Oct. SO, 
1674 ; a descendant of Logan of Reetabig, whose 
estates were confiscated for faia connection with 
theOowtie oonspiraoj againet Jamea VI. of Soot- 
land. After the battle 
of Boyne, July 1, 
1600, he aoQompan- 
ied his father, who 
was obliged to leave 
the country for bis 
Catholic seDtimenta, 
first to Edinburgh, 
and later to Bris- 
tol, England, where 
he completed his 
studiee. He accorn- 
panied WilHam Penn 
to America aa his sec- 
retary in 1699. He was 
made secretary of 
the province in 1701 
and subsequently served as clerk of the council, 
commissioner of property, chief justice and as a 
member of the provincial council, 1703-07. He 
gained the respect of the Indians at Conestoga, 
who named their chief, Logan, after him. He 
was impeached by the provincial assembly, Feb. 
20, 1707, on various cliarges, to which he replied, 
personally abusing members of the assembly. 
The assembly ordered hia arrest and confinement 
in the county jail, but he escaped and went to 
England Nov. 25, 1707. He returned in 1718 ; 
was justice of the court of common pleas, 1715-23, 
and was presiding judge in 1TS3. He was chosen 
mayor of Philadelphia the same year and &« the 
close of his term he went abroad to attend to 
the affairs of William Penn. He was chief jus- 
tice of the supreme court of the province, 1731- 
86, and after the death of Governor Gordon in 
1786 was president of the council and acting 
governor, 1730-38. He removed to his conntty 
seat "Stenton" where he devoted himself to 
scientific pursuits and literature. He was a 
founder, Nov. 13, 1749, of the Public academy 
in the city of Philadelphia, afterward the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, and was a member of the 
first board of trustees of the college, 1749-51. He 
was a member of the Society of Friends and 
liequeathed to the city of Philadelphia his exten- 
(sive library, which became the Loganian library. 
He was the author of Experimenta de Hantamm 
Oeneratione, (1739); translation of Cicero's De 
Senectute (1744), and of other works in Latin and 
in English proeo and verse. He died at" Stenton," 
near Germantown, Pa., Oct. 31, 1751. 

LOQAN, James Venable, educator, was bom 
in Scott county, Ky., July 11. 1835 ; son of James 
Hervey and Mary (Tenable) Lt^an ; grandson of 



LOGAN 

Alexander and Jane (McCampbell) Logan and of 
James and Elizabeth (Cowan) Venable, and a 
descendant of James Logan of Ireland, who 
settled first in Pennsylvania and about 1700 in 
what is now Rockbridge county, Va. He was 
graduated from Centre college, Danville, Ey,, 
A.B., 1854, and from the Danville Theological 
seminary, in 1860. He was licensed by the pree- 
bytery of Louisville in 1859, and was ordained by 
the presbytery of Transylvania in 1860. He was 
pastor of the Presbyterian church at Harrods- 
burg, Ky., 1860-68, edited the Free CbHMian 
Commomoealth, 1868-69, and was professor of 
ethics and evidences at Central university, Rich- 
mond, Ky., 1878-79,and of philosophy, 1889. He 
was active in founding the College of Philosophy 
and Science of Central university, gave the sum 
of $10,000 toward itsconstructionand was elected 
president of the college in 1880. He received the 
degree of D.D. in 1880, and that of LL.D. in 
1890, from Hampd en-Sidney college, Va. He 
was married in December, 1863, to Mattie E. S., 
daughter of Sanford McBrayer of Harrodsburg, 
Ky. Their son, Sanford McBrayer Logan became 
a Presbyterian minister. 

LOQAN, Joha Alexander, statesman and sol- 
dier, n-as born in Murphysboro, Jackson county, 
111.. Feb. 9, 1826; eldest son of Dr. John and 
Elizabeth (Jenkins) Logan. His father immi- 
grated to the United States from Ireland in 1638, 
and settled in Cape 
Girardeau, Ho., re- 
moving later to Jack- 
son county. III., where 
he conducted a farm, 
practised his profes- 
sion, was a represen- 
totive in the state 
legrislature and held 
several county ofBces. 
John A. Logan ao- 
qui)%d his prepara- 
tory education chief- 
ly under the instruc- 
tion of his father 
and his tutor, and 
he attended Shiloh 

college in 1840. Upon the outbreak of the war 
with Mexico in 1840, he enlisted fn the vol- 
unteer army and was appointed 2d lieutenant, 
1st Illinois volunteers, and served as adjutant 
and quartermaster of the regiment in New 
Mexico. He returned to Illinois at the close of 
the war, studied law with his uncle, Alexander 
M. Jenkins, and in 1849 was elected clerk of 
Jackson county. He was graduated from the 
law department of Louisville university In 1851 ; 
was admitted to the bar in 1852 ; was a represent- 
ative in the state legislature, 1853-53, 1856-57 ; 



LOGAN 

prosecuting attorney of the third judicial district 
' of Illinois, 185S-S9 ; presidential elector on the 
Buchanan and Breckinridge ticket in 1856, and 
a Democratic representative in the 86tb and 8Tth 
congresses, 1859-61. In July, 1881, during the 
extra session of the 3Tth congress he resigned his 
seat and joined the Federal army at Bull Run, 
fighting aa a private in Colonel Richardson's regi- 
ment. He returned to Marion, 111,, where he 
organized and was made colonel of the 81st Illi- 
nois infantry. He commanded bis regiment in 
McClemand's brigade in tbe battle of Belmont, 
where he led a bayonet cbarge and bad a borse 
shot under him ; also in the attack on Fort 
Henry, and at Fort Donelson, where he was se- 
verely wounded in the left shoulder. He joined 
General Grant at Pittsburg Landing, Harcb 6, 
1862, and was appointed brigadier-general of 
ToIuntAers. He commanded a brigade at Jack- 
son, Tenn., where he guarded the railroad lines 
with six regiments. In 1862 he declined the 
nomination for representative in tbe 38th con- 
greea. He commanded the 3d division, ITtb 
army corps, under General MoPherson in Grant's 
northern Mississippi campaign ; was promoted 
major-general, Nov. 26, 1862, and fought at Port 
Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Champion Hill and 
tit the siege of Vicksburg, where he was in com- 
mand of McPherson's centre, his command en- 
tering Vicksburg immediately after tbe explosion 
of the mine. He was made the first military 
governor of Vicksburg, and for bis gallantry 
during tbe siege he received from congress a 
medal of honor which bore the inscription 
"Vicksburg, July 4, 1863." He succeeded Gen- 
eral Sherman In November, 1863, as thecomman- 
der of the IQth army corps. He led the advance 
of the Army of tbe Tennessee at Besaca ; and 
repulsed Hardee at Dallas, where he was shot 
through the left arm. He temporarily succeeded 
General McFhersoo in command of the Army of 
the Tennessee upon the latter's death, July 22, 
1894, and led his corps in the battle of Keneeaw 
Mountain and in the attack on Atlanta. After 
taking part in tbe presidential campaign of 1864, 
be rejoined Sherman at Savannah and continued 
in command of his corps until the surrender of 
Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, April 26. 1865, when 
he succeeded General Howard as commander of 
the Army of the Tennessee. He resigned bis 
oommission in the army and returned to hia home 
at Marion, 111., in August, 186S. He was a Re- 
publican representative in the 40th and 41st con- 
gresses, 1867-71, and was one of tbe managers of 
the impeachment trial of President Johnson. He 
was U.S. senator from Illinois, 1871-77, and 1879- 
86. He was a candidate for nomination for the 
Presidency June 3, 1B84, and upon the nomina- 
tion of James Q. Blaine was chosen Republican 



LOGAK 

candidate for Vice-President by acclamation. He 
was commander-in-chief of tbe Grand Army of 
the Republic and it was on his proposal that May 
SOtb was designated as Decoration Day and made 
a national holiday. He was married Nov. 27. 
1855, to Mary Simmerson, daughter of CapL 
John M. Cunningham, register of the land ofQce 
at Shawneetown, III., who survived bim. They 
had three children: the eldest, a son, died in 
infancy ; the second, a daughter, married Maj. W. 
F. Tucker, U.S.A.; and the youngest, John A. 
Logan, Jr., was a major in the U.S. volunteer 
service in the war with Spain, served in Cuba as 
an adjutant-general on Gen. J. C. Bates's staff ; 
was appointed major of the 33d U.S. volunteers 
August, 1899, and was killed while leading a 
charge at San Jacinto, Luzon, Philippine Islands. 
Nov. 11, 1899. General Logan is the author of: 
!77ie Great Conspiracy (1886); The Volunteer 
Soldier of America (1887) . An equestrian statue 
in bronze, on a bronse pedestal with bas relief 
portraits of the general officers serving with him, 
and scenes in the senate when he took the oath 
of office, and on battlefields in which he engaged, 
was unveiled in Washington, D.C.. April 10, 1901. 
He died in Washington, D.C., Deo. 26, 1886. 

LOOAN, Olive, author, was born in Elmira, 
N. Y., April 22, 1839 ; daughter of Cornelius Am- 
brosias and Eliza (Acheley) Logan. She was 
educated partly at the Methodist Female semin- 
ary, and partly at tbe Academy of the Sacred 
Heart, at Cincinnati, 
Ohio. She made her 
debut on the stage 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 
in 1854, and went to 
England in 18S7, 
where she completed 
her education. She 
married Henry A. 
Delille in April, 1857. 
and in 1864 appeared 
at Wal lack's theatre 
in New York city in 
" Eveleen," a play of 

which she was the /Q^ _5^ ^ 

.Mhor. She had , Cft.^'^ A^S^^ 
suocessful stage ca- ^ ■ -^ 

reer, and retired in 1868. She became a lec- 
turer, principally on woman's rights and on 
other social topics. She obtained a divorce from 
her first husband in December. 1865, and was 
married secondly Dec. 19, IHTl, to 'Villiam Wirt 
Sikes, U.S. consul at Cardiff, W;il(?s, 1876-83. 
She contributed to American jouriiiLla and mag- 
azines while a resident of Wales. Consul Sikes 
died in 1883 and in 1892 sbti was married thirdly 
to James O'Neill Logan, She was elected a mem- 
ber of the London Society of Authors in 1386. 



LOGAN 



LOMAX 



91 



If 



On her return to the United States in 1895, she 
resumed her journalistic career and returned to 
the lecture platform, her successful lecture sub- 
jects including : ** The Life of Queen Victoria 
and ** The Newspaper Office as a place for Girls. 
She is the author of : Photographs of Paris Life 
(1861); Chateau Frissac (1865); Women and The- 
atres (1SQ9); Before the Footlights and Behind 
the Scenes : a Book about the Show Business (1870); 
The Mimic World (1871); Oct Thee Behind Me, 
Satan (1872); They Met by Chance (\S1Z)\ and a 
dramatization of Wilkie CoUins's "Armadale" 
(1869) ; the comedy Surf, or Life at Long Branch 
produced by Daly (1870) ; and a metrical transla- 
tion of Francois Ck>ppee's ** Le Passant '\ produced 
at the Princess theatre, London (1887). 

LOQAN* Stephen Trigg* jurist, was bom in 
Frankfort, Ky., Feb. 24, 1800 ; son of David and 
Mary (Trigg) Logan ; grandson of Ool. John and 
Jane (McClure) Logan, and of Col. Stephen 

and (Christian) Trigg and a descendant 

of David Logan, an Irishman who settled in 
Pennsylvania and subsequently removed to Au- 
gusta county, Ya. He attended school in Frank- 
foi-t, Ky., studied law under Judge Christopher 
Tompkins at Glasgow, Ky., in 1817 and was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He was married in 1828 to 
America J., daughter of William Bush of Glas- 
gow, Ky. , and secondly to a sister of Justice John 
McKinley of the U.S. supreme court. He served 
as attorney for the commonwealth and practised 
in Barren county, 1821-81. He lost his property, 
accumulated by his practice, through security 
debts, and in 1832 engaged in law practice at 
Springfield, 111. He was judge of the Sangamon 
circuit district, 1885-87 ; was elected a second 
time but declined to serve ; practised law with 
E. D. Baker, 1887-41, and with Abraham Lincoln, 
1841-44, and later with his son-in-law Milton 
Hay. He was a representative in the Illinois 
legislature, 1842-48 and 1854-56 and was a delegate 
to the state constitutional convention of 1847. 
He was a defeated candidate for representative 
in congress in 1848, owing to his opposition to 
the war with Mexico. He was a delegate for the 
state at large to the Republican national conven- 
tion in 1860, and a commissioner to the national 
peace convention of 1861, at Washington, where 
he urged an honorable compromise. A memorial 
of his life and character was issued from the 
Springfield press in 1880. He died in Springfield, 
111., July 17, 1880. 

LOGAN, William, jurist, was bom in the fort 
at Harrod's Fort, Ky., Dec. 8, 1776; son of Benja- 
min and Ann (Montgomery) Logan. William 
was said to be the first male child born in Ken- 
tucky. He passed his early childhood in the fort 
at St. Asaphs, removed to Shelby county with his 
parents about 1800 and became a lawyer. He 
represented Lincoln county in the second consti- 



tutional convention at Frankfort, Aug. 17, 17.90, 
and settled in the practice of law in Shelby 
county. He represented both Lincoln and Shelby 
counties in the Kentucky legislature, and served 
as speaker of the house, 1803-06, and 1808-09. He 
was appointed by Governor Scott judge of the 
Kentucky court of appeals, serving 1808-12 ; was 
a presidential elector in 1809, 1813, and in 1817 ; 
and was elected U.S. senator from Kentucky in 
1819. He resigned in 1820 to become a candidate 
for governor but was defeated in the election by 
John Adair, and again represented Shelby county 
in the state legislature in 1821. He married a 
daughter of Caleb Wallace of Woodford county. 
He died in Shelby county, Ky., Aug. 8, 1822. 

LOMAXf John Tayioe, jurL^t, was bom in Port 
To*"!!^, Caroline county, Va., Jan. 19, 1781 ; son 
of Maj. Thomas and Ann Corbin (Tayloe) Lomax; 
grandson of Lunsford and Judith (Micou) Lomax; 
great-grandson of John and Elizabeth ( Wormley) 
Lomax of Port Tobago, Caroline county, and 
great-grandson of the Rev. John Lomax, bom 
1637, died at North Shields, England, 1694, and 
Catherine (Gray) Lomax, his wife. He was grad- 
uated from St. John's college, Annapolis, Md., 
in 1797, studied law in Annapolis, 1797-1801; 
was admitted to the bar in 1801, and settled 
in practice in Port Royal county. He was mar- 
ried July 2S, 1805, to Charlotte B. Thomton of 
Mansfield, Va. He removed to Fredericksburg, 
Va., in 1805 ; settled in Menokin, Richmond coun- 
ty, in 1810 ; and returned to Fredericksburg in 
1813. He was professor of law in the University 
of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1826-30, and associate 
justice of the general court of Virginia, 1830-38 
and 1851-57, when he retired to private life. He 
received the degree of LL.D. from Harvard in 
1847. He is the author of : A Digest of the Laws 
respecting Real Property Generally Adopted and 
in Use in the United States (1839) , and A Treatise 
on the Law of Executors and Administrators Oen* 
erallyin Use in the United States (1841). He 
died in Fredericksburg, Va., Oct. 1, 1862. 

LOMAXt Lunsford Lindsay, soldier, was bom 
in Newport, R. I., Nov. 4, 1835 ; son of Maj. Mann 
Page and Elizabeth (Lindsay) Lomax ; grandson 
of Capt. William Lindsay of Lee's legion in the 
American Revolution, and a descendant of Sir 
Thomas Lunsford. He graduated from the U.S. 
Military academy in 1856 and was assigned to the 
2d cavalry, and transferred to the 1st cavalry, 
serving in the west. He resigned from the U.S. 
army in 1861, and was appointed captain in the 
Virginia state forces. He entered the Confede- 
rate army as captain and assistant adjutant-gen- 
eral to Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. April 29, 1861. 
He was promoted major, and assigned to duty with 
Gen. Ben McCulloch, and as lieutenant-colonel 
and inspector-general to Gen. Earl Van Dorn, in 
July, 1862. He was appointed colonel of the 11th 



LOMAX 



LONG 



Virginia oavalry in February, 1863 ; brigadier- 
general, July 23, 1863 ; and major-general, Aug. 
10, 1864. In July, 1863, he was assigned to the 
command of a brigade in Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's 
division, cavalry corps. Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia. In August, 1864, he was assigned to the 
command of a division of cavalry under General 
Early, relieving Gen. Robert Bansom. In 
ICaroh, 1865, he was ordered by Gen. Robert 
£. Lee to the command of the valley district. 
After the evacuation of Richmond, he moved to 
Lynchburg to intercept Stoneman, and surren- 
dered his division at Greensboro, with G^en. 
Joseph EL Johnston's army. He engaged in 
farming near Warrenton, Fauquier county, Va., 
1865-86; was president of the Virginia Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical college, Blacksburg,->n%, 
188^91 ; and in the latter year assumed a position 
in the war records office, Washington, D.C. 

LOMAX, Tennenty soldier, was bom in Abbe- 
vUle district, S.C., Sept. 20, 1820 ; son of William 
and Eliza (Tennent) Lomaz ; grandson of W. P. 
and liartha (Middleton) Tennent, great-grandson 
of Maj. Hugh Middleton of Edgefield, S.C., and 
of the Rev. William Tennent (1740-1777) and a 
descendant of the Rev. William Tennent, the 
founder of Log college, from which sprang 
Princeton Theological seminary. Tennent Lomaz 
was graduated at Randolph-Maoon college, A.B., 
1840, A.M., 1851. He resided in Eufaula, AU., 
where he engaged in the practice of law and in 
planting. Upon the outbreak of the war with 
Mexico he recruited a company which was at- 
tached to the 5th Alabama battalion and while in 
Mexico was made military governor of Orizaba. 
He moved to Columbus, Ga., and was owner and 
editor of the Timet and SenHriel, and state printer 
for Georgia, 1848-57. He removed to Mont- 
gomery, Ala., in 1857, where he engaged in plant- 
ing. He became captain of the Montgomery 
True Blues, and in 1861 was attached to the 2d 
Alabama regiment and took part in the capture 
of the forts and navy yard at Pensacola, Fla., and 
asked the withdrawal of his command when re- 
fused permission to assault Fort Pickens, which 
was soon afterward reinforced and never fell 
into the hands of the Confederacy. He became 
colonel of the 3d Alabama regiment and was pro- 
moted to the rank of brigadier-general. His reg- 
iment was attached to Mahone*s brigade, Huger's 
division, Longstreet's corps, Army of Northern 
Virginia, and he was killed while leading his 
men. He was married first to Sophie Shorter of 
Eufaula, Ala., and after her death to Mrs. Carrie 
Billlngslea Shorter of Montgomery, Ala. He 
left surviving him one son, Tennent Lomax, a 
child of the second marriage, who became a prac- 
tising lawyer at Montgomery. Colonel Lomaz 
died at Seven Pines, Va., June 1, 1862. 



LONQ« Armlstead Lindsay, soldier, was bom 
in Campbell county, Va., Sept. 3, 1827. He was 
graduated from the U.S. Military academy, 
brevet ted 2d lieutenant and assigned to the 2d 
artillery July 1, 1850. He served in garrison at 
Fort Moultrie, S.C., 1850-51, was promoted 2d 
lieutenant June 30, 1851, and was on frontier 
duty at Fort Defiance, New Mexico, 1852-^, and 
at Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1853-54. He was 
promoted 1st lieutenant, July 1, 1854, was in gar- 
rison at Fort Henry, Md., in 1854, and at Bar- 
rancas Barracks, Fla. , 1854r^5. He served on the 
frontier at Fort Washita, Indian Ty., 1855-^ ; at 
Fort Immoe, Va., 1856-57 ; on frontier duty at 
Fort Leavenworth, Kan., in 1857 and helped to 
quell the Kansas disturbances, 1857-58. He was at 
Foit Kearny, Neb., in 1858 ; at Fort Leavenworth 
Kan., 1858-60 and at Augusta arsenal, Ga., I860- 
61 and surrendered with the garrison to the state 
authorities in 1861 and was sent north. He en- 
gaged in the defence of Washington, D.C, from 
Feb. 7 to June 10, 1861, and as aide-de-camp to 
G^en. Edwin V. Sumner, his father-in-law, from 
May 20 to June 10, 1861, when he resigned from 
the U.S. army. He was appointed major in the 
Confederate army in July, 1861 ; was promoted 
colonel in April, 1862, and served at the battle of 
Gettysburg, July 1-^, 1863, as a member of the 
staff and military secretary of Qen, Robert E. 
Lee. He was promoted brigadier-general in 
September, 1863, and was chief of artillery to 
General Ewell in the campaign of the Wilderness 
and Richmond, 1864, and Appomattox, 1865, 
where he surrendered. He engaged as a civil 
engineer, 1866-69, and subsequently devoted his 
time to farming. He is the author of : Memoira 
of Robert E. Lee (1886). He died in Charlottes- 
viUe, Va., April 20, 1891. 

LONQt Cheater Ualah» representative, was 
born in Perry county. Pa., Oct. 12, 1860 ; son of 
Abraham G. and Mary (Cauffman) Long. He 
removed with his parents to Davies county. Mo., 
in 1866, and settled in Paoia, Kan., in 1879. He 
was admitted to the bar March 4, 1885, and re- 
moved to Medicine Lodge, Kan., where he en- 
gaged in the practice of the law. He was elected 
to the state senate in 1889 ; and was a Repub- 
lican representative from tlie seventh district of 
Kansas in the 54th, 56th, 57th and 58th con- 
gresses, 1895-97 and 1899-1905. 

LONQt Clementt educator, was bom in Hop- 
kinton, N.H., Dec. 1, 1806. He was graduated 
from Dartmouth, A.B., 1828, A.M., 1831 ; studied 
theology at the Andover Theological seminary, 
1833-34, and was ordained by the presbytery of 
Portage at Franklin, Ohio, April 6, 1836. He 
was professor of philosophy in Western Reserve 
college, Ohio, 1834-44, and professor of theology 
there, 1844-52 ; lecturer on intellectual philosophy 



CO 0491 



U)NG 

ftud political economy at Dartmouth, 18S1-52 ; 
professor of Christiaa theology in tlie Auburn 
Tbeologicol seminary, 1852-54 ; professor of intel- 
lectual philosophy and political economy at Dart- 
mouth, I854r-61, and lecturer on moral and mental 
philosophy at Western Reserve college, 1860-61, 
He received the degree of D.D. from Dartmouth 
in 1849, and that of LL.D, from Western Beserre 
in 1860. He contributed to Bibliolheca Sacra, 
He died at Hanover, N.H., Oct. 14, 1861. 

LONQ, Crawford Williamson, physician, waa 
bom in Danielsville, Ga., Nov. 1, 1815; son of 
James and Elizabeth (Ware) Long, and grandson 
of Capt. Samuel Long, an officer in the Ameri- 
can army in the Revolution, who served under 
Lafayette at York- 
town. Captain Sam- 
uel, with his family 
and a colony of other 
Pennaylvanians, set- 
tled in middle Qeorgia 
about 1785. James 
liong married Eliza- 
beth Ware, of Am- 
herst, Va. ; was elect- 
ad to the state sen- 
ate, and was a per- 
sonal and political 
friend of the Hon. 
William H. Craw- 
.'^HL^-jfin^ ^f^&%*^^ ford. Hisson, Craw- 
' ^^ ford W., was a room- 

mate of Alexander H. Stephens at the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, and waa graduated, A.B., 
1885, and from the University of Pennsylvania, 
M.D., 1830. He spent one year in hospital prao- 
tioe in New York city, and in 1841 settled in 
practice in Jefferson, Ga. About this time itin- 
erant lecturers on chemistry were accustomed to 
conclude their evening entertainments with an 
exhibition of the effects of " laughing gas." Dr. 
Long suggested that sulphuric ether would pro- 
duce the same e&ect, and its use for sport be- 
came oommon at social gatherings in the 
community, which often ended with so-called 
" ether frolics." His professional services in 
connection with the frolics in which cute and 
bruises unattended with pain were discovered 
after the effects of the ether had passed oS, led 
him to the discovery of the use of ether as an 
antesthetic. This was in January, 1843, and his 
first Bu:^cal operation with the aid of ether was 
performed sucoesafalty in Jackson county, March 
30, 1842, two and a half years before Dr. Horace 
Wells, of Hartford, discovered the aneeathetio 
powers of nitrous oxide under similar circum* 
stances, and four and a half years before W. T. 
G. Morton administered it, at the request of Dr. 
John C. Warren, in the Massacbusetta General 



LONG 

Hospital in Boston. Dr. Long's discovery was 
known at once not only in Jackson county, but 
throughout the state of Georgia. His prac- 
tice called for repeated trials of the use of 
ether as an ancesthetic, notably on July 8, 1843 ; 
Sept. 9, 1843, and Jan. 8, 1S4S ; but it was not 
until 1843 that he published a detailed account of 
his discovery in the Soufftem Medical and Sur- 
gical Journal. Dr. Long was married in 1843 to 
Caroline Swain, niece of Gov. David Swain, of 
North Carolina, and a cousin of Gen. Joseph 
Lane, of Oregon. He removed to Athens, Ga., 
in 1851. In 1854 he first took part in the famous 
ether controversy as carried on by Slorton, 
Jackson, and the friends of Horace Wells, by 
writing Senator Dawson, of Georgia, who In- 
duced Dr. Jackson to visit Dr. Long at his home 
in Georgia, which he did, on March 8, 1854. 
Dr. Jackson claimed that in February, 1&4S, he 
breathed chlorine gas, and to relieve the pain and 
effects he inhaled ether and discovered that he 
was insensible to pain. On hearing Long's account 
of his discovery, Dr. Jackson wrote from Athens 
to Senator Dawson in Washington, acknowledg- 
ing the justice of Dr. Long's claims. The senator 
read the letter in the senate, April IS, 1854, when 
the bill to determine the discoverer of ansesthe- 
aia in order to award the proper person an appro- 
priation of ^100,000, waa before the senate for its 
final reading, and at the instance of Senator 
Dawson, Dr. Long's name was inserted in the 
bill. Here the matter appears to have ended so 
far aa any action of congress affected the ques- 
tion of the discoverer. In 18T9 Henri L, Stuart 
of New York city, caused a portrait of Dr. C. W. 
Long to be painted by Prank B. Carpenter, and 
ha presented it to the University of Georgia to 
be placed in the state capitol. After witnessing 
the ceremony of presentation, Mr. Stuart pro- 
ceeded to Dr. Long's late home at Athens, Ga., 
intendii^ to visit his grave. Dr. Long having 
died in Athens the year before. Arriving late at 
night, he was stricken with paralysis before 
morning, and after a brief illness died. His re- 
mains were deposited in a grave next that of 
the benefactor he had sought to honor. Sea 
" Long, the Discoverer of Anaesthesia," in 77i« 
Johns HopkiriS Ho^tal Bulletin, August-Sep- 
tember, 1897, by Hugh H. Young, A.M., M.D. 
Dr. Long died in Athens, Ga., June 16, 1878. 

LONG, Dulel Albrisfat, educator, was bom 
near Graham, N.C., May S3, 1844 ; son of Jacob 
and Jane (Stockard) Long, and great-grandson 
of James and Ellen Stockard and of Conrad and 
Catherine Long. He was prepared for college 
by his brother, the Rev. Dr. William Samuel 
Iioag, and by the Rev. Dr. Alexander Wilson ; 
attended tiie University of North Carolina. 1866- 
68, and received tbe degree of A.M. in 1871. He 



LONG 



LONG 



taught school, 1868-78 ; was president of Graham 
college, N.C., 1873-82 ; president and professor 
of mental and moral science at Antioch college, 
Ohio, 1883-99, and in 1899 retired to his farm 
near Graham, N.C. He was a member of the 
Ohio College association ; of the National Educa- 
tional association ; of the International Congress 
of Education ; of the American Institute of Chris- 
tian Philosophy ; of the Council of the American 
Congresses of Churches ; was president of the 
American Christian convention and of the Chris- 
tian Publishing association for eight years, and 
a fellow of Columbia university, N.Y., 1894-95. 
He received the honorary degree of D.D. from 
the University of North Carolina, and that of 
LL.D. from Union Christian college in 1886. He 
is the author of : Legal History of Antioch Col- 
lege (1890); History of Coinage (1896), and con- 
tributions to the press. 

LONQ« Ell« soldier, was bom in Woodford 
county, Kentucky, June 16, 1837 ; son of Eli 
and Margaret Long. He was graduated from 
the military school, Frankfort, Ky., in 1855 ; was 
appointed from civil life, 2d lieutenant, 1st U.S. 
cavalry, June 27, 1856, and served in the Indian 
campaigns of 1857-61. He was promoted Ist 
lieutenant, March 1, and captain, May 24, 1861, 
and was assigned to the 4th U.S. cavalry. He 
served in the army of the west and participated 
in the operations leading to and including the 
battle of Stone's River, Tenn., Dec. 81, 1862, to 
Jan. 3, 1863. He was commissioned colonel of 
the 4th Ohio cavabry, Feb. 23, 1863, and took part 
in the Tullahoma campaign, June 24 to July 3, 
1863. He commanded the 2d division, 2d brigade 
of cavalry at the battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 
19 and 20, 1863 ; was in the Chattanooga cam- 
paign, Nov. 2^27, 1863, and in northern Alabama 
until June 6, 1864, when he served in the Atlanta 
campaign until its close, Sept. 18, 1864. He was 
promoted brigadier-general, Aug. 18, 1864. He 
commanded the 2d division of the cavalry corps 
in Wilson's raid through Alabama and Georgia 
from March 22 to April 20, 1865, and commanded 
the military district of New Jersey, 1865-66. He 
was brevetted major for gallantry in the bat- 
tle of Farmington, Tenn., Oct. 7, 1862 ; lieu- 
tenant-colonel for the defense of Knozville, 
Tenn., Dec. 3, 1863; colonel for the battle of 
Lovejoys' Station, Ga., Aug. 21, 1864, brigadier- 
general, March 13, 1865, for the battle of Selma, 
Ala. ; major-general, March 13, 1865, for gallant 
and meritorious services in the field during the 
war, and major-general of volimteers, March 13, 
1865, for gallant and meritorious services in 
action. He was woimded four times during the 
war, receiving a severe injury to his head at the 
battle of Selma, Ala. He was mustered out of 
the volunteer service, Jan. 15, 1866, and was re- 



tired with the rank of major-general, Aug. 16, 
1867, by reason of wounds in line of duty, but 
was reduced to the rank of brigadier-general 
through the operation of the act of March 3, 
1875, when he was again retired. He married, 
Sept. 5, 1865, Jane I. Lane, and after his retire- 
ment resided in Plainfield, N. J., He died in New 
York city, Jan. 5, 1903. 

LONQf Eugene Rufiis, educator, was bom in 
Sumter county, S.C., Dec. 10, 1862; son of 
Isaac Jasper and Callie (Kennedy) Long ; grand- 
son of Isaac and Lettie (Hamilton) Long and of 
John Leland and Jane (Chamblin) Kennedy, and 
of Scotch-Irish ancestry. He was graduated from 
Arkansas college, A.B., 1878, and was a student 
at Southwestern Presbyterian university, 1882- 
83. He was professor in Arkansas college, 1883- 
95; president of the college, 1891-95; professor 
of English in Southwestern Presbyterian univer- 
sity, 1895-97, and in 1897 returned to Arkansas 
college as president and professor of biblical 
literature and political science. He was married 
Dec. 26, 1900, to Sallie, daughter of J. R. S. 
Meek of Warren, Ark. 

LONG, Uaac Jasper, educator, was bom in 
Anderson district, S.C., Feb. 23, 1831; son of 
Isaac and Lettie (Hamilton) Long ; gprandson of 
Joseph Long, who migrated from Virginia to East 
Tennessee, and a descendant of Luke Hamilton, 
who emigrated from the north of Ireland and 
settled in South CaroliDa. He was graduated at 
Centre college, Ky., 1858; studied at Danville 
Theological seminary, 1858-59, and at Columbia 
Theological seminary, S.C., 1859-60. He was 
principal of the preparatory department, Centre 
college, Ky., 1859-60; was licensed, April 12, 
1860, and was supply at Itonia, S.C, 1860-61. 
He was married Aug. 30, 1859, to Callie P. Ken- 
nedy. He was ordained by the presbytery of 
Harmony, Oct. 31, 1861 ; was pastor of Concord 
church, Sumter district, S.C, and chaplain, C.S. 
A., 1861-67. In 1867 he became pastor at Bates- 
ville. Ark., where he founded an academy which 
became Arkansas college in 1872, and of which 
he was president and professor of ancient lan- 
guages and biblical literature, 1872-91. He re- 
ceived the honorary degree of D.D. from Arkan- 
sas college in 1876. He is the author of : Outlines 
of Ecclesiastical History (1888). He died at 
Batesville, Ark., Dec. 10, 1891. 

LONQ9 John Collins, naval officer, was bom in 
Portsmouth, N.H., Sept. 6, 1795; son of Capt. 
George and Martha (Hart) Long, and grandson 
of Gen. Pierse Long (q. v.) He attended the 
academy in Portsmouth, N.H., and was war- 
ranted a midshipman in the U.S. navy, July 12, 
1812. On Aug. 29, 1812, was ordered to the Con- 
stitution as aide to Commodore Bainbridge, and 
took part in the engagement between the Consti- 



LONG 

tution aod Java, Deo. ZO, 1813. He was trans- 
ferred to the Watihington, Commodore Hull, 
Sept. 14, 1814, and subBequentlf to the Boxer, 
Commodore John Porter. In 1818 he was granted 
a furlough and made vojagea to the Elast Indies 
and various European and South American ports 
SB first o£Boer of 
a merchant ship. 
In November, 
1819, he was as- 
signed to the in- 
dependent, Com- 
modore Shaw i 
■ in February, 16- 
-38, to the eloop 
•Hinriwt in the 
U.3S. ^EP«,A^Ac. ^^^ Indies, tn 

November, 1828, to the sloop PetKOck and went to 
the Pacific ocean ; and in 1824 to the government 
frigate United Stateg, Commodore Hull, serving 
1834-27. He was married June 1, 1829, to Mary 
D., daughter of Nathaniel and Dorothy (Folsoro) 
Oilman of Exeter, Vt. He was at the Portamoutb 
navyyard, N.H., 1827-31 ; accompanied Commo- 
dore Downes on his cruise to the Pacific in the 
Potomac, 1833-84 ; resided at Portsmouth, N. B., 
1834r^ ; commanded a rendezvous in Boston, 
Mass. , 1687-89, and commanded the sloop Boston, 
1840-43. He was promoted post-captain, March 
3, 1849, and commanded the Miitiatippi when 
that vessel brought the Hungarian patriot Kos- 
suth to the United States in 1853, and was instru- 
mental in preventing Kossuth from compromis- 
ing the United States government by making 
revolutionary speeches at Maneilles. He com- 
manded the Saranae, 1803-S5, and during these 
years conducted the Brazilian minister, De Sodre, 
to his home, and the U.S. minister, Carroll 
Spence, to Constantinople. He commanded the 
Pacific squadron, U.S.S. lierHmac, flagship, 
1857-G9. He was retired in 1661, was promoted 
commodore on the retired list, July 18, 1863, and 
settled in Exeter, N. H. He died in North Con- 
way, N.H., Sept. 2, 1885. 

LONQ, John Davia, statesman, was bom in 
Buckfield, Oxford county, Maine, Oct. 27, 1338 ; 
son of Zadoo and Julia Temple (Davis) Long); 
grandson of Thomas and Bathsheba (Churchill) 
Long, and of Simon and Persia (Temple) Davis ; 
and a descendant on the paternal side of Richard 
Warren of the ^fai^^Iou'^, ond of Thomas Clark, 
one of the company of the Ann, which came to 
Plymouth in 1633 ; and on the maternal side of 
Dolor Davis, who came from Kent, England, to 
Massachusetts Bay colony, in 1634. Zadoc Long 
was the Whig candidate for representative in the 
26th congress in 1838, but was defeated by Virgil 
D. Parris. John Davis Long was named for 
. Governor John Davis (cj. v.), a cousin of his ma- 



LONG 

temal grandfather. He was prepared for oollege 
at Hebron academy, and was graduated at Hai^ 
vard, fourth in the class of 1857, and was class 
odist. He was principal of Weetford academy, 
Mass., 1857-69; was a student at Harvard Law 
school in 1861, and 
was admitted to the 
barat Boston, Mass., 
the some year. He 
practised in Buck- 
field, Maine, 1861-63, 
and in 1863 went to 
Boston. He made 
his home in Bing- 
ham, Mass., in 1669, 
and became associat- 
ed that year with 
Stillman B. Allen in 
the law. He was a 
Republican repreeeD- 
tative in the Massa- 
chusetts legislature, 

1876-78. serving as speaker of the house, 1876, 1877 
and 1878 ; lieuteuant-govemor of Massachusetts, 
1879 ; governor of Massachusetts, 1880-82 ; a dele- 
gate to the Republican national convention of 
1884, where he nominated George F. Edmunds 
for President, and a representative from the 
second district of Massachusetts in the 48th, 49th 
and SOth congresses, 1883-89, declining renomina- 
tion in 1888. He was a candidate before the 
State legislature in 1878 for U.S. senator. At 
thecloee of bis congressional term he returned to 
the practice of law in Boston, the firm being 
Allen, Long & Hemenway. On March 4, 1897, 
President McKinley made him secretary' of the 
navy in his oabinet, and reappointed him March 5, 
1901. He was twice married : first, in 1870, to Mary 
Woodward, daughter of George S. and Helen M. 
(Paul) Glover of Hingham, Mass. ; and secondly. 
May 22, 1886, to Agnes, daughter of the Rev. 
Joseph D. Peirce of North Attleboro, Mass., and 
their eon Peiroe was bom at North AttleboKv 
Mass., Deo. 29, 1887. Be was president of the 
Massachusetts Total Abstinence society, a fellow 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
and received LL.D. from Harvard in 1860. He 
gave to the town of Buckfield in 1901 the Zadoc 
Long Free Library. He published atranslation of 
the ^neid anda volume of after-dinner speeches. 
LONG, Pl«rs«, delegate, was bom in Ports- 
mouth, N.H., in 1739; son of Pierse Long, who 
came from Limerick, Ireland, to Portsmouth and 
engaged in the shipping business. He entered 
partnership with hisfather and became interested 
in publio affairs. He was a delegate to the pro- 
vincial congress of Nevv Hampshire, 1775, and 
colonel of the Ist New Hampshire regiment, com- 
manding the regiment at Ticonderoga, July 1, 



LONG 



LONGFELLOW 



1777. As commander of a regiment of invalids 
and conTalescents in the retreat, July 5, 1777, he 
engaged the 9th regiment of British regulars, 
Colonel Hill, and had nearly vanquished them 
when his ammunition became exhausted and he 
was obliged to retreat to Fort Edward. He 
served there and at Lake George and Lake Cham- 
plain and was present when Burgoyne surren- 
dered at Saratoga. For his services he was 
brevetted brigadier-general. He was a delegate 
from New Hampshire to the Continenal congress, 
1784-86 ; a member of the executive council, 
1786-89; and a delegate to the state constitu- 
tional convention of 1788. President Washington 
appointed him U.S. collector at the port of Ports- 
mouth in 1789. His daughter Polly married Col. 
Tobias Lear, secretary to President Washington, 
April 17, 1790. Before taking charge of the 
office as collector General Long died at Ports- 
mouth, N.H., April 3, 1789. 

LONG* Stephen Harrimaii, engineer, was bom 
in Hopkinton, N.H., Dec. 30, 1784; son of Moses 
and Lucy (Harriman) Long. He was graduated 
from Dartmouth college, A.B., 1809, A.M., 1812, 
and taught school, 1809-14. He entered the U.S. 
army as 2d lieutenant of engineers, Dec. 12, 1814, 
and was professor of mathematics at the U.S. Mili- 
tary academy, 1815-18. He was brevetted major 
of topographical engineers, April 29, 1816, and had 
charge of governmental explorations of the terri- 
tory between the Mississippi river and the Rocky 
Mountains, 1818-23, and discovered the x)eak in 
Colorado which bears his name. He was married 
March 3, 1819, to Martha Hodgkins of Philadel- 
phia, Pa. He explored the sources of the Missis- 
sippi river, 1823-24; was brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel, April 29, 1826, and was engaged in 
surveying the line of the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad, 1827-30. He was engineer-in-chief of 
the Atlantic and Great Western railroad in 
Georgia, 1837-40, where he introduced a system 
of curves in the location of the road and a new 
truss bridge called by his name. At about this 
time he was connected with the proposed 
national road from Portland, Maine, to Canada. 
He was promoted major in the topographical 
engineer corps, July 7, 1838, on the organization 
of that corps. La 1860-61 he was on duty at the 
mouth of the Mississippi river, and was called to 
Washington and advanced to the rank of colonel, 
Sept. 9, 1861 ; served in the war department there, 
and on June 1, 1868, was retired on surgeon's 
certificate, but continued to perform important 
official duties until his death. For his work as an 
explorer he received recognition in American 
literature in Edwin James's *' Account of the 
First Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, 
1819-20, from notes by Major Long and others " 
(1823) ; and William H. Keating*s two volume 



work, ** Long's Exi>edition to the Source of St. 
Peter's River, Lake of the Woods" (1824). He 
was a member of the American Philosophical 
society and the author of: Railroad Manual 
(1829), the first work of this title published in the 
United States. He died in Alton, 111. , Sept. 4, 1864. 
LONQPELLOW, Ernest Wadsworth* painter, 
was bom in Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 23, 1845; 
second son of Henry Wadsworth and Frances 
(Appleton) Longfellow. His preparatory educa- 
tion was acquired in private schools in Cam- 
bridge and Boston, and he was graduated from 
Lawrence Scientific school, Harvard, S.B., 1865. 
He studied art in Paris under Hubert, and after 
visiting Italy and Germany he returned to Amer- 
ica in 1866. He was married in 1868 to Harriet 
E., daughter of Israel Monson Spelman, and again 
went abroad, studying under Bonnat in Paris, 
1868-69. On his return in 1869 he opened a 
studio in Boston. He exhibited '' The Old Mill ** 
at the Centennial exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876; 
studied under Couture near Paris, 1876-77, re- 
turning to America in 1879. He was vice-presi- 
dent of the Boston Art club, 1880-82, and was 
later elected a member of the Century As- 
sociation. His earlier works include : Italian 
PhiferaH (1877) ; Choice of Youth (1878) ; Evenr 
ing on the Nile (1880) ; Morning on the jEgean 
(1881), and three portraits of Henry W. Long- 
fellow : 1, at Craigie House (1876) ; 2, at Bowdoin 
college (1881) ; 3, finished after the poet's death. 
His later works consist chiefiy of small land- 
scapes and ideal nude subjects. 

LONGPELLOW, Henry Wadsworth, poet, 
was bom in Portland, Maine, Feb. 27, 1807 ; son 
of the Hon. Stephen and Zilpah (Wadsworth) 
Longfellow. He was named for his maternal, 
uncle, a lieutenant in the American navy, who 
when nineteen years of age perished gallantly at 
Tripoli in the fire-ship Intrepid, He spent his 
boyhood on Congress street, Portland, his mother's 
ancestral home, and began his school life at the age 
of three, attending a school kept by Mrs. Fellows. 
He entered a public school in Love Lane, Port- 
land, in 1812, where he remained for a week, 
when he was removed by his parents to a private 
school kept by Mr. Wright and later by Mr. N. H. 
* Carter. After attending Portland academy, 
1813-21, he entered Bowdoin college and during 
his course there contributed occasional poems to 
periodicals, his first printed verses, ''The Battle 
of Lovell's Pond," appearing in the Portland Oa- 
zette of Nov. 17, 1820. At the senior examina- 
tion he made a translation from Horace which 
was warmly approved by one of the college 
trustees, Mr. Benjamin Orr, who recommended 
young Longfellow for a proposed chair of modem 
languages. The trustees provisionally approved 
the proposal, stipulating that Longfellow fit 



LONGFELLOW 

himself for the poution in Europe. Aooordingly 
after spending the winter of 1835-36 in rest at his 
Portland home, reading a little in his father's 
Uwoffioe.on May 15, 1836, heaailedforHavre-dB- 
Gr&ce. He studied and traveled in France, Spain, 
Germany, Italy and England, and returned home 
in July, 1839, on receiving the news of the death 
of his sister Elizabeth. On the opening of the 
term at Botvdoin college in 1829, instead of the 
expected professorship he was offered the poei- 
tioD of instructor, which he rejected. At a 
meeting of the board of trustees on Sept. 1, 1839, 
It was voted to create the chair and elect him 
professor with a salary of |800, which was after- 
ward raised to $1000, a full professor's salary. 
He was alao appointed librarian for one year 
with a salary of $100. He held both of these posi- 
tions until 18SS, taught four modern languages 
and prepared his own text-books in French, 
Spanish and Italian. He began to contribute to 
the If<n-th American Review in April, 1881, arti- 
cles on the origin and progress of the French, 
Spanish and Italian languages and literature and 
also original translations. On the establishment 
of the New England Magazine by Joseph T. Buck- 
ingham in 1831, he sent to the opening number 
the first of a series called "The Sohoohnaster " 
whioh were scenes from his travels in France. 
They wore the first sketches of his " Outre Mer." 
He was married Sept. 14, ISSl, to Mary Storer, 
daughter of Judge Barrett and Anne (Storer) 
Potter of Portland, Maine. She is commemo- 
rated in Longfellow' " Footsteps of Angels" as 

" the Being Beauteous 
Who unto Diy youth iru gtven 
Uore tban all tblngs else to lore me, 
And ts nnw ■ saint In heaTen." 

They began housekeeping on Federal street, 
Brunswick, Maine, where Professor Longfellow 
attended his classes and continued his literary 
work. In 1633 he published his first book " Coplas 
de Don Jorge Manrique," a translation from the 
Spanish, with an original essay. His second 
book, " Outre-Mer," was written somewhat after 
the style of Irving's " Sketch-Book " which 
had been Longfellow's favorite book when a 
boy. In December, 18S4, he received a letter 
from President Josiah Quincy, offering him the 
professorhip of modern languages at Harvard col- 
lege, Professor Ticknor, who was about to resign 
his ohair, having recommonded him as his 
successor. When Longfellow accepted, it was 
suggested that he visit Europe for the purpose of 
perfeoting himself in the German and Scandina- 
vian tongues and he resigned from Bowdoin and 
in April, 183S, set sail with his wife for England, 
and thence, a few weeks later, went to Norway 
and Sweden. Late In the autumn he settled in 
Rotterdam, Holland, where his wife and child 
died Nov. 29, 1885. He passed the winter of 



LONGFELLOW 

163S-66 in Heidelbei^, Germany, where be met 
Bryant and his family. The spring and summer 
of 1686 were spent chiefly in Switzerland and 
the Tyrol, and at Interlacben he met Frances 
Appleton, who afterward became his wife. He 
readied home in November, 1886, and in Decem- 
ber was established as Smith professor of French 
and Spanish languages and literatures and belles 
lettres at Harvard. He continued his contribu- 
tions to the periodicals, and in 1889 publishMl 
" Hyperion ; a Romance " which was inspired by 
Hisa Appleton, who is pictured therein as " Mar? 



li fm^immmm 



*«esc-— 



Ashburton." In March, 1837, Natlianiel Haw- 
thorne, a classmate of Longfellow's at Bowdoin, 
sent to Longfellow his "Twice-told Tales" which 
he noticed in the North American Review of July, 
1887, and was thus among the first to recognize 
Hawthorne's genius. In this year he also formed 
a strong and lasting friendship with Cornelius C. 
Felton, George S. Billiard, Henry R. Cleveland 
and Charles Sumner. They called themselves 
the " Five of Clubs " and earned for themselves 
the sobriquet of the " Mutual Admiration So- 
ciety." "The Psalm of Life" appeared anony- 
mously in The Knickerbocker Magazine, in 1888, 
and was republished in Longfellow's first volume 
of poems, "The Voices of the Night," in 1839. 
He became a contributor to Grafiam'g Magazine 
in 1841. In the spring of 1843 he obtained a six 
montlis' leave of abeence and made a third visit 
to Europe. He was entertained in London for 
two weeks by Cliarles Dickens, and at Marien- 
berg-on-the-Rhine, where he spent the summer, 
he made the acquaintance of the G«rman poet 
Freiligrath, which ripened into friendship and 
lasted until the latter's death. He was married, 
July 18, 1843, to Frances Elizabeth, daughter of 
Nathan and Maria Theresa (Gold) Appleton, and 
as a wedding gift Mr. Appleton presented to 
them Craigie House and estate, where the poet 
had lived since 1887. The subject of " Evange- 
line, a Tale of Acadia" (1847), wasagift from 
Hawthorne to Longfellow. Tliis is considered 
Longfellow's representative poem and was his 



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LONGFELLOW 



LONGFELLOW 



favorite among his own writinga. Holmes likened 
it to some " exquisite symphony." He resigned 
his chair at Harvard in 1854, and at his suggestion 
James Russell Lowell was elected to fill the va- 
cancy. ** Hiawatha; an Indian Edda," which 
lipl>eared in 1855, is said to be his most genuine 
addition to American literature, and has been 
translated into nearly all of the modem languages 
and into Latin. The poem won immediate rec- 
ognition in Europe, and within four weeks of its 
publication ten thousand copies had been sold. 
When the Atlantic Monthly was eetablished in 
1857 Longfellow became a contributor. A sad 
accident befell Mrs. Longfellow on the afternoon 
of Tuesday, July 9, 1861. A bit of burning wax 
from which she was making seals for her children, 
fell on her dress and she was immediately envel- 
oped in flames and died on the following day. 
Her husband in trying to smother the flames re- 
ceived serious injuries himself. The shock of her 
death sadly affected the poet, who once remarked 
to a friend ''I was too happy. I might fancy 
the gods envied me, if I could fancy heathen 
gods." Mrs. Longfellow left five children : 
Charles Appleton, a lieutenant in the Ist Massa- 
chusetts cavalry during the civil war ; Ernest 
Wads worth, the artist (q.v.), and three daughters, 
Alice, Edith and Annie, who were the *' blye-eyed 
banditti " of his " Children's Hour." The poet 
had commenced a translation of Dante*s ** The 
Divine Comedy" during the early years of his 
Harvard professorship, and after his wife's death 
found solace in the completion of the work. 
Tliis was regarded by many critics as the best 
translation in the English language. He visited 
Europe for the fourth time in 1868, and while in 
England had an interview with Queen Victoria 
at Windsor Castle on July 4, 1868, and was en- 
tertained by Tennyson at the Isle of Wight. He 
spent the winter and spring of 1868-69 in Italy, 
again made a brief stay in En gland, and returned to 
his lionie in Cambridge in August, 1869. For ** The 
Hanging of the Crane/' wliicli first appeared in 
the New York Ledger in 1874, Longfellow received 
^4000. In 1875, with the assistance of John Owen, 
Mr. Longfellow began to edit a collection of 
poems, to which was given the title ** Poems of 
Places" (1876-79), and after Senator Sumner's 
death he assisted in editing the remaining six 
volumes of the fifteen containing '* The Works of 
Charles Sumner." On Feb. 27, 1879, the occasion 
of the poet's seventy-second birthday, the chil- 
dren of Cambridge presented him with an arm- 
chair constructed from the wood of the old 
chestnut tree, made famous by his poem '' The 
Village Blacksmith." He responded to this gift 
in that tender and touching poem, entitled 
•• From My Arm-chair." His seventy-fifth birth- 
day was generally celebrated all over the United 
VIT.— 2 



States, especially t>y the school children. Charles 
Kingsley said of Longfellow : '* His face was the 
mirror of his harmonious and lovely mind— I do 
not think I ever saw a finer human face." He 
has been called the " American poet laureate " 
He was an honorary member of the Historical and 
Geographical society of Brazil, a corresponding 
member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 
St. Petersburg, and of the Royal Academy of 
Spain ; a fellow of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences and a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical society. A bust to his mem- 
ory was placed in the poets' corner at Westminster 
Abbey in March, 1884, he being the first and up to 
1901 the only American author to be so honored. 
Longfellow Park was given to Cambridge by 
his children, and a monument to his memory 
was erected in Portland, Blaine. His name was 
one of the twenty-three in ** Class A, Authors 
and Editors " submitted in October, 1900, for a 
place in the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, 
New York university, and received eighty-five 
out of ninety-seven possible votes, Emerson alone 
in the class exceeding with eighty-seven votes, 
Irving and Hawthorne receiving eighty-three 
and seventy-three votes respectively, and the four 
names were selected. He received the degree of 
LL.D. from Harvard in 1859, from Cambridge, 
England, in 1868, and from Bowdoin in 1874 ; 
and that of D.C.L. from Oxford, England, 
in 1869. The following is a list of the prin- 
cipal works of Longfellow : Coplas de Don Jorge 
Manrique (1838); Outre-Mer (1835); Hyperion 
(1839); Voices of the Night (1889); BaUada and 
Other Poems (1841); Poems on Slavery (1842); 
Spanish Sttuient (1843); Poets and Poetry of 
Europe (1845); Belfry of Bruges (1846); Evange- 
line (1847); Kavanagh (1849); Seaside and the 
Fireside (1S50); Golden Legend (1851); Hiawatha 
(1855) ; Miles Standish (1858) ; Tales of a Wayside 
Jnn (1863); Flotoer-de-Lnce (1867); Divine Comedy 
of Dante Alighieri (1867-70); New England Tra- 
gedies (1868); Divine Tragedy (1871); Three 
Books of Song (1872); Christus (1812): Aftermath 
(1873); Hanging of the Crane (1874); Masque of 
Pandora (1875); K4ramos (1878); Ultima Thule 
(1880) ; In the Harbor (part H. of Ultima ThtUe 
1883); Michael Angelo (1884). Biographies of 
Longfellow have been written by Thomas David- 
son (1882); Francis H. Underwood (1882); W. 
Sloane Kennedy (1882); George Lowell Austin 
(1883); Samuel Longfellow (1885); Eric S. Rob- 
ertson (London, 1887), and others. Longfellow 
died at his Cambridge home of peritonitis, and 
at the f uneiiil services were read the verses from 
" Hiawatha" beginning : ** He is dead, the sweet 
musician." Fields, Holmes, Emerson and Whit- 
tier were among the mourners. The date of his 
death is March 24, 1882. 



LONGFELLOW 

LONaFBLLOW, Saniael, clergyman and 
poet, was bom at Portland, Maine, June 18, 1S19 ; 
Bon of the Hon. Stephen and Zilpab (W&dsworth) 
Longfellow. He waa graduated from Harvard, 
A.B., 1889, and from the Harvard DiTinlty school 
in 1846. He travel- 
ed two years, was 
pastor of the Uni- 
tariaa church in Fall 
River, Mass., 1848- 
S8, and of theSecond 
Unitarian church, 
Brooklyn, N.Y., 1863- 
60, where he was a 
regular cootributor 
to the Chriitian Jn- 
guirer. He traveled 
in Europe for rest 
- and study ; made his 

^^^l/^,a»f/*^^^ home in Cambridge, 
Mass., 1861-78. and 
was pastor of the 
Unitarian Society of Germantown, Pa., 1878-82. 
He spent the rest of his life at the Craigie house, 
Cambridge, Mass. His rare gift of song was de- 
voted almost exclusively to hymn writing. He 
was a member of the American Philosophical 
society. He is the author of : essays contributed 
to the Eadieal ; sermons published in pamphlet 
form ; A Book of Hynni (with Samuel Johnson, 
1846); Thaiatta. a Book for the Seatidt {with 
Thomas W. Higginson, 1853); Hffmna and Tunta 
for Congregational Ute (1860) ; a small volume 
for the vesper Bervice which he introduced into 
the Unitarian denomination ; Hymnt of the 
Spirit (with Samuel Johnson, 1664); Lectures, 
Eisayt and Sermons of Samuel Johnson, with 
a Memoir (edited, 1888); Life of Henry Wads- 
wyrth Lon^jfdlou) (2 vols., 1886); A Feto Verses 
of Many Tears (1887) ; Final Memorials of Henry 
W. Longfdlouf (1887). A complete collection of 
his hymns and other poems was published in 
1804. He died in Portland. Uaine, Oct. S, I80S. 

LOr^QFBLLOW. Stephen, lawyer, was bom 
in Gorham, Maine, March 28, 1776 ; son of 
Stephen and Patience (Young) Longfellow ; 
grandson of Stephen and Tabitha (Brougham) 
Longfellow, and a descendant of William Long- 
fellow, of Hosforth, Bngland, who settled in 
Newbury, Mass., about 1670, where he was mar- 
ried, Nov. 10, 1678, to Annie, daughter of Henry 
and Jane (Dummer) Sewall. Stephen Longfellow 
spent his early youth on his father's farm, and 
was graduated from Harvard in 1788. He stud- 
ied law with Salmon Chase of Portland, Maine ; 
was admitted to the bar in 1801, and settled in 
Portland, Maine, where he soon gained a good 
practice. Ho was married, Jan. 1, 1804, to Zil- 
pah, daughter of General Peleg and EliEabetti 



LONGSTREET 

(Bartlett) Wadsworth of Portland. He was a 
representative to the general court of Hassaohu- 
setts, 1814-15, and a delegate to the Hartford 
convention, Dec. IS, 1814— Jan. S, 1815. He was 
a presidential elector in 1816, and cast his vote 
for Rufus King. He was a member of the stat« 
constitutional convention in 1819 ; a Federalist 
representative in the 18th congress, 1823-3S, and 
represented his district in the Maine legislature 
in I8S6. He was an overseer of Bondoin college, 
1811-17, was a trustee, 1817-86, and received the 
degree of LL.D. fro>n that oollege in 1828. He 
was recording secretary of the Maine Historical 
society, 1825-30, and its president in 1884. He 
compiled sixteen volumes of Massachusetts and 
twelve of Maine Reports. He died in Portland, 
Maine. Aug. 8, 1840. 

LONQNECKER, Henry Clay, representative, 
was bom near Mechanicsburg, Cumberland 
county, Pa., April 17, 182D ; son of Henry and 
Elizabeth (Kendig) Longnecher. He was a stu- 
dent at Wilbraham academy, Mass., 1836-30, and 
at the Norwich Military institute, 1836-41. and 
in 1841 matriculated at Lafayett« college, Eastcn, 
Pa., but was not graduated. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1848, and in 1844 settled in practice 
in Lehigh county. He served in the Mezicau 
war as a 1st lieutenant, captain and adjutant, 
participating in all the principal engagements 
under General Scott, and was wounded at the 
battle of Chapultepec, Sept. 18, 1847. He waa 
district attorney of Lehigh county, 1849-50, and 
a delegate to the Democratic state conventions 
of 18S1 and 1854. In 1856 he left the Democratic 
party on account of his opposition to slavery ex- 
teusion. He was a Republican representative in 
the 36th congress. 1850-61. and while in congresa 
served on the committee on militaiy affairs. He 
took an active part in organizing the Pennsylva- 
nia troops, and was made colonel of the Bth 
Pennsylvania volunteers ; commanded a brigade 
in western Virginia, and in 1865 he resumed his 
practice at Allentown,Pa. He was married, June 
27, 1866, to Mary J. Lewis. He was elected asso- 
ciate judge of Lehigh county in 1867. He was a 
member of the Union League club of Philadel- 
phia and of the Loyal Legion. He received the 
honorary degree of A.M. from Lafayette in 1851. 
He died at Allentown, Pa., .Sept. 16, 1871, 

LONOSTREET, Auguatiu Baldwin, educator, 
was bom in Augusta, Ga. , Sept. 22, 1790 ; son of 
William Longstreet the inventor. Hewasgrad- 
nated from Yale in the class of 1618, studied 
law in LitchBeld, Conn., and was admitted to 
the Georgia bar in 1815. He practised in Greens- 
boro, Ga., 1815-22 1 waa a repreaentative in the 
Georgia legislature from Greene county tnl82I, 
and circuit judge of the Ocmulgee judicial district 
forseveral years. He removed b> Augusta, Ga., 



LONGSTREET 



LONGSTREET 



where he resumed his law practice and established 
a weekly newspaper, the Sentinel, which was 
united with the Chronicle as the Chronicle and 
Sentinel in 1838. He became a minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal church in 1838, and preached 
in Augusta and ministered to the sufferers from 
the epidemic of yellow fever that visited the city 
that year. He was president of Emory college, 
Oxford, Ga., 1889-48; of Centenary college, 
Jackson, La., 1848-49, and of the University of 
Mississippi, Oxford, Miss., 1849-56. He engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, 1856-57, and was president 
of South Carolina college, 1857-61, and again pres- 
ident of the University of Mississippi as successor 
to Frederick A. P. Barnard for a short time in 
1861. His library with valuable unpublished MS. 
was destroyed by fire during the civil war. He 
took part in the debate in the general conference 
of 1844 in New York city which resulted in 
the separation of the Methodist church north and 
south. He received the honorary degrees : A.M. 
from the University of Georgia in 1828, LL.D. 
from Yale in 1841 and D.D. from the University 
of Mississippi in 1856. The Methodist Quarterly, 
The Southern Literary Messenger, The Southern 
Field and Fireside, The Magnolia and The Orion 
published his Letters to Clergymen of the North- 
em Methodist Church, Letters from Georgia to 
Massachusetts, and A Review in the Decision of 
the United States Supreme Court in the Case of 
McCuUoch vs, the State of Maryland ; and he is 
also the author of : C^eorgia Scenes (1840), and 
Master William Mitten (1864), humorous pro- 
ductions. He died in Oxford, Miss., Sept. 9,1870. 
LONQSTREETt James, soldier, was bom in 
Edgefield District, S.C., Jan. 8, 1821; son of 
James and Mary Ann (Dent) Liongstreet ; grand- 
son of William and Hannah (Randolph) Long- 
street, and a descend- 
ant of the Long- 
streets and Randolphs 
of New Jersey and 
of the Dents and 
Marshalls of Mary- 
land and Virginia. 
Richard Longstreet, 
the progenitor of the 
name in America, 
settled in Monmouth 
county. New Jersey. 
James Longstreet re- 
moved with his par- 
ents to Alabama in 
1831 and was gradu- 
ated from the U.S. 
Military academy in 1842. He was promoted 
in the army as brevet 2d lieutenant of the 4th 
infantry, July 1, 1842, and served in garrison at 
Jefferson Barracks, Mo., 1842-44 ; on frontier duty 




at Natchitoches, La., 1844-45 ; was promoted 2d 
lieutenant of the 8th infantry, March 4, 1845 ; 
was in military occupation of Texas, 1845-46, and 
served in the war with Mexico, 1846-47. He 
participated in the battle of Palo Alto, May 8, 
1846 ; the battle of Resaca de la Palma, May 9, 
1846; and the battle of Monterey, Sept. 21-23, 
1846 ; was promoted first lieutenant, 8t)i infan- 
try, Feb. 23, 1847, and participated in the siege of 
Vera Cruz, March 9-29, 1847 ; the battle of Cerro 
Gordo, April 17-18, 1847 ; the capture of San An- 
tonio, and the battle of Churubusco, Aug. 20, 1847 ; 
the battle of Molino delJley, Sept. 8, 1847 ; and 
the storming of Chapultepec, Sept. 13, 1847, where 
he was severely wounded in the assault on the 
fortified convent. He was brevetted captain, 
Aug. 20, 1847, " for gallant and meritorious con- 
duct in the battles of Churubusco and Contreras *' 
and major, Sept. 8, 1847, '* for gallant and meri- 
torious conduct at the battle of Molino del Rey.** 
He served as adjutant of the 8th infantry, 1847- 
49 ; was in garrison at Jefferson Barracks, 1848- 
49, and served on frontier duty in Texas in 1849. 
He was chief of commissariat of the Department 
of Texas, 1849-51, and served on scouting duty in 
Texas, Kansas and New Mexico, 1851-61. He was 
promoted captain Dec. 7, 1852, and major of staff 
and paymaster July 19, 1858. He resigned his 
commission in 1861 and was appointed briga- 
dier-general in the CV>nfederate army, and com- 
manded a brigade at Blackburn's Ford, Va., from 
July 18 to and including July 21, 1861. He was 
promoted major-general and commanded the 
rear guard of Joseph E. Johnston's army during 
the retreat from Yorktown, Va. He commanded 
the Confederate forces in the field composed of 
his own and part of D. H. Hill's divisions and 
Stuart's cavalry brigade at the battle of Williams- 
burg, May 5, 1862, commanded the right wing of 
Johnston's army at Seven Pines, May 31^une 1, 
1862 ; his own and A. P. Hill's divisions in the 
seven days' battles before Richmond, and com- 
manded the right wing of Lee's Army of Northern 
Virginia in the second battle of Bull Run, Aug. 
29-30, 1862; and in the Maryland campaign, Sep- 
tember, 1862 ; the first corps (Confederate left) at 
the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. He 
was on duty south of the James river in April, 
1863, and was ordered to rejoin General Lee at 
Chancellorsville, Va., but Lee, without awaiting 
his return, made precipitate battle May 2-4, 1863. 
He commanded the right wing of the Army of 
Northern Virginia at the battle of Gettysburg 
July 1-3, 1863. He served under General Bragg 
in the Army of the Tennessee and commanded the 
left wing of that army composed of Hindman's 
division, Polk's corps, Buckner's corps, and two 
divisions and artillery of Longstreet*s corps, at the 
battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 19-20, 1863. He 



LONGSTREET 



LOOMIS 



was sent with part of his corps and Wheeler*s 
cavabry against Bumside*8 army in East Tennes- 
see, in November, with orders to recover posses- 
sion of that part of the state. He drove Bumside 
back into his works around Knozville and held 
him there under siege from Nov. 17 to Dec. 4, 
1863, when Sherman approached with twenty 
thousand of Grant's army, near Chattanooga, for 
relief of the besieged army. Bragg ordered pre- 
cipitate attack of the fortifications but they 
proved too strong to be carried by assault. Just 
then orders came from President Davis for Long- 
street to return to Bragg's army in distress at 
Chattanooga. Longstreet held his army in pos- 
session of East Tennessee, keeping the Federal 
forces close about their works, until January, 1864, 
when he was ordered to withdraw toward General 
Lee*s army in Virginia, and he participated in the 
battle of the Wilderness, May 5-6, 1864, wliere he 
commanded the two divisions of the first corps 
forming the right of Lee's army and was severely 
wounded. After convalescing he participated in 
all the engagements of the Army of Northern 
Virginia in 1864, and surrendered at Appomattox 
Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. He removed to 
New Orleans and engaged in commerce. He was 
surveyor of customs of the port of New Orleans, 
1869 ; supervisor of internal revenue, 1878 ; post- 
master of Gainesville, Ga., 1879, and was ap- 
pointed by President Hayes U.S. minister to Tur- 
key, serving 1880. He was U.S. marshal for the 
district of Georgia, 1881, and was appointed U.S. 
commissioner of railroads in October, 1897, by 
President McKinley. He was married March 8, 
1848, to Maria Louise Garland of Lynchburg, Va. 
She died Dec. 29, 1889 and he was married 
secondly Sept. 8, 1897, to Helen Doi-tch of Atlanta, 
Ga. He is the author of : The Seven Days, In- 
eluding Fray ser 8 Farm ; Our March Against Pope ; 
The Invasion of Maryland; The Battle of Fred- 
rickshurg; Lee's Invasion of Pennsylvania in 
"Battles and Leaders of the Civil War" (1887- 
88) ; and From Manassas to Appomattox (1896). 

LONQSTREET» William, inventor, was bom 
in New Jersey, Oct. 6, 1759. He removed to 
Augusta, Ga., in early life, devoted himself to 
invention, and about 1788 had planned the ma- 
chinery for moving paddle-wheels to propel boats 
by steam power. On Sept. 26, 1790, being con- 
vinced of the practicability of his invention he 
sent to Governor Edw&rd Telfair an appeal for 
assistance and patronage. The government of 
Georgia took no action in the matter, and he was 
compelled to work without money among people 
who ridiculed his plans. It was not until 1807 
that he succeeded in perfecting a steamboat, and 
putting it in practical operation. It was launched 
a few days after Fulton had shown the Clermont 
on the Hudson river, and Longstreet's boat moved 



against the swift current of the Savannah river 
at the rate of five miles an hour, and carried 
about twenty-five persons. He also invented and 
patented the horse power breast-roller cotton 
gin, and subsequently built two steams gins in 
Augusta, Ga., which about 1801 were destroyed 
by fire. He then erected steam gins at St. Mary's, 
Ga., which were destroyed by the British in 1812. 
He died in Augusta, Ga., Sept. 1, 1814. 

LONQYEAR, John Wesley, representative, 
was born in Shandaken, N.Y., Oct. 22, 1820 ; son 
of Peter and Jerusha (Stevens) Longyear ; grand- 
son of Jonn and Annatje (Winne) Longyear, and 
a descendant of Jacob and Maria (Ck)x) Langjahr. 
He attended the academy in Lima, N.Y., taught 
school for several years, and settled in Mason, 
Ingham county, Mich., in 1844, wliere he taught 
school. He was admitted to the bar in 1846 ; re- 
moved to Lansing in 1847 and engaged in the 
practice of law. In 1852 he formed a partnership 
with his brother, Ephraim Longyear. He was 
married in 1849 to Harriet Monroe of Eagle, 
Mich. He was a Republican representative in 
the 88th and 39th congresses. 1863-67. He was 
chairman of the committee on expenditures on 
the public buildings, and a member of the com- 
mittee on commerce. He was a delegate to the 
Loyalist convention in Philadelphia in 1866, to 
the Michigan constitutional convention of 1867 
and judge of the U.S. district court for the east- 
ern district of Michigan, 187(^75. He died in 
Detroit, Mich., March 11, 1875. 

LOOMI5, Alfred Lebbeus* physician, was born 
in Bennington, Vt., Oct. 16, 1831 ; sou of Daniel 
and Eliza (Beach) Loomis ; grandson of Russell 
and Lydia (Huntington) Loomis ; great grand- 
son of Daniel and Alice (Chamberlain) Loomis 
and a descendant of Joseph Loomis of Bristol, 
England, who sailed for America on the ship 
Sv^an and Ellen, in July, 1638, landed at Nantas- 
ket, Mass., the same year, and in 1889 settled in 
Windsor, Conn. His father was an extensive 
cotton manufacturer and merchant of Benning- 
ton, Vt. Alfred was graduated from Union col- 
lege, A.B., 1850, A.M., 1^156. He studied medi- 
cine with Dr. Willard Parker of New York and 
was graduated from the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, M.D., in 1852. After giving two 
years to hospital work, he engaged as a practis- 
ing physician in New York city and made a 
specialty of the diseases of the heart, lungs and 
kidneys. He was appointed visiting physician 
to Bellevue hospital in 1859 ; was consulting 
physician to the Charity hospital on BlackwelPs 
Island, 1860-75, and visiting physician to the 
Mount Sinai hospital, 1874r-80. He was a lecturer 
on physical diagnosis in the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, 1862-65; an adjutant professor of 
the theory and practice of medicine in the Uni- 



LOO MIS 

Terait7 of the City of New York, 18<Ht-48, and 
protftsaor of pathology Mid the practice of med- 
icine there, 1868-95. He was among those of the 
medical f acultjr to re-oi^anize the course of study 
in 1893. la 1860 the sum of (100,000 was given by 
BOine unknown person to the university through 
Dr. Loomis to build and equip the Iioomia labora- 
tory. Dr. Loomis was married in 1858 to Sarah 
J., daughter of Henry Patterson of Hooeick Falls, 
and secondly in 1887 to Anne M., duugliter of 
Thomas H. Horns of Baltimore, tid., and widow 
of John D. Prince. Ho was a member and presi- 
dent of various medical societies in America and 
Europe. He received the degree of LL.D. from 
the University of the City of New York in 1883. 
Dr. Loomis t>equeathed $35,000 to the Loomis 
laboratory and JlO.OOOto ttie New York Academy 
of Medicine. His " Lectures on Fever " appeared 
in the New York Medical Record, and his lecture 
on " Peritonitis " in American Clinical Lectures 
in 187fl. He is the author of : Physical Diagnotia 
(1868); THaeaies of the Re^ratory Organs, Heart 
and Kidneu* U"™); Lecturea on Fever (1882); 
Diseases of Old Age <1888); A Text-Book of 
Practical Medicine {1881). He died in New York 
city. Jan. 33. 1895. 

LOOniS, Arphaxad, representative, was bom 
in Winchester, Conn. , April 9, 1798 ; son of Thad- 
deus and Luis (Qriswold) Loomis ; grandson of 
lohabod and Mindwell (Lewis) Loomis, and of 
Phineaa and Lois (Hurlburt) Griswold, and a de- 
scendant of Joseph Loomis the immigrant. His 
parents removed toSalisbury.N.Y.. in 1803, where 
his father was for many years a justice of the 
peace, and assistant justice of the Herkimer 
county court. Arphaxad was employed on his 
father's farm, attended the district school and 
taught sl)ool in the winters of 1813-35, attending 
Fairfield Academy during the summeraof 1813-lS. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1835, practising at 
Sacket Harbor, 1835-37 and at Little Falls, 1837- 
85. He was married in 1833 to Ann, daughter of 
Dr. Stephen Todd of Salisbury, N.Y. He was 
surrogate of Herkimer county, 1838-37 ; a mem- 
ber of a commission to investigate the policy .labor 
and discipline in state prisons, in 1834 ; a Demo- 
cratic representative in the 25th corgreas, 1837- 
39. A meml>er of the assembly from Herkimer 
county, 1841-48, a member of the state constitu- 
tional convention of 184Q. and a commissioner to 
revise the code of practice in 1847. His defective 
hearing alone prevented his appointment to liigh 
judicial stations. He is the author of : Historical 
Sketch of the New York System of Law Reform 
(1879). He died in Little Falls. N. Y., Sept. 1.5, 1885. 

Looms, Dwlght, representative, was born in 
Columbia, Conn., July 37, 1821; son of Elam 
and Mary (Pinneo) Loomis : grandson of Benoni 
and Grace (Parsons) Loomis ; great grandson of 



LOOHIS 

Benoni and Hannah (Woodward) Loomis and r 
descendant of Joseph Loomis the immigrant. 
He was a student at Amherst college and at Yale 
Law school, was admitted to the bar in 1S4T, and 
practised at Rockville, Conn., 1847-51. He was 
married Nov, 36, 1848, to Mary E. Bill of Leba- 
non, Conn. She died June 1, 1864, and he waa 
married secondly. May 38, 1866, to Jennie E. 
Kendell of Beloit, Wis., who died March 6, 1876 
He was a representative in the Connecticut leg 
islature, 1853 ; a delegate to the People's national 
convention, Philadelphia, June 17, 1856, and a 
state senator in 1858. He was a Republican re- 
presentative from the flr!>t Connecticut district 
in the 36th and 37th cungrusses, 1859-63 ; judge 
of the superior court of Connecticut, 1864-75, and 
of the supreme court, 1675-91. He wasappointed 
in 1891, by the state legislature, a state referee 
for the trial of causes referred to him ; was an 
instructor in law at the Yale Iaw school, 1B91-BS, 
and was appointed presiding judge of the state 
board of arbitration in 1895, which office he re- 
signed in 1896, Yale conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of LL.D. in 1897. 

LOOniS, ElUs, physicist, was born in Wil- 
lington. Conn., Aug. 7, 1811 ; eon of the Rev. 
Hubbel and Jerusha (Burt) Loomia ; grandson of 
John and Rachel (Harris) Loomis, and of David 
Burt of Longmeadow, Mass., and a descendant of 
Joseph Loomis, the 
immigrant. He was 
graduated from Yala, 
A.B., 1830, A.M., 18- 
33, and was a tutor 
at Yale, 1833-38. In 
1834 he began mak- 
ing observations with 
Albert C. Twining of 
West Point, N.Y.. 
for determining the 
altitude of shooting 
stars, and in the same 
year made hourly ob- 
servations of the de- 
clination of the mag- 
netic needle. He dis- 
covered Halley's comet in 1835. and computed 
the elements of iM orbit. He attended the 
lecturfs of Arago, Biot. and others in Paris, 
in 1636. He was married in Tallmadge, Ohio, ' 
May 14, 1840, to Julia B. Upeon. He was pro- 
fessor of matlienmtics, natural philonophy and 
astronomy in Western Reserve college, Ohio, 
1837-44 ; professor of natural philosophy in the 
University of the City of New York, 18*4-48, and 
1849-60; at the College of New Jersey, 1848-49; 
and Munson professor of natural philosophy and 
astronomy at Yale. 1860-89. He purcliased the 
philosophical and meteorological instruments For 



Ucli ;£,^>,^ 



LOOMIS 



LOOMIS 



Western Reserve college in Europe and with 
them observed 260 moon culminations for lon- 
gitude ; sixty-nine culminations of polaris for 
latitude ; sixteen occultations of stars, and de- 
termined the orbits of five comets. He also ob- 
served the dip of the magnetic needle at over 
seventy stations located in thirteen states. He 
was employed in telegraphic comparisons with 
Sears C. Walker in determining the difference in 
longitude, 1846-49, determining that between 
New York and Washington in 1847 ; between 
New York and Cambridge, Mass., in 1848, and 
between Philadelphia and the observatory in 
Hudson, Ohio. While professor in the University 
of the City of New York, he prepared a series of 
mathematical text books. The first observations 
by which the velocity of the electric fluid on 
telegraphic wires was determined, were made by 
him between Washington, Philadelphia, New 
York and Cambridge under the direction of Sears 
C. Walker, he having charge of the observations 
in New York Jan. 29, 1849. He devoted a large 
part of his time after 1860 to original research 
and published " Contributions to Meteorology " in 
the American Journal of Science, He was elected 
a member of the National Academy of Sciences, 
the Royal Irish academy, the Royal Meteorolog- 
ical society, London, the Royal Meteorological 
society of Italy, and the leading scientific socie- 
ties in the United States. He bequeathed the 
income of $300,000 to the astronomical observa- 
tory connected with Yale university. In the 
selection of names for a place in the Hall of Fame 
for Great Americans, New York university, 
made in October, 1900, his was one of the fifteen 
names in ** Class C, Educators *'and received two 
votes. He received the degree of LL.D. from 
the University of the City of New York in 1854, 
He is the author of : Elements of Geometry and 
Conic Sections (1847); of Plain and Spherical 
Trigonometry (1848); Progress of Astronomy 
(1850 and 1856); Elements of Analytical Oeome- 
fry (1851); Elements of Calculus (1851); An In- 
trodvxition to Practical Astronomy (1855): Ele- 
ments of Natural Philosophy (1858) ; Elements of 
Algebra (1858); Elements of Plain and Spherical 
Trigonometry (1858); Elements of Arithmetic 
(1863); Treatise on Astronomy (1865); Treatise 
on Algebra (1868) ; Treatise o^i Meteorology (1868) ; 
Elements of Astronomy (1869); The Descendants 
of Joseph Loomis (1870) ; Elements of Differential 
and Integral Calculus (1874). He died in New 
Haven. Conn., Aug. 15, 1889. 

LOOMIS, Francis Butler* diplomatist, was 
born in Marietta, Ohio, July 27, 1861 : son of Judge 
William Butler and Frances (Wheeler) Loomis ; 
grandson of Christopher C. Loomis, of New Lon- 
don, Ct., and a descendant from Joseph Loomis, 
1638. He was graduated at Marietta college. 



Ph.B., 1883, and engaged in journalism in Ma- 
rietta, 1883-84, and in New York city and Phila- 
delphia, 1884-85. He was state librarian, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, 1886-87 ; a journalist in Washington, 
D.C., 1887-90 ; U.S. consul at St. Etienne, France, 
1890-93; and editor-in-chief of the Cincinnati 
Daily Tribune, 1893-97. He was married April 29, 
1897, to Elizabeth M. Mast of Springfield, Ohio. He 
was appointed by President McKinley, U.S. minis- 
ter to Venezuela, S.A., June 30, 1897, where he 
protected American interests through several re- 
volutions, commenced negotiations for an ex- 
tradition treaty, urged a reciprocity convention, 
and arranged for parcel-post communication. He 
was promoted to Lisbon, Portugal, June 17, 1901, 
in recognition of his work. 

LOOMlSt Qeorge, educator, was bom in At- 
tica, N.Y. , June 30, 1817; son of Timothy and 
Sophronia (Collier) Loomis and a descendant 
of Joseph Loomis, the immigrant. He was 
graduated at Wesleyan university, A.B., 1842, 
A.M., 1845 ; was teacher of natural sciences and 
principal of Genesee Wesleyan seminary, Lima, 
N.Y., 1842-48, and missionary at Seaman's 
chapel. Canton, China, 1845-52. He was married 
Oct. 29, 1861, to Eveline P. Smith. He was 
president of the Wesleyan Female college, Wil- 
mington, Del., 1852-60, and president of Allegheny 
college, Meadville, Pa., 1860-74, during which time 
he built in 1864 Culver Hall furnishing dormi- 
tories to one hundred students, and admitted girls 
as students in 1870. He joined the Pittsburgh 
conference of the M.E. church, 1861 ; was trans- 
ferred to the Central New York conference, 1875, 
and was stationed at Clifton Springs, N.Y., 
1875-81. He founded and became principal of 
Foster school, Clifton Springs, in 1881. He re- 
ceived the degree of D.D. from Genessee college 
in 1860 and was a trustee of Wesleyan university, 
1881-86. He died at Clifton Springs, Feb. 26, 1886. 

LOOniSt Justin Rolph» educator, was born in 
Bennington, N.Y., Aug. 21, 1810 ; son of Justin 
and Mary (Rolph) Loomis and a descendant of 
Joseph Loomis, the immigrant. He was prepared 
for college at the Hamilton Literary and Theo- 
logical institution (Colgate university); com- 
pleted his course at Brown university with the 
class of 1835, and received his A.B. degree there 
in 1836. He taught school at Pawtuxet, R.I., 
1835-36 ; was tutor in chemistry and natural 
history at Waterville (Colby) college, Maine, 
1836-38, and professor of the same subjects there, 
1838-52. He was ordained to the Baptist ministry 
Jan. 8, 1845. While at Waterville college he at- 
tended medical lectures in Philadelphia, Pa., and 
in the trial of Dr. Coolidge charged with causing 
the death of Mr. Mathews by administering prussio 
acid, his expert evidence as a chemist convicted 
Dr. Coolidge. He spent nearly a year in scientific 



LOOMIS 



LOOMIS 




explorations through Bolivia, Peru, and Chile in 
1858; was professor of natural soience in the 
University at Lewisburg (Bucknell university), 
1854-58, and president of the university, with the 
prof essorship of philosophy and ethics, 1858-79. 

In 1864r^5 he raised 
$100,000 for addition- 
al endowment of that 
university, and in 
1878 accomplished at 
his own expense the 
grading of the col- 
lege campus. He 
joined the 28th Penn- 
sylvania volunteer 
militia as a private 
and served as chap- 
lain of the regiment 
during the emergency 
of Lee's invasion of 
q/ C/P, ^trvpt^*^^ 1862. The next year 

he served as nurse 
and surgeon on the (Gettysburg battlefield. In 
April, 1870, he was a delegate to the National 
Baptist Educational convention in Brooklyn, 
N.Y. Before this body he read a paper on an 
assigned topic, which paper was published in 
full in the Proceedings of that year. Besides 
drawing the working plans of the Baptist church 
edifice at Lewisburg, Pa. (dedicated in June, 
1870), and superintending, free of all charge, the 
erection of the same, he was the largest single 
•contributor to its building fund. He was ap- 
pointed by President Grant in 1870 a member of 
the board of examiners to the U.S. Military aca- 
demy for 1871, but absence in Europe and Asia, 
1871-72, prevented him from serving. In 1879 he 
made an extended stay in Paris, and in 1889 
again traveled in England and on the continent. 
He received the honorary degree of A.M. from 
WatervUle college in 1838; that of Ph.D. from 
Lewisburg university in 1854, and that of LL.D. 
from Rochester university in 1858. He was mar- 
ried Jan. 16, 1838, to Sarah Anne, daughter of 
Moses Freeman. She died March 8, 1852. He was 
married secondly, Jan. 17, 1854, to Mary, daughter 
of Deacon Edward Gilbert. She died July 16, 
1872. He was married thirdly, Aug. 20, 1878, to 
Augusta, daughter of the Rev. Charles Tucker. 
His eldest son. Freeman, A.B., 1866, A.M., 1868, 
D.B., 1868, Ph.D., 1889, became a professor of 
modem languages and literature in Lewisburg 
university in 1871. President Loom is was the 
author of various essays, lectures, pamphlets, ser- 
mons and scientific articles on current political, 
literary, and educational topics published in 
newspapers ; and of Elements of Geology (1852) 
and Elements of Anatomy and Physiology (1853). 
He died at Lewisburg, Pa., June 22, 1898. 



LOOMIS9 Lafayette Charles, educator, was 
bom in CJoventry, Conn., July 7, 1824 ; son of 
Silas and Esther (Case) Loomis, and a descendant 
of Israel Loomis, three of whose sons served in 
the Continental army, 1776-84 ; of Sergeant Ben- 
jamin Case, minute-man and neighbor of Capt. 
Nathan Hale, and of Joseph Loomis. the immi- 
grant. He was graduated from Wesley an uni- 
versity, A.B., 1844, A.M., 1847, and was the co- 
founder and associate principal with his brother 
Silas L. Loomis of the Adelphlan academy at Broc- 
ton, Mass., 1844-50, one of the first academies in 
New England to be conducted independent of ec- 
clesiastical supervision and control. He was a 
teacher in Mount Hollis seminary, HoUiston, 
Mass., in 1851 ; vice-principal of the Irving insti- 
tute at Tarrytown, N.Y., in lfc52, and principal 
in 1853. He was professor of natural science and 
belles-lettres in Wesleyan Female college, "Wil- 
mington, Del., 1854-57 ; president of the college, 
1857-58, and principal of Lafayette institute, 
Washington, D.C., 1859-68. He was graduated 
from Georgetown college, D.C., M.D., 1863 ; and 
was acting assistant surgeon of the Army of the 
Potomac in 1864. He was president of Wheeling 
Female college, West Virginia, 1865-68 ; and pro- 
fessor of physiology at Howard university, Wash- 
ington, D.C., in 1868. He studied and traveled in 
Europe, 1875-95, and occasionally lectured on art. 
He was married Oct. 1, 1847, to Esther Lucretia, 
daughter of Calvin Lincoln of HoUiston, Mass., 
and secondly Oct. 20, 1870, to Mary, daughter of 
Dr. Thomas Williams of Canandaigua, N.Y. He 
is the author of : Mizpah, Prayer and Friendship 
(1858); Mental and Social Culture (1867), which 
was subsequently printed for the blind; Index 
Guide to Travel and Art in Europe (1882) ; My- 
self: the Great Teachers of Mankind on the Na- 
ture of Mind and the Laws of Life ; The Founders, 
Defenders and Benefactors of the Great Republic 
(MS. 1901), and contributions to magazines. 

Looms, Mahlon, inventor, was born in Op* 
penheim, N.Y., July 21, 1826 ; son of Nathan and 
Waitie J. (Barber) Loomis ; grandson of the Rev. 
Joslah and Susannah (Howes) Loomis, and a des- 
cendant through Dyer and Nathaniel from Jona- 
than Loomis. He was graduated from the Penn 
Medical Institute, Philadelphia, Pa., M.D. and 
D.D.S. after studying under Dr. Joseph Pan- 
coast (q. v.). He invented a combination of 
teeth and plate in one solid piece and all of the 
same material, which he patented in the United 
States and Europe. He practised dentistry 
first in western New York and then in Proc- 
tor county, Va. In 1865 he perfected plans for 
telegraphing without wires between distant 
points, and called his discovery or invention the 
Atrial Telegraph. In 1868 he successfully de- 
paonstrated the practicability of wireless tele- 



L00MI8 

graphs bj establishing comtnunicatioti between 
the peaks ot two proraioent mountains in the 
Blue Ridge, Va., eighteen miles apart. He then 
made efforts to raise a eum of mgney auffloient to 
demonstrate his plan in the Rocky Mountains 
between Mount Hood and Mount Shasta, one hun- 
dred miles apart, but in this he was not success- 
ful. He lectured on his discovery in Washington 
and other cities and with the means thus pro- 
cured visited Chicago where he was promised the 
neoessary capital when the Are of 1871 impover- 
ished his patrons. He returned to Washington 
and experimented on telegraphing between ves- 
sels in the Chesapeake bay, two miles apart by 
connecting the telegraphic instruments with the 
water by wire submerged to diiTerent depths bo as 
to secure a circuit through strata of relative de- 
grees of temperature. He also succeeded in tele- 
graphing between moving trains of cars. He ap- 
plied to congress for an appropriation of $50,000, 
but the bill which was introduced by Senator 
Sumner in January, 186B, reposed in the com- 
mittee on patents and was indefinitely postponed. 
He obtained letters patent for his invention, July 
30, 18T3, and a. bill was passed by both houses to 
incorporate the Loomis ASrial Telegraph com- 
pany in 1873. From this time until his death Dr. 
Loomis struggled in rain and single-handed to 
win recognition for his invention. He died at 
Terra Alta, Preston county, W.Va., in 1884. , 
LOOniSi Sibu Lawrence, educator, was born 
in Coventry, Conn., May 33, 1832; son of 
Silas and Esther (Case) Loomis; grandson of 
Daniel and Mary (Hibbard) Loomia ; great grand- 
son of Daniel and Mary (Sprague) Loomis, and a 
descendant of Joseph 
Loomis, the immi- 
grant. He prepared 
for college, was in- 
structor in mathe- 
and natural 
i at Holliston 
academy, Mass., and 
entered Wesleyon 
university, where he 
was graduated in 
1B44. He was as- 
sociate principal of 
Adelphian academy 
at Brockton, Mass., 
1845-S3; teacher of 
mathematics at Dun- 
barton academy, D.C., in 1854, and principal 
of Western academy, Washington, D.C., 1855-59. 
He was married Jan. 82, 1847, to Betsy Ann, 
daughter of Daniel Tidd, who died in 1850, and 
secondly. May 28, 1851, to Abigail C, daughter of 
Isaac Paine. He was graduated from George- 
town college, D.C., M.D., 1856 ; was astronomer 



LOOP 

to the lake coast survey, 1B5T, and professor of 
physiology in the medical department of George- 
town college, 1859-60. He was special instructor 
in mathematics to the U.S. naval cadets while on 
a cruise in 1860 ; and was professor of chemistry 
and toxicology at Georgetown college, 1861-67, 
serving meantime as surgeon on the staff of 
Gieneral MoClellan in 1862, and as acting assist- 
ant surgeon in hospitals in Washington. 1863- 
65. He was aprofessor of the practice of medicine 
in the medical department of Howard university, 
Washington, D.G., in 1867; dean of Howard uni- 
versity, 1867-69, and professor of chemistry and 
toxicology there, 1868-73. He was president of 
the department of physics and chemistry in the 
American Union Academy of Literature. Science 
and Art at Washington, 186B-73, and presi- 
dent of the institution in 1872. He practised 
medicine in Washington, 1873-77; was president 
of the Swede Iron and Coal company, 1877-81, 
and while so engaged discovered a process by 
wliich the ores ot chronium, theretofore value- 
less, were utilized, and he organized and wns 
the first preisident of the Massiquoit Chrome 
company, 1879-81. He discovered a process and 
invented machinery for producing a textile fab- 
ric from palmetto, and organized and was presi- 
dent of the Palm Fibre company at Washington. 
D.C., 1878-81. In 1880 he invented improve- 
ments in areometers. He was president of tlie 
Washington Scientific association in 1862 ; mem- 
ber of the American Medical association. 1863- 
73 ; a delegate to the convention of American 
medical colleges in 1867 ; chairman of a special 
committee to examine the mathematical and 
chemical instruments to be used in the revenue 
service, and a delegate to the decennial convention 
(or the revision of the United States pliarmacopeia 
in 1870. He is the author of ; Normal Arithme- 
tic (1859); Analytical Arithmetic (1860); Keg to 
ffte Norvutl Course of Arithmetic (1667). He died 
in Fernandina, Fla., June 22, 1896. 

LOOP, H«nry Augiutus, artist, was bom at 
Hillsdale, Columbia county, N.Y., Sept. 9, 1881 f 
son of George H. and Angelica Malcolm (Down- 
ing) Loop, and a descendant of Gerlach Leupp 
{Holland), whocame to New Amsterdam the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. He attended 
school at Great Barrington. Mass., and studied 
art in 1850 with Henry Peters Gray in New York 
city; in 1856 with Thomas Couture in Paris, 
France, and in 1857 in Rome, Venice and 
Florence. He opened a studio in New York 
city, where his professional life was spent. He 
made a second visit to Europe in 1867-68, and 
visited all the Continental art centres. He be- 
came an associate of the National Academy of 
Design in 1859 ; an Academician in 1861 ; a mem- 
ber of the Century association in 1860, and was 



IX)OP 



LOOTENS 



also a member of the Artists' Fund society. He 
was married to Jennette Shepherd, daughter of 
James Harrison of New Haven, Conn. He 
exhibited The Italian Minstrel in the Paris 
Salon of 1868, and Aphrodite in the Centennial 
exhibition of 1876. Among his more noteworthy 
works, besides portraits of Gregory Thurston 
Bedell, Bishop of Ohio, the Hon. William Q. 
Choate of New York, and Mrs. Timothy Porter of 
Stamford, Conn., are : Undine (1863); Clytie 
(1865); The Improvisatrice (1869); Lake Maggiore 
(1870) ; ne Wliite Rose (1871) ; Idle Fancies 
(1874) ; Venice (1875) ; Mnone (1877) ; At the 
Spring (1879) ; Idyll of the Lake (1881) ; Hermia 
(1878); Love's Croum (1882) ; Marina (1878) ; Sum- 
mer Moon (1884); The Dreamer (1885). He died 
at Lake George, N.Y., Oct. 20, 1895. 

LOOP, Jennette Shepherd (Harrison,) paint- 
er, was bom in New Haven, Conn., March 5, 
1840; daughter of James and Charlotte Nicoll 
(Lynde) Harrison ; granddaughter of Philemon 
and Sarah (Wolcott) Harrison, and of John Hart 
and Elizabeth Deall (Nicoll) Lynde, and a de- 
scendant of the Rev. John Davenport of Plymouth, 
1680 ; of Governors Roger and Oliver Wolcott, and 
of Nathaniel Lynde, Saybrook, Conn., 1680. She 
studied art with Louis Bail in New Haven and 
with Henry Augustus Loop in Rome, Paris and 
Venice. She married Henry Augustus Loop in 
1865, and was elected an associate of the National 
Academy of Design in 1875, being in 1901 one of 
the three women on the list of associate national 
academicians. She became well known as a 
painter of portraits and a regular exhibitor at the 
academy. Her portraits of Professors Hadley 
and Learned of Yale college,Misses Alexander and 
Harriman, Mrs. Joseph Low, Mrs. Anson Pheli)s 
Stokes, De Witt Clinton Blair, Baroness Halkett 
of England, Judge Lynde Harrison and Mrs. Will- 
iam G. Choate, and ideal figures: Baby Belle, 
Little Runatoay, Bouquet for Mamma, are named 
as especially noteworthy. 

LOOS, Charies Louis, educator, was bom in 
Woerth-sur-Saner, Lower Alsace, France, Dec. 
22, 1823 ; son of Jacques G. and Katharine (Kull) 
Loos. He immigrated to the United States with 
his parents, who were Protestants, in 1834 and 
settled in New Franklin, Stark county, Ohio, 
where his father died soon after. In 1839 he 
commenced to teach school. He was graduated 
from Bethany college Va., in 1846; was an in- 
structor there, 1846-49, and was ordained to the 
ministry of the Christian church in 1849. He 
was married, July 6, 1848, to Rosetta E., daughter 
of Rev. John Kerr of Newry, Ireland. She died 
Jan. 31, 1893. He was pastor at Wellsburg« 
Va., 1849-^: at Somerset, Va., 1850-56; and 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, 1856-^7 ; was president of 
Eureka college, Eureka, 111., 1857-58; professor 



of ancient languages at Bethany college, Va.» 
1858-80; president of Kentucky university, 
Lexington, Ky., 1880-97, and professor of Greek 
therefrom 1897. He was president of the Foreign 
Christian Missionary society, 1888-1900. He re- 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from Butler univer- 
sity, Ind., in 1888. He edited the Disciple, 1853- 
54 ; was associate editor of the Sower, 1855, and 
of the Christian Age, at Cincinnati, 1856. He 
was also co-editor of the Millennial Harbinger 
with Prof. W. K. Pendleton, 1864-70, and con- 
tributing editor of the Christian Standard, Cin- 
cinnati, 1868-88. 

LOOS, Isaac Althaus, educator, was born in 
Upper Bern, Berks cotmty, Pa., Dec. 6, 1856; 
son of John and Sarah (Althaus) Loos, and grand- 
son of George Loos, and of Daniel Althaus and a 
descendant of German ancestors who settled in 
Eastern Pennsylvania as early as 1750. He was 
graduated from Otterbein university, Wester- 
ville, Ohio, B.A., 1876, M.A., 1879; and from 
Yale university, B.D., 1881, where he was special 
fellow in theology and philosophy, 1881-82. He 
was a student in the college of France, Paris, 
1882-83 ; and in the University of Leipzig, 1888- 
84. He was professor of history and political 
science in Western college, Toledo, Iowa, 1884-89, 
and in 1859 was made professor of political science 
i^i the State University of Iowa, becoming in 
1000 professor of sociology and political philosophy 
including municipal government and interna- 
tional law, and director of the school of political 
and social science. He was elected a member of 
the council of the American Economic association 
in 1889 ; a member of the American Academy of 
Political and Social science in 1891, and a member 
of the council of the Academy in 1901. He became 
associate editor of the World Review, Chicago, 
111., in 1901. Penn college, Iowa, gave him the 
degree of D.C.L. in 1898. He is the author of : 
Outlines of the Industrial Revolution (1892); 
Studies in the Politics of Aristotle and the Repub- 
lic of Plato (1900), and contributions to current 
periodicals on political and social science ques- 
tions. 

LOOTENS, Louis, R.C. bishop, was bom in 
Bruges, Belgium, March 17, 1827. He was or- 
dained to the priesthood at Paris, France, by 
Bishop Demers, June 14, 1851, and was sent to 
California on a mission about 1858, and was at 
Sonora, Petaluma and San Rafael. At the latter 
place he erected St. Rafael's church and enlarged 
the school of the Sisters of St. Dominic. He wap 
elected vicar apostolic of Idaho and was conse- 
crated titular bishop of Castabala, by Archbishop 
Alemany at San Francisco, Aug. 9, 1868. He 
was the first vicar-apostolic of Idaho and served 
until July 16, 1896, when he resigned, but re- 
tained the titular see. He died Jan. 13, 1898. 



, LORAS 

LORAS, Pierre Jean JVUthlas, R.C. bishop, 
waa bom at Lyons, France, Aug. 80, 1793, His 
father died od the scaffold during the reign of 
t«rror. He was ordained a prieat Nov. 13, 1815, 
in the chapel of the " Grand Seminaire de Ore- 
noble," at Ljons, by 
MgT- Claude Simon, 
bishop of Orenoble. 
He Blled the office 
of superior of the eo- 
olesiastical seminary 
of Largentiire until 
1830, when hs came 
to the United States 
with Bishop Portier 
of Mobile, Ala. He 
was appointed ricar- 
general on his arrival 
and also president of 

^ Z^^-^^ college at Spring 
Hill, Ala. When the 
diooeae of Dubuque was established, July 28, 
1837, he was elected its first bishop and was 
consecrated at Mobile. Ala., Dec. 10, 1837. He 
visited Europe to ohtaiTi iniiisionaries and on 
his return was installed April 31, 183S. He made 
his first visitation in June, 1839, and founded 
missions at Fort Snelling and Prairie du Chien. 
He consecrated St. Raphael's cathedral, Dubuque, 
Aug. 15, 1839, and subsequently built a church 
at Davenport, which became in 1881 the see city 
of the diocese of Iowa. He established missions 
among the Sioux, Fox and Winnebago Indiana. 
He spent a large amount of money in building 
churches and schools, in employing teachers, and 
in educating poor children and also established a 
seminary. He introduced the Sisters of Charity 
into his diocese, founded St. Joseph's convent of 
Mount Carmel, Dubuque, and the convent of the 
Nuns of Visitation of the B.Y.H,, and New Mel- 
laray Abbey for the Trappist Fathers, and he 
also encouraged the emigration of Roman Catho- 
lic settlers to Iowa. In 1850 the diocese of St. 
Paul was set ofif from his see and on May 8, 1857, 
the Rev. Clement Smyth was consecrated coad- 
jutor bishop with right of succession. He died 
at Dubuque, Iowa., Feb. 30, 1858. 

LORD, Chester Sanders, editor, was bom in 
Romulus, N.Y., March 18, 1850; son of the Rev. 
Edward and Mary Jane (Sanders) Lord ; grand- 
son of Chester Webster and Betsey (Kingsbury) 
Lord ; and of Anthony and of Celinda (Brown) 
Sanders, of Williamstown, Haas., and a descend- 
ant of William Bradford, and of Noah Webster. 
His first ancestor in America was Thomas Lord, 
who came from England in 1S35, and was a first 
settler of Hartford. Heentered Hamilton college 
in the olaes of 1878 but did not graduate. He 



LORD 

was associate editor of the Oswego AdverUaer, 

1870-71 and in 1873 joined the editorial staff of 
the New York Sun, anj was its managing editor, 
1880-1901. He was elected a regent of the Uni- 
versity oi the State of New York in 1897, He 
was made a member of the Lotoe club and was 
its secretary, I8M-100I. He received the honor- 
ary degree of A.M. from Hamilton college in 
1804 and that of LL.D. from St. Lawrence uni- 
versity in 1898. 

LORD, David Nevlns. editor and author, was 
bom in Franlilin, Conn., Maroh4, 1793; a brother 
to Eleazar Lord. He was graduated from 
Yale, A.B. . 1817, A.M., 1820, and studied theology, 
but ill health prevented him from entering the 
ministry. He engaged as an importer of dry 
goods in New York city in 1833, and became in- 
terested with Ills brother in the management of 
the New York and Erie railway on its formation. 
He edited the Thtologicai and Literary Journal, 
a quarterly founded by liis brother, 1848-61, and 
contributed regularly to its columns. He is the 
author of: Expoiition of tJte Apocalypse (1847); 
Charaeterittica of Figurative Languages (1854); 
Louie Napoleon— in he to be the Imperial Chief of 
theTenKingdotngf(ieW)i Visions of Paradite,»n 
epic (1867). He died in New York, July 14, 1880. 

LORD, Eleazar, financier and author, was 
born in Franklin, Conn., Sept. 9, 1788. He was 
educated in the district schools of Franklin and 
was a resident licentiate at AndoverTlieological 
seminary in the class of 1815, but was not or- 
dained, owing to the failure of his eyesight. 
He founded tbe American Sunday School Union 
in 1815, and was its secretary, 1818-26, and its 
president 1836-30. He became a merchant and 
banker in New York city ; founded and was pres- 
ident of the Manhattan Insurance company of 
New York city, 1831-33, and was the founder and 
first president of the New York and Erie railway ; 
advocated the banking system adapted by the 
state of New York in 1838 ; founded tbe National 
Institution for the Promotion of Industry in 1820 
and served as its secretary, president, and editor of 
its paper, the Patron of Industry. He also aided 
in establishing the Home and Foreign Minsionary 
society, the Auburn Tlieological sennnary in 
1830 ; tlie Hartford Theological seminary in 
1884, which was first located at East Windsor, 
Conn.; and the University of the City of New 
York in 1831, of which he was a member of the 
council 1831-34, and from which he received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. in 1866. He was a 
director of Princeton Theological seminary 1828- 
30. He established and edited the Theological 
and Literary Joumnl. He published an edition 
of Teniprifire's "Biographical Dictionary," to 
which he contributed 800 original articles (1825); 
and is the author of : Credit Currency and Bank- 



LORD 

■ing (1S28): Life of Rev. J. S. Chriitmcu {1831); 
Efioek of Creation (1838) ; Geological and Scrip- 
tural CosHiogonj (1843); The Mediatorial IVorka 
ofChritt (1844); The Messiah in Moses and the 
Prophets (1853): Symbolic Prophecy (1854); Hintt 
to Orthodox M Ulenarians {185i); History of Erie 
Jtailroad (1855); Plenary Inspiration of Scrip- 
ture (1855); A Layman's Letters to the Pastoral 
Union of Connecticut (1856); Prophetic OSice of 
Cltritt (1858); Inspiration, not Guidance nor In- 
tuition (1858): Revieu-s of Authors on Inspiration 
<183e); Tlie Psalter Readjusted in its Relation to 
the Temple Services (I860): Analysis of the Book 
■of Isaiah (1861); Letter on the Currency (1861); 
Six Letters on the Necegaity and Practicality of a 
National Currency (1863). Hediedin Piermont, 
N.Y.. Junes. 1871. 

LORD, Joha, aiitlior and lecturer, was bom at 
Portsmouth, N. IL, Dec. 27, 1810; son of John 
Perkins and Sophia (Ladd) Lord; grandson of 
John and Mehitable (Perkins) Lord, and great- 
jpundson of Nathan and Esther (Perkins) Lord. 
He was graduated from Dartmouth college, A. B., 
1838, A.M., 1886, and from Andover Theological 
seminary in 1837, and was agent for the Ameri- 
■can Peace societj, 1837-39. He was pastor at 
New Marlborough, Mass., 1839-40, at Stock- 
bridge, Mass., in 1840, and at Utica, N.Y., for a 
flhort time, when he withdrew from pastoral 
work and devoted himaelf to lecturing and au- 
thorship. He resided in England, 1843-40, and 
lectured on tlie "Middle Age3"in all the large 
cities there. He returned to the United States 
in 184S, and lectured in the New England and 
Middle states continuously for over forty years, 
during which time he was lecturer on history in 
DartiQoutli college, 1869-78. He received the 
degree of IX.D. from the University of the City 
■of New York in 1864. He is the author of: 
Modern History for Schools (1850) ; A New His- 
tory of the UnitedStates for Schools (1850); The 
Old Roman World (1867); Ancient States and 
Empires i\9&9); Ancient History (-[876): Points 
ofHiaiiyry (1881); Life of Emma Willard (1883); 
Beacon Lights of History (1883-94). He died in 
Stamford. Conn., Dec. 15, 1894. 

LORD, Nathan, eduoator and theologian, was 
born in Berwick, Maine, Nov. 28, 1792 ; Bon of 
John and Hehitable (Perkins) Lord. He was grad- 
uated from Bowdoin college, A.B., 1809, A.M., 
1813 ; was asHiatant instructor at Phillips Exeter 
Academy, N.H., under Benjamin Abbott, 1810- 
11 ; was gniduated from Andover Theological 
seminary in 1815; was ordained May 33, 1816, 
.and was pastor at Amherst, N.H., 1816-38. He 
was called to the presidency of Dartmouth col- 
lege on the resignation of the Rev. Dr. Bennett 
Tyler in 1838, and filled this position until 1863, 
-when lie resigned and w-as sucoeeded by the Rev. 



LORD 

Dr. Asa Dodge Smith. During his presidency 
the chairs of Greek literature and language, of 
astronomy and meteorology, of modem lan- 
guages, of intellectual philosophy, and of natural 
history were established ; three balls, a chapel 
and an observatory were 
built, and the Cliandler scien- 
tific department was found- t 
ed. He was a staunch sup- ff 
porter of the institution ofK 
slavery as it existed in the v 
south, and at the same time 
institicted colored youths in 
the college, and was the only college- |/rtrsident 
who admitted them to equal privileges witli the 
white students. He was married to Elizabeth 
King Leland. He received the honorary degree 
of A.M. from Dartmouth in 18S1, tliat of D.D. 
from Bowdoin in 1828, and that of LL.D. from 
Dartmouth in 1864. He edited the selected ser- 
mons of his son, the Rev, John King Lord, in 
1860, and is the author of : Letters to Rev. Daniel 
Dana. D.D., on Parks' Theology of New England 
(1853); An Essay on Millennium (1854); Two 
Letters to the Ministers of All Denominations 
on Slavery (18.54-55), and many contributions to 
theological reviews. He died in Hanover, N.H., 
Sept. 9. 1870. 

LORD, Scott, representative, was bom in 
Nelson, N.Y., Dec. 11, 1820; son of John Way 
and Sarah (Chase) Lord ; grandson of John and 

(Way) Lord, of Lyme, Connecticut, and 

« descendant of Richard Lord, of Hartford, 
Conn., who came from England in 1686. He was 
a brother of the Rev. John Chase, Judge Charles 
Bachus and the Rev. William Wilberforoe Lord. 
He was a student at Morrisville and Geueseo 
academies, was admitted to the bar, and in 1842 
settled in practice at Geneseo, N.Y. He was 
Judge of Livingston county from July 11, 1847, 
to Jan. 1,1854. He formed a law partnership 
with Roscoe Conkling and Alfred C. Cox in 
trtica, N.Y., in 1872, and also held the office of 
surrogate of Oneida county. He was a Demo- 
cratic representative from the twenty-third New 
York district in the 44th congress, 1873-77, and was 
chairman of the Belknap impeachment commit- 
tee. He was defeated for re-election in 1876, and 
1878 removed to New York city, where he con- 
tinued the practice of law. He was senior coun- 
sel for Cornelius Vanderbilt in tlie contest over 
the will of his grandfatlier, Cornelius Vanderbilt. 
He died at Morris Plains, N.J,, Sept. 10, 18t*5. 

LORD, William Paine, diplomatist, was bom 
in Dover, Del., in 18,18 ; son of Edward and Eliz- 
abeth (Paine) Lord. His ancestors came to 
America from England with Lord Baltimore. 
He was graduated at FairReld college in 1860, 
and was engaged in the study of law when tha 



LORD 

civil war broko out, and he raised a battalion of 
cavalry and waa commissioned captain in the 
U.S. volunteer service. He was promoted major 
and became judge advocate on the staff of Oen. 
Lew Wallace. He was mustered out at the close 
of the war ; was 
graduated at the Al- 
bany Law school in 
1866, and was admitt- 
ed to the bar, but in- 
stead of entering the 
practice of law ac- 



as lieutenant in the 
2d U.S. cavalry. He 
served in the west 
and in Alaska, and 
resigned iu 1866 to 
.^^ practise law in Saleni , 

ll/?n^i^t^ Ore. He served as 

— ' ' ' state senator, 1878- 

80 ; justice of the 
supreme court of Oregon, 1880-94, and governor 
of Oregon, 1895-99. He was married in 1860 to 
Juliette Montague, of Baltimore, Md. On April 
16. 1899, President McKinley appointed him U.S. 
minister to Persia as successor to Arthur S. 
Hardy, but he declined the appointment. On 
Oct. 23, 1699, he accepted the appointment of 
U.S. minister to the Argentine Republio as suc- 
cessor to William T. Buchanan, resigned. 

LORD, W1II15, educator, was bom in Bridge- 
port, Conn., Sept. 15, 1809; son of Daniel and 
Anna (Choate) Lord, and great-grandson of the 
Rev. Benjamin Lord. He was graduated from 
Willisnis college in 1833, studied theology at 
Princeton Theological seminary, 1833, and was 
ordained Oct. 15, 1834. He was pastor at New 
Hartford, Conn., 1834-S6 ; at Providence, E.I., 
1838-40 ; at PhiUdelphia, Pa., 1840-60 ; at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, 1850-54, and at Brooklyn, N.Y.. 1855- 
59, He was chosen by the genera) assembly of 
the Presbyterian church, professor of biblical lit- 
erature and pastoral theology at Lane Theologi- 
cal seminary, and served 1850-54 ; and professor 
of biblical and eci'lesiastioal history and McCor- 
mick professor of didactics and problematical 
theology at the Northwestern Theological semi- 
nary at Chicago, III., and served 1859-70. He 
was president and Mercer professor of biblical 
instruction In the University of Wooeter, 1870- 
73; pastor at Denver, Col., 1876-76; at Colum- 
bus, Ohio, 1877-79 ; resided at Colorado Springs, 
Col.. 1879-83, and was president of the Presbyte- 
rian College of the Southwest, Del Norte, Cal., 
1883-84. He was a trustee of Lafayette college, 
1889-4B, and of the University of Wooster, 1877- 
79. The honorary degree of D.D. waa conferred 
on him by Lafayette college in 1847, and that of 



LORIMER 

LL.D. by the University of Wooster in 1873. H© 
is the author of : Christian Theology for the Peo- 
ple (1674); The Blessed Hope, or the Glorious Com- 
tiig of Our Xord (1877). He died at Guilford, 
Conn., Oct. 38, 1888. 

LORE, CbariM Brown, representative, was 
bom in Odessa, Del., March 16, 1831 ; son of Eldad 
and Priscilla (Henderson) Lore. He was prepared 
for college in Middletown academy, Del., and 
was graduated at Dickinson in 1652. He studied 
law under Judge John K. Findlay of Philadelphia 
and Chancellor D. M. Bates of Wilmington, Del., 
was admitted to the bar in 1661, and settled in 
practice in Wilmington, Del. He was clerk of 
the Delaware house of representatives in 1837 ; 
commissioner of the draft for New Castle county 
for filling the quota of soldiers under tlie Presi- 
dent's call in 1862, and attorney -general of the 
state, 1869-74. He was married, July 7, 1863, to- 
Rebecca A. , daughter of Josiah Bates of Mt . Holly, 
N.J. He was a Democratic presidential elector 
in 1891 and again in 189S, and a representative 
from the state at large in the 46th and 40th con- 
gresses. 1663-67. He was appointed chief justice- 
of the state of Delaware in 1893, and re-appointed 
in 1807, for the term ending in 1909. He received 
the degree of LL.D. from Dickinson college in 
1804 and from Delaware college in 1806. 

LORIMER, Qeorge Claude, clergyman, was^ 
bom in Edinburgh, Scotland, June 6, 1836. He- 
came to the United States in 16.56 and settled 
in Louisville, Ky., where he joined the Biiptist 
church. He was a student at Oeorgetown college, 
1857-59, and was a 
trustee of that insti- 
tution, 1866-68. He 
was ordained pastor 
of the Baptist church, 
Harrodsburg, Ky., in 
1859 and after several 
years went to the 
church at Paducah, 
and from there to 
Louisville, where he 
remained three years. 
In July, 1867, he was 
one of a committee 
of five appointed by 
the Kentucky gen- 
eral association of 
Baptists to protest against the action of the leg- 
islature in giving up the Agricultural and Me- 
chanical college to the control of the Campbel- 
litestherebybenefltingonesectand tending to the- 
unioR of churcii and state. Leaving Kentucky 
he preached at the Baptist church, Albany, N.T., 
1869; theShawmut Avenue church, Boston, Mass., 
1870-73 ; Tremont Temple, 1873-79 ; Immanuel 
church and First church, Chicago, HI., 1879-91, 



/A^_.feg^«^ 



LORIMER 



LORING 



Tremont Temple, 1891-1001, and in 1901 beoame 
pastor of Madison Avenue church, N. Y. city. He 
received the honorary degree of D.D. from Bethel 
college, Ky., in 1870, and that of LL.D. from 
Georgetown college, Ky., in 1886. He was 
elected a member of the Victoria institute, Lon- 
don, England, in 1899. He was married in 1859 
to Belle, daughter of Elijah Burford of Harrods- 
burg, Ky., and their son, George Horace Lorimer 
(q.v.) became a well-known journalist. Dr. Lor- 
imer served as editor of The IVatchrtunit 1876-77. 
and of the People's Bible History, 1895. He is 
the author of: Under The Evergreen (1872); The 
Great Conflict (1876) ; Isnis Old and New (1882) ; 
Jesus the World's Saviour (1884) ; Studies in 
Social Life (1886) ; Argument for Christianity 
(1894) ; Messages of To^ay to Men of To-morrow 
(1896) ; Christianity and the Social State (1898) ; 
Christianity in the Nineteenth Century, Lowell 
Institute Lectures, 1900 (1901). 

LORIMER, Qeorge Horace, editor, was born 
in Louisville, Ky., Oct. 6, 1868 ; son of the Rev. 
George Claude and Belle (Burford) Lorimer and 
grandson of Elijah Burford. He w^as educated at 
the Mosely high school, Chicago, 111., and at Colby 
and Yale universities. He lectured on literary 
subjects, contributed to current magazines and 
was employed on the Boston Post as a reporter. 
He became literary editor of TJie Saturday Even' 
ing Post in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1898, and editor- 
in-chief of that weekly in 1899. He married 
Alma Viola Ennis of Cliica^o. He wrote Letters 
of a Self- made Man to his Son (1902). 

LORINQ, Ellis Gray, abolitionist, was bom in 
Boston, Mass., in 1803. He was prepared for 
college at the Boston Latin school and entered 
Harvard with the class of 1819, but was not grad- 
uated. He was admitted to the Suffolk bar in 
1827, and practised in Boston, Mass. He early 
enrolled himself as a Garrison abolitionist and 
was one of the *' immortal twelve " that formed 
the first anti-slavery society in Boston in 1881. 
He aided in the support of the Liberator, founded 
by Garrison in 1881, and distinguished himself in 
the defence of the slave child **Med" in the 
Massachusetts supreme court, where he secured 
the decision that every slave brought on Massa- 
chusetts soil by the owner is free. In his argu- 
ment he succeeded in convincing not only the 
court and jury but the opposing counsel, Benjamin 
R. Curtis. He was elected counsellor of the anti- 
slavery society in 1833, and was a member of the 
committee of the Love joy indignation meeting 
at Faneuil Hall in 1837. He defended Abner 
Kneeland (q.v.) who was charged with blasphemy 
and tried in Boston in 1836, and his argument, 
which was a plea for freedom of speech, was pub- 
lished as : Petition on Behalf of AJtmer Kneeland. 
He died in Boston, Mass., May 24, 1858. 



LORINQt George Bailey, representative, was 
bom in North Andover, S^s., Nov. 8, 1817, son 
of the Rev. Bailey Loring. He attended Franklin 
academy ; was graduated from Harvard, A. B., 
1838 ; studied medicine with Dr. Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, and at Harvard Medical school, and was 
graduated M.D., 1842. He was appointed surgeon 
of the U.S. marine hospital at (3hel8ea, Mass., in 
1843 and commissioner to revise the U.S. marine 
hospital system in 1849. He removed to Salem, 
Mass., in 1851 ; was postmaster, 18^3-57 and de- 
voted himself to scientific agriculture and to the 
publication of agricultural literature. He found- 
ed the New England Agricultural society in 
1864 and was its president, 1864-91. He was a 
representative in the state legislature, 1866-67 ; a 
delegate to the Republican national convention 
May 20, 1868, June 5, 1872, and June 14, 1876 ; 
Massachusetts centennial commissioner in 1872; 
chairman of the state Republican committee, 
1869-76 ; a representative in the 45th and 46th 
congresses, 1875-79 ; U.S. commissioner of agricul- 
ture, 1881-85 ; and U.S. minister to Portugal, 
1889-90 ; and during his term of ofiice the trouble 
between England and Portugal over the disputed 
African possessions took place. He was twice 
married : first, in 1851, to Mary F. Pickman w^io 
died in 1878, and secondly, in 1880, to Nina S. Hil- 
dreth. He is the author of addresses on The 
Relation of Agriculture to the State in Time of 
TTar (1862); Classical Culture (1866); Exdogy on 
Louis Agassiz (1873); The Cobden Club and the 
American Farmer (1880); and an Address to tJie 
Atlanta Cotton Conveyition (1881) ; and in book 
form A Year in Portugal (1891). He died in 
Salem, Mass., Sept. 13, 1891. 

LORING, William Wing, soldier, was bom in 
Wilmington, N.C., Dec, 4, 1818. His parents 
removed to Florida while he was a child, and in 
1831 he enlisted in a company of volunteers 
against the Seminole Indians. He was promoted 
2d lieutenant June 16, 1837. He was sent to 
school at Alexandria, Va., and was graduated 
from Georgetown university, D.C., LL.B. in 1842. 
He practised law in Florida and was a represen- 
tative in the state legislature for three years. At 
the outbreak of the war with Mexico he was made 
senior captain in a regiment of mounted rifles and 
was promoted major in 1847. He commanded 
this regiment in the assault on the Mexican 
intrench ments at Contreras and was the first to 
reach the main works, and he led in the pursuit 
of the enemy as far as San Angel when counter 
orders were received. He also led the fighting 
at Chapultepec on the causeway from the capital 
to the Belen gate where he was wounded and 
underwent an amputation of his left arm. He 
was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for '* gallant 
and meritorious conduct at Contreras and Cheru- 



LORINQ 

buBCO," and colonel for " gallant and meritorious 
oonduct at Chapultepec and Belen Gate," and 
tras piomotAd lieutenant-colonel Match D, 1848. 
He was also presented with a evord bj the citi- 
sensof Appalacliicola, Fla. He escorted a party 
of gold seekers acroaa 
the continent to Cali- 
fornia in 1849, and 
was assigned to the 
11th military depart- 
ment and stationed in 
Oregon, 1849-51 ; in 
Teias, 1851-56; pro- 
moted colonel, Deo. 
80, 1656 ; was engag- 
ed against the hos- 
tile Indians in New 
Mexico, 185fr-58; took 
part in the Mormon 
War in Utah under 
Oen. Albert Sidney 
Johnston, 1658-59, 
travelled in Europe, Egypt and the Holy land, 
1659-60, and commanded the department of New 
Mexico, 1660-61. He resigned bis commission 
as colonel of U.S. mounted rifles in 1661 and 
joined the Confederate army. He was commis- 
sioned brigadier -general and served in Western 
Virginia with considerable success. He com- 
manded a body of 6000 troops in the Shenandoah 
valley under Gen. T. J. Jackson, and when that 
officer ordered him to take up hia quarters at 
Etfmey. Ya., he with his officers petitioned Secre- 
tary of War Benjamin to remain with the main 
army at Winchester. This caused a serious 
estrangement between the two generals. He was 
maile major-general in February, 1862 j was trans- 
ferred to the S<mthwest, and commanded three 
brigades in Pemberton's army, taking part in 
opposing Grant's army at Grenada, Miss., and in 
the battle ot Cluimpion Hills, May 16, 1868, when 
his brigade was divided, most of it joining John- 
ston at Jackson, Miss. He commanded t)ie 1st 
division of Polk's corps in the Army of the Missis- 
sippi and upon the death of General Polk, May 14, 
1864, he succeeded to the command of the corps 
until Gen. A. P. Stewart assumed command,when 
he returned to the command of his division. He 
surrendered with General Johnston at Durham 
Station, N.C..inl665, and engaged in the banking 
business in New York city, but in 1869 he accepted 
a commission of brigade-general in the army 
of the Khedive of Egypt, was assigned to the 
command of Alexandria and participated in the 
expedition against Abyssinia and in the battle of 
Kaya-Khor. He was promoted in the Egyptian 
army to general of a division and received the 
imperial order of the Osmariah. He returned to 
the United SUtes in 16T9 and resided in Florida 



but was defeated by Charles W. Jones. He is tbe 
authorof :..iCo)^eciera(e'SoUierin£^jrpf (1883). 
He died in New York city, Dec 80, 1886. 

LOSKIEL, Oeorge Henry, Moravian bishop, 
was born in AngermOnde, Russia, Nov. 7, 1740. 
He was a Moravian clergyman, and when Jehu 
Ettwein resigned his bishopric of the northern 
district of the American province in 1801, he 
was appointed hia successor and was consecrated 
in 1803. He was assisted by John Gell.ard 
Cunow, who had come to America in 1796 as ad- 
ministrator of the Unity's projierties. During 
his bishopric a theological seminHry w;is estab- 
lished at Nazareth, Pa., in 1807. He retired from 
the Provincial Helpers' conference in 1811 on 
account of failing health, and was obliged for 
the same reason to decline a position on the chief 
executive board of his ohurch at Beithelsdorf, 
Saxony. He is the author of ; History of th« 
Moravian Mission Among the North American 
Indians (1788), translated into English by Chris- 
tian Ignatius Latrobe (1794), and Elicaa fHr» 
Herz (1806) meditations for every day in the 
year, which passed through eight editions. He 
died in Bethleliem, Pa., April 9. 1814. 

LOSSINQ, Benson Jobn, liistorian, was bom 
in Beekman, N.Y., Feb. 18, 1813; a descendant 
of early Dutch settlers in the lower Hudson val- 
ley. His father died in 1614, and he was brought 
up by his mother in the Society of Friends. H« 
attended school for 
a short time ; en- 
gaged in business as 
a watchmaker in 
Poughkeepsie, N.Y., 
and in 1886 became 
an owner and editor 
of the Foughkeepeie 
Telegraph, beginning 
the publication of the 
Casket, a literary 
journal, in 1886, con- ^ 
tinuing his interest 
in both publications 
.01111841. In li«8 jiS^,,^;^,^^..^ 

after studying wood ty >^ 

engraving in New 

York city, he became editor and illustrator 
of Tb£ Family Magazine, the pioneer illustrated 
periodical in America. In partnership with 
William Barritt he conducted tlie largest wood- 
engraving business in New York city, 1843-68. 
He conceived and ezeculed (1845-50) " The Pic- 
torial Field Book of the Revolution," published 
by Harper & Brothers (30 parts, 1850-53), visit- 
ing the historic localities, writing the text for 
the work, making the drawings on the wood. 



LOTHROP 

uid doing much of the engraTing. In 1668 he 
retired to a farm near Dover Plains, If.Y., and 
devoted himself to historical research. He was 
made an bonorarj life member of the Metropoli- 
tan Huseum of Art, New York cit;, in 1B44. He 
[«oeiTed the honorary degree of A.M. from Ham- 
ilton college in 1856 and from Columbia in 1869, 
and that of LL.D. from the University of Mich- 
igan in 1873. Besides numerous illustrated con- 
tributions to American and foi-eign periodicals, 
cbieBj on the history and legends of the Hudson 
river, he compiled, with Edwin Williams, " The 
Statesman's Manual" (4 vol?., 1868); editedand an- 
notated the "The Diaries of Washington" (1859), 
and " Recollections and Private Memoirs of Wash- 
ington " by G. W. P. CuBtis {I860), and is the 
author of a large number of books, among the 
more important of which are ; History of the 
Fine Aria (1840); Uves of the Presidents (1847); 
SeveiUeen Hundred aitd Seventy-Six (184~)\ lives 
of Zaekary Taj/lor and Winjield Scott (1847); 
The New World (1847); Biographies of the Sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independetiee (1848) ; 
History of the United Sttiiea (1854); Our Coun- 
tryjnen (1855); Jfounf Vernon (1859); Life of 
J^Uip Schuyler (3 vols., 1860); History of the 
Civil War (3 vols., 1866-69) ; Home of Washing- 
ton (1867); Voisar College and Its Founder (1867); 
The Hudson River (1867) ; Pictorial Field-Book of 
the War of iSIt (1868) ; Mary and Martha Woah- 
ington (1868) ; Tioo Spies : Nathan Hale and John 
Andri (1886) ; The Empire State (1887). He died 
at Dover Plains, N.Y., June 3, 1891. 

LOTHROP, Dsnlel, publisher, was bom in 
Rochester, K.H., Aug. 11,1831 ; son of Daniel and 
Sophia (Home) I^othrop; grandson of Solomon 
and Hehitable (White) Lothrop, and of Deacon 
Jeremiah Home, of Rochester, Vt., and a de- 
scendant of Hark Lothrop. a native of England, 
who immigrated to America, settling in Salem, 
Hass., in 1643 and in Bridgewater, Mass., in 
1656. He was prepared for college, but in 1645 
engaged in the drug business in Newmarket, 
N.H., and in 1848 established two drug stores, 
one in Newmarket and one in Laconia. He also 
bought a book-store in Dover, N.H.,fn 1850, and 
developed in his three stores a large retail book 
trade, adding to it a jobbing trade and a small 
publishing business. He opened n drug store in 
St. Peter, Minn., shortly afterward, and estab- 
lished a banking house there, but returned east 
in 1857. He entered business in Boston, Mass., 
as a publisher in 1868. making a specialty of 
literature for children and youth by American 
authors. He also elevated the standard of 
Sonday-school liteiature. In the &re of 1873 lie 
lost heavily. Wide Awake, Babyland, The 
Pansy, Our Little Men and Women. Chautauqiia 
TouTtg FoJki Journal, and Best Things, were his 



LOTHROP 

contributions to periodical literature for youth. 
He was influential In organizing the American 
Institute of Civics. He was married July 35, 
1860, to Ellen J., daughter of Joseph and Nancy 
Morrill, of Dover, N.H., and secondly Oct. 4, 
1881, to Harriet Mulford, daughter of Sidney M. 
and Harriet (Mulford) Stone, of New Haven, 
Conn. He died in Boston, Mass., March 18, 1892. 

LOTHROP, aeorge Van Neas, diplomatist, 
was born in Easton, Mass., Aug. 8, 1817 ; son of 
Howard and Sally (Willinms) Lotlirop, and 
a descendant of Hark Lothrop, who came from 
England to Salem, Mass., then to Duzbury, and 
then to Bridgewa- 
ter, previous to 1660. 
He passed his fresh- 
man year at Amherst, 
and was graduated 
from Brown, A.B., 
in 1838. He studied 
at the Harvard Law 
school for nearly a 
year, and in 1889, 
owing to ill health, 
joined his brother, 
the Hon. Edwin H. 
Lothrop, on his farm 
at Prairie Ronde, 
Kalamazoo, Mich. : 
1643 he resumed the 
study of law, and was admitted to the Detroit 
bar in 1644. He practised in Detroit, Mich., 
1644-^ ; was attorney-general of Michigan, 
1846-51 ; recorder of Detroit, 1851 ; led the 
Michigan delegation at the Democratic national 
convention at Charleston, April 33, 1860, and was 
a member of the state constitutional convention 
in 1867. He was the unsuccessful Democratic 
candidate for U.S. senator three times, and for 
representative in congress twice. He was ap- 
pointed U.S. minister to Russia by President 
Cleveland in 1685, and resigned on account of 
ill health in 1888. He was married May 13, 1347, 
to Almira, daughter of Gen. Oliver and Anna 
(Chapin) Strong, of Rochester, N, Y., and of their 
two daughters, Anne married Barori Bartholdi 
Hoyningen-Huene, of St. Petersburg, Russia, an 
officer of the Cbevalier Guards, and Helen married 
the Rev, Dr. William Prall, of Detroit, Mich. Mr. 
Lothrop received the degree of LL.D. from Brown 
in 1873. He died at Detroit, Midi., July 13. 1897. 

LOTHROP, Harriet Mulford, author, wa» 
born in New Haven, Conn., June 33, 1844; daugh- 
ter of Sidney M. and Harriet (Mulford) Stone, 
and a descendant in the eighth generation from 
the Rev. Tlioraas Hooker, founder of Connecticut. 
She began to contribute to juvenile periodicals 
in 1877. She adopted the pen name "Margaret 
Sidney " and directed her literary work to th© 



"t'Ct^i^i*^) 



1 



LOTHROP 



LOUD 



instruotion and amusement of children. She was 
married Oct. 4, 1881, to Daniel Lothrop (q. v.), 
and made her summer home at *' The Wayside/* 
ConQord, Mass. She was the foimder and first 
president of the National Society of the Children 
of the Ameripan Revolution. She is the author 
ot :So aaby Fire (1881) ; Five Little Peppers and 
How they Orew (1882) ; Half Year at Bronckton, 
(1882) ; The Pettibone Name (1883) ; What the 
Seven Did (1883) ; W?io told it to Me (1884) ; 
Ballad of tlie Lost Hare (1884) ; The Golden 
West (1885) ; How They Went to Europe (1885) ; 
Hester^ and other New England Stories (1886) ; 
The Minute-Man (1886) ; Tvh) Modem Little 
Princes (1887) ; DUly and the Captain (1887) ; 
An Adirondack Cabin; Whittier with the Chil- 
dren ; Old Concord, Her Highways and Byways ; 
A Little Maid of Concord Town ; A Historical 
Romance of the American Revolution ; and many 
poems. 

LOTHROP, Samuel Klrkland, clergyman, was 
born in Whitesboro, N.Y., Oct. 13, 1804 ; son of 
John Hosmer and Jerusha (Kirkland) Lothrop ; 
grandson of the Rev. Samuel Kirkland, mission- 
ary to the Oneida Indians, who married Jerusha 
Bingham ; great-grandson of the Rev. David and 
Hannah (Perkins) Kirkland, and a descendant of 
the Rev. John Lothrop, who came from England 
in 1634 and settled first in Scituate and afterward 
in Barnstable, ]^£ass. He was virtually adopted 
by his uncle, the Rev. Dr. John T. Kirkland 
(q.v.), who assumed the charge of his education, 
and he was graduated from Harvard, A.B., 1825, 
and B.D., 1828. He preached in Washington, 
D.C., 1828 ; in Beverly, Mass.; and was pastor of 
the new Unitarian society at Dover, N.H., 182^ 
84. He was married , June 3, 1820, to Mary Lyman 
Buckminster. In June, 1834, he was inducted 
as pastor of the Brattle Square church, Boston, 
Mass., as successor to the Rev. Dr. Palfrey, and 
served until 1876, when he resigned. Mrs. Lothrop 
died Jan. 20, 1859, and he married secondly, 
Nov. 22, 1869, Alice Lindsay, daughter of the Rev. 
Abner and Catherine (Sedgwick) Webb. He 
was a delegate to the Massachusetts constitu- 
tional convention in 1852, a member of the Boston 
school committee for twenty years, and chair- 
man of the charitable society for the relief of 
the widows and children of Congregational 
ministers in Massachusetts and Maine. He was 
an overseer of Harvard, 1847-54; a lecturer in 
the Harvard divinity school, 1871-72 ; was elected 
a member of the Massachusetts Historical society 
in 1854 ; and served as corresponding secretary 
and as president of the Massachusetts Humane 
society and as a member of the Society of tlie Cin- 
cinnati and of the most important societies con- 
nected with the Unitarian church. He received 
the degree of D.D. from Harvard in 1852, and 



that of LL.D. from Hamilton in 1885. He is the 
author of : Life of Samuel Kirkland^ Missionary 
to the Indians, in Sparks^s ** American Biogra- 
phy," and The History of the Church in Brattle 
Square, He died in Boston, Mass., June 12, 1886. 

LOTT, John Abraham, jurist, was bom in 
Flatbush, L.I., N.Y., Feb. 11, 1806 ; son of Abra- 
ham and Maria (Lott) Lott ; grandson of Jo- 
hannes E. and Catharine (Vanderbilt) Lott ; gp*eat 
grandson of Englebertand Maritie (Ditmas) Lott, 
and a descendant of Peter Lott, who came from 
Europe in 1652, settled in Flatbush, and was one 
of the patentees named in the patent granted by 
Lieutenant-Oovernor Thomas Dongan in 1685. 
He was prepared for college at Erasmus Hall 
academy, Flatbush, and graduated from Union 
college in 1828. He was married to his cousin, 
Catharine, daughter of Jeremiah and Lydia 
(Lloyd) Lott. After practising law in New York 
city a short time he formed a partnership with 
Henry C. Murphy, transferred his office to Brook- 
lyn and Judge John Vanderbilt was afterward 
admitted to the firm. He was county judge of 
Kings county, 1838-42 ; a member of the state as- 
sembly, 1841 ; state senator, 1843-47 ; judge of the 
supreme court of the state to fill the unexpired 
term of Judge Rockwell, 1857-61, and by re-elec- 
tion without opposition, 1861-69. In 1869 he was 
elected a judge of the court of appeals, and not 
long after, when a commission of appeals had 
been authorized to clear away the accumulation 
of cases in this court he was made the chief com- 
missioner, an office which he held until 1875, 
when the commission expired by limitation. He 
was appointed in 1875 a member of a committee 
to draft a uniform law for the government of 
cities in the state of New York. He received the 
degree of LL.D. from Union college in 1859. He 
was a member of the leading learned societies of 
Brooklyn and an officer of various corporations. 
He died in Flatbush, L. I., N.Y., July 20, 1878. 

LOUD, Eugene FranclSt representative, was 
born in Abington, Mass., March 12, 1847. He 
went to sea in 1860, and was in California in 1862, 
where he enlisted in a cavalry batallion, which 
was joined to the 2d Massachusetts cavalry, and 
served in the Army of the Potomac and with 
Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley. At the close 
of the war he returned to California ; studied 
law ; was in the customs service ; and engaged 
in mercantile business. He was a representative 
in the state legislature in 1884 ; cashier of the city 
and county of San Francisco and a Republican 
representative from the fifth district of California 
in the 52d-57th congresses, 1891-1908. 

LOUD, Frank Herbert, educator, was bom in 
Weymouth, Mass., Jan. 26,1852; son of Francis 
Elliot and Mary Tolman (Capen) Loud, and 
grandson of Joseph and Tliankful (Bates) Loud 



LOUDENSLAGER 

and of Abraham and Harj (Tolman) Capeo. H!b 
father had four auceators in the Ma^^lownr oom- 
pan J, including Elder William Brewster and John 
Alden, and hiii mother wasadeBoendantof Roger 
Glapof Don^hester. He attended the public schools 
of Weymouth, Mass., was graduated from Amhenrt 
college. A.B., 1S73, and studied one year each at 
Clark university, at Harvard, and at Haverford 
college. Pennsylvania. He was Walker in- 
structor in tnathematica at Amherst, 18T3-76, and 
was elected professor of mathematics at Colorado 
college ill 1877. He was married. July 13, 1883, 
to Mabel, daughter of Dr. Martin and £mma 
(Danforth) Wiley of Colorado Springs, Col. He 
was elected a fellow of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and became 
a member of the American Mathematical society 
in 1891. He received the degree of A.M. from 
Harvard university in 1899 and that of Ph.D. 
from Haverford college in 1900. He published : 
An Inlroduelion to Qeometry on the Analytical 
Plan (188U} and contributed to various mathe- 
matical journals. 

tOUDENSLAQER. fleory Clay, representa- 
tive, was born in Mauricetown, Cumberland 
county, N.J., May 22, 1852 ; son of Samuel Paul 
and Sarah (Haley) Loudenslager. and grandson 
of Jacob and Elizabeth Loudenslager. He re- 
moved with bis parents to Paulsboro, N.J., in 
1856. and received a common school education. 
He worked on hie father's farm until 1872, and 
«ngaged in the produce cammission business in 
Philadelphia, 1872-82. He was elected clerk of 
Gloucester county in 1883 an J re-elected in 1887, 
and was a Republican repi-eseiitauve from the 
firxt district of New Jersey in the SSd-dSth con- 
gresses, 1893-1905. 

LOUQHLIN, John, R.C. bishop, was bom in 
Drumboneff. county Down, Ireland. Dec. SO, 
1817 ; sou of a tenant farmer who came to the 
United States with his family in 1833, and settled 
in Albany, N.Y. John attended the public 
schools ; a boarding school at Chambly, Canada; 
Mount St. Mary's college, Emmitsburg, Md. ; 
taught at Mount St. Mary's for several years, 
and was ordained priest in St. Patrick's cathedral, 
New York city, by Bishop Hughes, Oct. 18, 1840. 
He was assistant in St. John's parish, Utica, N.Y., 
1340-43 ; assistant priest at St. Patrick's cathe- 
dral, 1842-44; and rector there. 1844-03. He 
was appointed vicar-general of the diocese of 
New York in 1649, and in 1853 accompanied 
Archbishop Hughes to the first plenary council 
of Baltimore as his theologian. He was conse- 
crated bishop of the newly established diocese 
of Brooklyn, in St. Patrick's cathedral. New 
York, city. Oct. 30, 1853. by Archbishop Cajetan 
Bedini. assisted by Bisliops Rappe and Fitzpat- 
rick, and was formally installed in St. James's 



LOUNSBURY 

church. Jay street, Brooklyn. He built one 
hundred and nine churches on Long Island, 
and established hospitals, homes, orphanages. 
convents, and academies. He purchased a city 
block of land on which to erect a new cathedral 
in 1800, and laid the 
corner stone June 21, 
1B68. He attended 
the council of the 
Vatican at Rome in 
1869, and became 
domestic prelate to 
the pope. He made 
a second visit to 
Rome in 1880, ob- 
tained a special au- 
dience with the pope, 
and presented him 
with 83,000 francs as 
Peter's pence from /j --^^ ^ 

the diocese of Brook- C^a^-t-^^^^t^:*-!-^ 
lyn. He was invited 

to attend the pope's golden jubilee, but sent 
one of the priests of his dioceae in his steud 
with the gift of an album containing photo- 
graphs of all the churclies and institutions of his 
diocese, with data of the progr&ss of the church 
on Long Island. Hisown golden jubilei^occurred 
in October, 1890, and was celebrated four days. 
He was presented with a purse of J37. 000 with 
which he endowed St. John's Tlieologifal semi- 
nary. He died in Brooklyn, N.Y., Dec. 39, 1891. 

LOUQHRIDaB, William, represenUtive. was 
born in Youngstown, Ohio. July II, 1837. He at- 
tended the public school, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1849. He practised in Mans- 
field, Ohio, 1849-52 ; and in Oskaloosa, Iowa, 
1853-01. He was a member of the Iowa senate, 
1857-00 ; was judge of the 6th judicial district of 
Iowa, 1861-67, and a Republican representative 
from the sixth Iowa district in the 40th, 41st 
and 43d congresses, 1887-71 and 1873-75. He 
died near Reading, Pa., Sept. 20, 1889. 

LOUNSBURY, George Edward, governor of 
Connecticut, was born in Poundridge, West- 
cheater county, N.Y., May 7. 1838 ; son of Nathan 
and Delia (Scofield) Louns- 
bury, grandson of Enos 
Lounsbury, and a descendant 
in the sixth generation of 
Richard Lounsbury, of Louns- 
bourgh, England, who settled 
at Stamford, Conn., about 
16SI. He removed with hie 
parents to Ridgefield, Conn., when he was an 
infant. He prepared himself for college, was 
graduated from Yale with high honors in 1863, 
from the Berkeley Divinity school. Middle- 
town, in 1866; and in 1667, with liis brother 




LOUNSBUBY 

Phlneaa C. Lounebury (q. v.), engaged in tha 
shoe maaBffwturiiig business in South Nor- 
walk, Conn. In 1865 he was elected as a 
Republican a slate senator, and was re-elected in 
1897, serving as cbaimmn of the committees on 
finance and humane institutions. In 1898 he was 
elected governor of Connecticut, and served for 
two years, untilJanuary, 1901, wlien he was suc- 
ceeded by George P- McLean, He received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. from Wesleyan uni- 
versity in 1900, He became an acknowledged 
authority on the history and legislation of the 
state. 

LOUNSBURY, Phineas Chapraan, governor of 
Connecticut, was born in Ridgefield, Conn., Jan. 
30, 1841 ; son of Nathan and Delia (Scofleld) 
Lounsbury. Hie father was a farmer. He wns 
educated in the public schools of Ridgefleld, and 
enlisted as a private 
in tlie ITth Conneo- 
tiout volunteer in- 
fantry in 1861. He 
was obliged to retire 
from the army on ac- 
count of serioui ill- 
ness, and witli his 
brother, Oeorge E. 
Lounsbury, he en- 
gaged in the shoe 
manufaotunng busi- 
ness in New Haven 
and South Norwalk, 
Conn. He was mar- 
ried in 18ST to Jennie, 
daughter of Neziah 
Wright. In 188S he became president of the 
Merchants' Exchange National bank of New 
York city, of whioh he had been a director for 
some years. He was elected a Republican repre- 
sentative iu the Connecticut legislature in 1874, 
and served as speaker. In 1886 he was the can- 
didate of the Bepublican party for governor of 
Connecticut, and in the election, Nov. S, 1686, he 
received 56,920 votes to 58,818 for Edward 8. 
Cleveland, Democrat ; 4699 for S. B. Forbes, Pro- 
hibitionist, and 3702 for H. C. Baker, labor can- 
didate. There being no choice by the people, a 
majority being necessary, the legislature elected 
the Republican state ticket, and Mr. Lounsbury 
served as governor, 1887-80. He was elected a 
trustee of Wealejan university in 1880, and re- 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from there in 1887. 

LOUNSBURY, Thonua Raynesford, teacher. 
was born in Ovid, N. Y., Jan. 1, 1838 ; son of the 
Bev. Thomas Lounsbury, D.D. (1780-1867), a 
graduate of Union, 1817, and Princeton Theolog- 
ical seminary, 1818 ; pastor at Ovid. NY., 1828- 
40, and later agent for the American Bible so- 
ciety. Thomas R. Lounsbury was graduated from 



LOVE 

Yal« in 1850, and wasengaged editorially on Ap- 
pleton's •■American Cyclopwdia," 1850-63. He 
was a volunteer officer in the civil war, 1863-65 ; 
an inetructoi' in English at Yale, 1870-71 ; profes- 
sor of English there from 1871, and librarian of 
the Sheffield Scientific school from 1873. He re- 
ceived the degree of A.M. from Yale in 1877; that 
of LL.D. from Yale in 1893 and from Harvard In 
1898 ; that of L.H.D. from Lafayette in 1895, and 
that of Litt.D. from Princeton in 1896. He edited 
Chaucer's " Parliament of Foul es" (1877), and is the 
author of: History of the English Language (lS~S)i 
Biography of Januv Fenimore Cooper (1888); 
Studies in Chaucer (3 vols., 1891). 

LOVE. Qeorge Maltby, soldier, was bom in 
Buffalo, N,Y., Jan. 1, 1831. He served three 
months in the 31st N.Y. militia, May-August, 
1861; one year in the 44th N.Y. volunteers as 
lieutenant, participating in the battles from 
Hanover Court House to Malvern Hill ; and as 
major and colonel of the lJ6th N.Y. volunteers 
from Sept. S, 1863, to the close of the war. He 
commanded the regiment in the Department of 
the Uulf, at the battle of Plain's Store, La., May 
31, 1863, and at the assault on Port Hudson, La., 
May 37, 1863, where he was severely wounded. He 
was promoted to the rank of colonel, July 16. 
1863, and engaged in the Red River campaign, 
his regiment being assigned to the Ist brigade, 
lat division, 10th army corps, Gen. W, B. Frank- 
lin, taking part in the battles of Sabine Cross- 
Boads, April 8, 1864, Pleasant Hill, April 0. and 
Cane River, April 33, 1864, The 19th corps, Qen. 
W. H. Emory, was then ordered to join the Army 
of the Potomac, and arrived in Washington in 
time to take part in repelling the invasion of 
Early. He took part in the battles of Winches- 
ter, Sept. 10, Fisher's Hill, Sept. 23, and Cedar 
Creek, Oct. 10, 1864. He was brevetted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers, March 7, 1865, for gal- 
lant and meritorious services at the battle of 
Cedar Creek, Va., and also received a bronze 
medal of honor from the secretary of war. He 
was mustered out of the volunteer service, June 

6, 1865, and entered the regular service, March 

7, 1867, as 3d lieutenant in the llth infantry. He 
was brevetted 1st lieutenant, March 7, 1667, for 
Plain's Store ; captain for Port Hudson ; major 
for Cedar Creek, and lieutenant -colon el for gal- 
lant and meritorious services during the war. 
He was transferred to the 16th infantry, April 
14, 1869 ; promoted 1st lieutenant, March 1, 1875 ; 
and was retired, March 15, 1883, for disability in- 
curred in the line of duty. He died in Buffalo, 
N.Y.,Marchl9, 1887. 

LOVE, Jam«« Madison, jurist, was bom at 
Fairfax Court House, Va., March 4, 1820 ; son of 
John T. and Mary (Vermillion) Love. His father 
died while he was a mere lad and his mother re- 



LOVEJOT 

moved to Zanesville, Ohio, in 1883, where he at- 
tended the acAdemr three years and then en- 
gaged in , civil engineering with Samuel Rjan 
CurtiB (q.T.) in charge of government works on 
the Muskingum river, 18S7-3B. He studied law 
with his older brother, Thomas R. Love, at I^tir- 
fax, Va., one jear, and after completing bis 
course with Judge Stillwell at Zanesville he be- 
gan practice. He raised a company for service 
in the war with Mexico, and served as itscaptain, 
1846-47. He removed to Keokuk, Iowa, in 1850, 
and served in the state senate as chairman of the 
judiciarj committee, 1852-54. He weh appointed 
judge of the U.S. district court of Iowa by Pres- 
ident Pierce, and served, 1855-91. In his thirty- 
five years on the bench but two of his decisions 
were reversed by the U.S. supreme oourt. He 
was married, first to M. P, Thomasson, of Louis- 
ville, Ky., and secondly in January. 1664, to Mary 
Milburn. of St. Louis, Mo., who survived bim. 
He was professor of commercial law and the law 
of persona and personal rights in the State Uni- 
versity of Iowa, 18TS-91, and was chancellor of 
the law department for three years. He con- 
tributed tothe magazines, and his lectures, A Re- 
vieicfrom a Lateger's Standpoint of the Cage of 
Shylock agairut Antonio and Portia as a Lawyer, 
were published in the American Law Bevieto. 
He died in Keokuk, Iowa, July 3, 1891. 

LOVBJOV, Elljab Parish, abolitionist, was 
born in Albion, Maine, Nov. 9, 1802 ; son of the 
Rev. Daniel and Elizabeth (Pattee) Lovejoy, and 
grandson of Francis Lovejoy, of Amherst, N.H., 
who settled in Albion, Maine, in 1790, and of Ebe- 
nezer and Mary (Stimson) Pattee. of Oeorgetown, 
Maine. He was prepared for college at the acad- 
emies at Monmouth and China, Maine, and was 
graduated from Waterville college in 1828, He 
was principal of China academy. 1836-37, and in 
1837 removed to St. Louis, Ho., where he en- 
gaged in teaching. He was editor and publisher 
of tlie THmes, a Whig newspaper, in St. Louis, 
1828-32 : attended Princeton Theological sem- 
inary, 1832-S8, and was licensed to preach by the 
second presbytery of Philadelphia, April 18, 1833. 
He established, edited and published the St. Louis 
Observer, a religious paper, the first number 
of which appeared Nov. 23, 1833, and he also 
conducted religious services. He was married 
March 4, 1835, to Helen Ann French, of St. 
Charles, Mo. In 1834 he had formally announced 
himself an advocate of anti-slavery, and in 1885 
began to use his paper as an anti-slavery organ. 
His editorials created much excitement in the 
city and throughout the state, and in October, 
1835, he was requested by his subscribers to ab- 
stain from discussing the question in his paper. 
He replied " that the free communication of 
thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable 



LOVEJOY 

rights of man, and that every person may freely 
speak, write and print on any subject — being re- 
sponsible for the abuse of that liberty," which 
sentiment became a clause in the constitution of 
the state of Missouri. The opposition in Missouri 
became greater, and he was requested to resign 
his editorship, which he did. He removed to 
Alton, HI., where he was elected moderator of 
the Alton presbytery. Tlie ofilce in St. Louis 
was entered before the outfit could be removed 
and much of the material destroyed. The print- 
ing-oflSce press was not damaged, and was at 
once sent to Alton, 111., where it was destroyed 
by a mob and thrown into the river. The citi- 
zens of Alton, regretting; this act, furnished 
money to purchase a new press, and the Observer, 
with Mr. Lovejoy as editor, reappeared in the 
1836. The utterances of the paper 



against slavery being continued, on Aug. 31, 1837, 
a mob broke into the olBce and completely de- 
stroyed bis press. Another was bought, and on 
September 21 of that year followed its predeces- 
sor to the bottom of the Mississippi, Mr. Lovejoy 
ordered a fourth press and resolved to fight the 
opposition to the end. A public meeting waa 
called and he was urged to leave Alton. This he 
refused to do, and on Nov. 6, 1837, a new press 
arrived and was placed in the warehouse of God- 
frey, Oilman & Co., and a force of nineteen men, 
including Mr, Lovejoy, remained in the ware- 
house to protect the press. On the night of Nov, 
7. 1837, a mob attacked the warehouse, and after 
the riot had apparently subsided Mr, Lovejoy 
opened the door and received five bullet wounds, 
from which he died almost instantly. A monu- 
ment to his memory was dedicated in Alton 
Nov. 8, 1897. He died in Alton, Nov. 7, 1837. 

LOVEJOV, Owen, representative, was born in 
Albion, Maine, Jan. 6, 1811 ; son of the Eev. Dan- 
iel and Elizabeth (Pattee) Lovejoy. He worked 
on his^ father's farm, wliere he earned sufficient 
money to pay his way through college, and en- 
tered Bowdoin with the class of 1834. He left he- 
fore graduating to study for orders in the Protes- 
tant Episcopal church, but on being required to 
refrain from taking sides on the question of Slav- 



LOVELL 

ery, be removed to Alton, III., in 183Q, and waa 
preeent when his brother Elijah was killed by the 
mob Nov. 7, 1837. He joioed the Congregational 
church, studied for tliat ministry, and was pastor 
of the church at Princeton, 111., 1833-54. He de- 
fied the laws of the 
state by holiling anti- 
alavery meetings in 
all parts of Illinois, 
making his home ia 
Princeton one of the 
principal stations of 
the " underground 
railroad." Hiscourse 
led to his arrest many 
times and to his 
paying innumerable 
fines. He was elected 
a representative in 
y^ the state legislature 

(^^A*** 'i^T-'y^ in 1854. and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a 
repeal of the obnoxious law. He was a delegate 
to the national liberty convention at Buffalo in 
November, 1847, and in the state legislature sup- 
ported the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for 
U.S. senator. He waa a representative from the 
third district of Illinois in the 35th, 88th, 37th 
and 38th congresses, 1857-64, and died in office. 
While in congress he was chairman of the com- 
mittee on agriculture and the District of Colum- 
bia. He took part in all the great debates on the 
slavery question in congress, and was a speaker 
in the political campaigns which followed the 
organization of the Republican party. He pre- 
pared with his brother, Joseph Cammet, A Memoir 
of Vie Life of Elijah Pariih Lovejoy (1838). He 
died in Brooklyn, N.Y., March 35, 1864. 

LOVELLt Cbarles Swain, soldier, was born in 
Hull, Mass., Feb. 13, 1811. He enlisted as a pri- 
vate in the 3d U.S. artillery in 1831. He was 
promoted 3d lieutenant in the 6th U.S. infan- 
try, October, 1887 ; 1st lieutenant, July, 1838 ; and 
captain, June, 1846. He participated in the 
battles of Churubusco, Molino del Rey, Chapul- 
tei>ec and the city of Mexico ; served in the west, 
1847-01 ; was promoted major in May, 1801, and 
assigned to the lOth U.S. infantry. He com- 
nianded the battalion of the 10th U.S. infantry 
during the Peninsula campaign in 18G3 ; and the 
3d brigade, 3d division, Sthcorpsatthe battles of 
Malvern Hill and Gaines's Mill, the 3d U.S. infan- 
try atSecond Bull Run andthe3dbrigadeat An- 
tietain and Fredericksburg. Va. He was detailed 
on provost-marshal duty in Wisconsin, 18C3-05: 
was promoted lieutenant-colonel and assigned to 
the 8th U.S. infantry, January. 1863 ; and colonel 
of t)io 14th U.S. infantry, February, 1S65. He 
was bMvetted lieutenant-colonel U.S. army for 



LOVELL 

Oaines'a Mill, Va. ; colonel for Malvern Hill, Va. -, 
and brigadier-general for Antietam, Md. At the 
close of the civil war he was ordered to Fort 
Yuma, where he remained until Dec*. 15, 1870, 
when he was retired from active service. He 
died in Louisville, Ky., Jan. 3, 18*1. 

LOVELL. James, delegate, was born in Boston, 
Mass., Oct. 81, 1737 ; son of John Lovell (q.v.). 
He was graduated from Harvard, A.D., 1756, 
A.M., 1759, and was for many years associated 
with his father in the Boston Latin school, as 
usher and as master of the North grammar school. 
He delivered, on April 3, 1771, the first anniver- 
sary oration on tlie Boston massacre. He was 
taken prisoner by the British commander aft«r 
the battle of Bunker Hill ; wascarried to Halifax 
as a spy and kept in close confinement until ex- 
changed in 1770. He was a delegate to the Conti- 
nental con- 
gress, 1770- 
83, and was 
a member of 
the commit- 
tee of foreign \ 
correspond- . 
enoe. HeJ 
was a friend ~ 
and confi- 
dant of Qen. Horatio Oates, and tried to de- 
pose General Washington, threatening him in 
a letter dated Oct. 11, 1777. He was collector of 
customs for the city of Boston, 1784-88 ; collector 
of the port, 1788-90, and naval officer for Boston 
and Charlestown, 1700-1814. He published : 
Oratio in Faneri H. Flyiitii (1780). He died in 
Wyndham, Maine, July 14, 1814. 

LOVELL, James, soldier, was born in Boston, 
Mass., July 9, 1758 ; son of James Lovell, the del- 
egate. He was graduated from Harvard, A.B., 
1776, A.M., 1779. He joined the patriot army in 
1776 ; served as adjutant of Col. Henry Jackson's 
regiment, 1777-79 ; in Henry Lee's legion, witli 
the rank of major, 1779-83, and was wounded. 
He died at St. Matthews, B.C., July 10, 1850. 

LOVELL, JohD, educator, was bom in Boston, 
Mass.. June 16, 1710. He was graduated from 
Harvard, A.B., 1733, A.M., 1731; succeeded Natha- 
niel Williams as ansis tan t-n) aster of the Boston 
Latin school, 1738-34, and was head-master. 1734- 
75. He delivered a eulogy on Peter Faneuil 
shortly after the completion of Faneuil Hall at 
the first annual town meeting held within its 
walls, March 14, 1743. He supported the British 
cause, and when the British army left Boston 
he removed to Halifax, N.S. He is the author 
of: An Eulogy on Fefer Faneuil (1743). besides 
several political and theological papers, and con- 
tributions to the Boston Weekly Reliearaal. H« 
died in Halifax, N.S., in 1778. 



LOTELL 

LOVELL, John Prince, manufacturer, was 
born in East Braintree, Uusa., July S5, 1830 ; eon 
of John Prince and Esther (Derby) Ix>vell. Hia 
anceators, John and Jane (Hatch) Lovell, were 
reeidents of Weymuuth, Mas8., previous to 16T8, 
in which year they removed to Barnstable, Mass. 
His father died in 1821, and he was obliged to 
leave school and worlc iu a cotton factory. He 
removed to Boston with his mother in 1832 and 
attended the Hawkins grammar school one year. 
He was employed by Aaron B. Fairbanks in his 
gunsmith shop for tliree montlis, and was subse- 
quently an apprentice to Mr. Fairbanks, gun- 
smith, until his majority. In 1839 he was made 
foreman of the shop, and in 1840 was offered a 
partnership in the business. Mr. Fairbanks agree- 
ing to give liini lift If-i lite rest and to furnish the 
amount of capital required. Upon Mr. Fair- 
banks'sdeath, Aug. 27, 1811, with Leonard Orover, 
a fellow -work uian in the shop, Mr. Lovell ac- 
quired the entire plant, and the firm became 
Lovell & Orover. In 1844 Lovell bought out hia 
partner's interest, and with his sons built up the 
John P. Lovell Anus Co.. ot which be was presi- 
dent and which became one of the moet impor- 
tant business enterprises in Boston. He was the 
first president of the East Weymouth Savings 
bank for ten years and a director of the Wey- 
mouth National bank for twenty years. He was 
a representative in the state legislature in 1864, 
and refused the nomination for state senator. 
He was married, Aug. 17, 1841, to Lydia D. 
WhitoD, of Weymouth, Mass. To this union was 
born Ave sons — John Whiton, Benjamin S. (1845- 
1900); Thomas P,, Warren D., and George A. 
Lovell. Hia second marriage was to Lucinda W. 
Eice, who had one son, Henry L. Lovell. Mr. 
Lovell died at Cottage City, Mass., July 39, 1807. 
LOVELL, AUnsfleld, soldier, was born in 
Washington, D.C., Oct. 30, 1832; son of Dr. Jo- 
seph Lovell. He was graduated from the U.S. 
Military academy in 1843 and was commissioned 
2d lieutenant in the 4th artillerj-. He served in 
garrison until the beginning of the war with 
Mexico ; was promoted first lieutenant Feb. 16, 
1847, and served on the staff of Oen. John A. 
Quitman as assistant adjutant-general of his 
division. He participated in the principal battles 
of the war, was severely wounded at the Belen 
Gate, Sept. 14, 1847. and was brevetted captain 
for gallant and meritorious conduct at Chapulte- 
pec, Sept. 13, 1847. He was on garrison duty in 
various places, 1848-54. He was married to 
Emily M.. daughter of Col. Joseph Plyrapton, 
U.S.A. ; resigned his commission in the army in 
1854, and engaged in mercantile business in New 
Tork city, 1854-58. He was elected superintend- 
ent of street improvements in New York In 1858, 
and was deputy street uommiasioner, 1858-61. 



LOVERING 

Be was appointed major-general in the Confed- 
erate army in 1861, and was in command at Kew 
Orleans, La. On June IS, 1863, he impressed 
fourteen river steamboats for the public service 
and converted them into a flotilla of rams for the 
defence of the Mis- 
sissippi. Lovell af- 
terward designated 
them : "too much 
steamboat and too 
little man-of-war to 
be effective." After 
the evacuation of 
New Orleans he mov- 
ed histroopsto Vicks- 
burg, where he com- 
manded the district 
of the Mississippi 
until superseded by 
Qeneral Van Dom 
in July, 1803. He 
was second in com- 
mand at the battle of Corinth, Oct. 3-4, 1863, hia 
division holding the right of the line of battle, 
and he commanded the rear guard in the retreat. 
He was then relieved from duty in the field, and 
to justify his action in the capitulation of New 
Orleans he applied for a court of inquiry, and 
was acquitted. He afterward served as a volun- 
teer staff officer to Gen. J. E. Johnston, in com- 
mand before Atlanta, Ga., and at the close of the 
war he retired to New York city, where be en- 
gaged -as a civil engineer and surveyor until his 
death. He died in New York city, June 1, 1884. 

LOVERINO, Henry Bacon, representative, 
was born in Portsmouth, N.H., April 8, 1841 ; son. 
of John Q. and Mary A. (Martin) Lovering; 
grandson of John and Abigail Bromfleld (Gil- 
man) Lovering, of Exeter, N.H., and a descend- 
ant of John Rogers, burned at the stake, 1555. 
His mother dying in 1844, his father removed to 
Lynn, Mass., and he was educated in the public 
schools there, and In 1855 learned the ti-ade of 
shoemaking. He was color-corporal in Company 
D, 8th Massachusetts volunteers, 1862-03, and a 
private and company clerk in Conipany C, 3d 
Massachusetts cavalry, 1864-65, losing a leg at 
Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864. He was married, 
Dec. 25. 1865, to Abby J., daughter of Harrison 
and Eliza J. (Brown) Clifford, of Lynn, Mass. 
He engaged in manufacturing shoes in Lynn ; 
represented Essex county in the Massachusetts 
legislature in 1872 and 1674 ; was a member of the 
board of assessors of Lynn, 1879-80, and mayor of 
Lynn, 1881-83. Hewasa representative from the 
6th Massachusetts district in the 43th and 40th 
congresses, 1883-87 ; was chairman of the Demo- 
cratic state convention in 1886, and the Demo- 
cratic nominee for governor of Massachusetts in 



LOVERINQ 

1887. He waa U.S. marshal for the distriot of 
Massachusetts, 1888-91 -, president of the 3d Mas- 
sachusetts Cavalry asaociatiou, 1888-89 ; warden 
of the Massachusetts state prison, 1891-93, and 
U.S. pension agent at Boston, Mass., 1894-98. 
He became a member of tlie corporation of the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of Boston. 

LOVERINO, Joseph, educator, was born in 
Boston, Mass., Dec. 35, 1813 ; son of Robert and 
Elizabeth Simonda (Young) Lovering. He was 
graduated with honors from Harvard, A.B., 18S3, 
A.M., 1880 ; was a teaoberin Cbarlestown, Mass., 
1333-33 ; studied at 
Harvard divinity 
school, 1885-37 ; was 
instructor of mathe- 
matics at Harvard, 
1835-88; tutor and 
lecturer on mathema- 
tics and natural his- 
tory, 1836-38; and 
succeeded Professor 
Farrar as HoUis pro- 
fessor of mathematics 
and natural philoso- 
phy, serving, 1838- 
f , f ^1 ^ben he resigned 

^*«^ J/*-"-**! and was made pro- 

fessor emeritus. He 
was regent v^o tempore of the college, 1853-M ; 
lucoeeded Professor Cornelius Conway Felton 
as regent, serving, 1857-70 ; and was director of 
the Jefferson physical laboratory, 188i-88. He was 
connected with the U.S. coast survey, 1867-76, 
having charge of the computations for determin- 
ing transatlantic longitude from teiegraphic 
observations on cable lines. He was a member of 
the American Philosophical society, and of the 
National Academy of Science ; was elected sec- 
retary of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science in 18S4, and president in 
1873 ; corresponding secretary of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1869-73, vice- 
president, 1873-80. and president, 1880-87 ; and 
was also a msmber of the Pealx«ly Museum of 
Archeology and Ethnology. The degree of LL.D. 
was conferred on him by Harvard in 1879. 
He delivered 108 lectures on astronomy and 
physics before the Lowell Institute in Boston, 
and shorter series in Baltimore, Washington, and 
various New England towns. He prepared a new 
edition of Farrar's " Electricity and Magnetism" 
(1842) ; fifteen volumes of the Proeeedijig* of the 
American ABsociatii>n for the Advancement of 
Science ; was associated with Benjamin Pierce 
in the publication nt ttie Cambridge MiwvUany of 
Mathematics and Plujsics, and is tiie author of 
Aurora Borealis (1873). He died in Cambridge, 
Mass., Jan. 18, 1892. 



LOW 

LOVERINQ, Wllllun C. representative, was 
bom in Woonsocket, R.I., where his parents 
were temporarily residing, in 1835 ; son of 
Willard (1801-67) and Susan (Longhead) Lovering 
of Taunton, Mass., and grandson of William and 
Mehitable (Clafflin) Lovering of HoUiston, Mass. 
He was educated at Taunton, the Cambridge high 
school and the Hopkins classical school, and en- 
gaged in the manufacture of cotton goods with 
his father and brothers Charles L. and Henry 
M. in Taunton, Mass. On the retirement of bis 
father in 1864 be became president and manager 
of the Whittenton Mills which in 1880, was incor- 
porated as the Whittenton Manufacturing Co. of 
Taunton. He was also interested in several other 
manufacturing industries. He was a volunteer 
in the U.S. engineer corps at Fort Monroe dur- 
ing the civil war. but left the service on ac- 
count of ill healtli. He was state senator. 
1874-75; a delegate to the Republican national 
convention in Chicago, June 3, 1880; and was 
a Republican representative from the twelfth 
district of Ma-isachusetta in the 55th. 56th, 5 Uli 
and 5Sth coNgressea, 1897-1905. 

[jOVBTT, John, representative, wax bom in 
Newent Society, Norwich (now Lisbon), Conn., 
about 1760 ; a descendant of an English family 
that settled as eariy as 1640 on the Quinnebaug 
river, Connecticut. He was prepared for college 
at Lebanon academy, and was graduated at Yale 
in 1782. He studied law in Albany, N.Y., and 
was a lawyer at Fort Miller, N.Y. He was mar- 
ried about 1786 to Nancy, daughter of Gen. Samuel 
McClellan, of Woodstock, Conn. He removed 
to Lansingburg, N.Y , and thence to Argyle, 
Washington county, where he practised law. 
1789-1807. He was a member of the state a-sem- 
bly for Rensselaer county before 1789, and in 1807 
removed to Alhany, N.Y., where be continued 
the practice of law, and was clerk of the common 
council of Che city. In 1813 he became aide and 
military secretary to Gen.Stephen Van Rensselaer, 
serving in the Northwest. He was a represen- 
tative in the 13th and Utb congresses, 1813-17. 
He then removed to Fort Meigs, Ohio, where, in 
connection with Dr. Josephus B. Stewart he built 
the first steamboat that navigated Lake Erie. 
He purchased the site and commenced the settle- 
ment of Perrysburg, near Fort Meigs, Ohio, 
where he died Aug. 12,1818. 

LOW, AMel Abbot, merchant, was bom in 
Salem, Mass.. Feb. 7, 1811 ; son of Beth and Mary 
(Porter) Low. He attended the public schools 
of Salem, and was employed in the mercantile 
house of Joseph Howard & Co. In 1829 he re- 
moved to Brooklyn, N.V., where his father had 
already settled, and became associated with him 
in the importing business. In 1833 he went to 
China, became a clerk In the firm of Russell & 



LOW 

Co., the leading tea merchantB of CantOD, and 
in 1837 became a member ot the firm. He re- 
turned to New York in 1840, eetabliahed himself 
in the Chins trade, subeequently taking hia 
brother, Josiah 0. Low, into partnership, and 
later his brother-in-law, Edward H. R. Lyman. 
The Hrm of A. A. Low & Bros, was regarded as 
the leading mercantile house in the United 
States engaged in the China trade. He was 
elected a member of the New York chamber of 
commerce in 1846, and was its president in 1863 
-snd 1866. He was treasurer of the Union defence 
committee of New York ; a member of the war 
fund committee of Brooklyn, and president of 
the committee appointed to aid the sanitary ser- 
Tice, 1861-63. He was president of the board of 
trustees of the Packer institute ; a liberal con- 
tributor to the library and scientific apparatus of 
the institute ; and a supporter of many charitable, 
religious and educational institutions in Brooklyn 
and New York city. He was married in 1841 to 
Ellen Almira, daughter of Josiah and Maria 
(Phippen) Dow, who died in 1850 ; and secondly, 
in 1851, to Ann Davison (Bedell) Low, widow 
o: his brother, Willis Henry Low. His sons. 
Abbot, Augustus and Seth, succeeded him in 
business. Upon the death of his daughter 
Harriette in 1885, he erected the St. Phoebe Mis- 
«i.>n in Brooklyn to her memory. Although his 
•Hitis were Episcopalian, Mr. Low was himself a 
Unitarian, and the funeral serrices were held at 
tlie cliurch of the First Unitarian society in 
Brooklyn, by the Rev. Dr, Putnam, of Concord, 
N.H., former pastor of the church. He died at 
hit home iu Brooklyn, N.Y., Jan. 7, 1893. 

LOW, Pnieriek Ferdinand, governor of Cali- 
fornia, was born in Frankfort, Maine, June 80, 
1838. He attended school at Frankfort and 
Hampton academy, and entered mercantile busi- 
ness in Boston, Mass., in 1846. He went to 
California in 1849 and engaged in mining ; in 
the shipping business in San Francisco, with 
Henry Lambert and later with his two brothers, 
and removed to Maiysville, Cal., in 1833 and en- 
gaged in banking. He was a Republican repre- 
sentative from California in tlie 37th congress, 
1861-63 ; was appointed collector of the port of 
San Francisco in 1868, and during the same year 
was si'scted governor of California, serving 1864- 
67. He was U.S. minister to China, 1867-74, and 
at the time of the sacking of the missions and 
massacre of missionaries at Tien Tsin, he se- 
verely criticised the emperor of China and forced 
him to recognize the power of foreign 
to protect their citizens engaged s 
and was one of the first foreigners to be admitted 
into the presence of the emperor. In February, 
1871. he was empowered to negotiate with the 
empire of Corea for theproteotion of shipwrecked 



LOW 



I, and for a treaty of commerce and navi- 
gation. For his services in belialf of Catholic 
missions Mr. Ixiw was publicly thanked by the 
pope. Upon hia resignation as U.S. miniater, he 
became chief manager of the Anglo- Cal ifornian 
bank. He was one of the incorporators and a 
director of the Californian Steam Navigation 
company in 1654, and was interested in the cul- 
tivation of sugar in the Hawaiian,, Islands. He 
died in San Francisco, Cal.. July 31, 1894. 

LOW, Isaac, merchant, was bom in his father's 
mansion on the Raritan river, near New Bruns- 
wick, N. J., April 13, 1731 ; son of Cornelius, Jr., 
and Johanna (Gouvemeur) Low ; grandson of 
Cornelius and Margaretha (Van Borsom) Lowe, 
d of Isaac and 
rah (Staats) 



scendant of 
iter Corn el - 
isen Lowe of 
ilatein. Oer- 
iny, who ap- 
ared in Eeo- 
«, N.Y., in 
SO and mar- 
■d Elizabeth 
anchan ; of 
Egbert Van Borsom, a native of Amsterdam, 
Holland, who was in New Amsterdam (New 
York), in 1644, married Annekin Hendricks, 
and operated the ferry between New York and 
Brooklyn, 1655-69 ; and of Nicholas Qouvemeur, 
a French refugee to Holland and thence to New 
Amsterdam before 1863, who married Machtelt 
De Reimer, daughter of Isaac and Lisbeth Ore- 
Teniaet and granddaughter of Metje Grevenraet, 
widow, who came from Amsterdam before 1638. 
Isaac Low was a partner with Abraham Lot in 
the importing dry goods and fur business and he 
built up on immense fur trade through tlie influ- 
ence of the Schuylera, and owned large tracts of 
land in Montgomery county, N.Y. He married 
Marg^rieta, daughter of Cornelius and Catharine 
(Schuyler) Cuyler of Albany, July 17, 1760, and 
built "an elegant mansion" on Dock Street, 
New York city. He was a delegate to the Stamp 
Act congress of ne.i ; made speeclies against 
taxation without representation ; was chairman 
of the first and second committees of fifty to 
correspond with the colonies ; a delegate to the 
general oougress of all the colonies. Philadel- 
phia, Sept. 5, 1774, and was elected to tlie 
Continental congress to assenible May 10, 1775. 
On April 29, 1775, he urged the people to form a 
compact body " to prevent mobs, to support the 
civil authority and to defend the rights and lib- 
erties of the people against the unjust claims of 
the British ministry," closing his address by say- 



LOW 



LOW 



ing that although a member of the Church of 
England '*he danmed the King, cursed the 
ministry and insisted that all who refused to 
sign the * articles of agreement ' should be pub- 
lished as the enemies of America and the rights 
of mankind.*' He was colonial treasurer and 
president of the chamber of commerce. To the 
surprise of the patriots, in the spring of 1776, just 
after the battle of Lexington, he suddenly an- 
nounced his opposition to any efforts to obtain 
independence and his belief that ** we ought not 
to deny the just rights of our mother country." 
He used his official positions to assist the mi- 
litary authorities and he welcomed the British 
armies when they took possession of the city. 
On Oct. 22, 1779, he was attainted of treason by 
the legislature of New York, his property was 
confiscated and his person banished from the 
state. He fled to England, and his only son 
Isaac became commissary-general in the Royal 
army. His brother Nicholas, father of Henrietta 
Lowe, wife of Dr. Charles King (q.v.), president 
of Columbia college, was also a prominent mer- 
chant in New Tork, and remained true to the 
patriot cause, being a member of the state legisla- 
ture and a delegate to the state convention at 
Poughkeepsie, June 17, 1788, that deliberated on 
adopting the Federal constitution. Isaac Low 
died at Cowes, Isle of Wight, England, in 1791. 

LOW, Philip Biirrilly representative, was bom 
in Chelsea, Mass., May 6, 1886; son of Francis 
and Reliance (Cobb) Low ; grandson of Jennison 
and Dinah (Haynes) Low, and of Philip and 
Reliance (Burrill) Cobb, and a descendant of 
Francis Low of Cape Ann, whose ancestor fought 
in the Colonial and Indian wars, and, through the 
Cobbs, of Stephen Hopkins, the pilgrim. His 
father was a shipmaster. He was graduated 
from the high school, and adopted the profession 
of his father. In 1862 he volunteered in the U.S. 
navy and was appointed ensign, serving in the 
North Atlantic squadron, 1862-68. He engaged 
in mercantile business in Boston, 1868-65, and in 
the latter year removed to New York city, where 
he became identified with shipping and maritime 
interests. He organized and was the first com- 
mander of the New York state naval militia. He 
was a Republican representative from the fif- 
teenth New York district in the 54th and 55th 
congresses, 1895-99. 

LOW9 5eth« educator, was born in Brooklyn, 
N.Y., Jan. 18, 1850; son of Abiel Abbot and 
Ellen Almira (Dow) Low, and grandson of 
Seth and Mary (Porter) Low. He attended 
the Brooklyn Polytechnic institute until 1866, 
and was graduated from Columbia college in 
1870. He entered his father's mercantile house 
as a clerk, and was admitted to a partnership in 
the firm in 1875. Upon the retirement of the 




<;;^.^ 



'^^ Aw 



senior members he succeeded to the business 
with other junior partnera, in 1879 ; the business 
was finally liquidated in 1888. He was elected a 
member of the New York chamber of commerce^ 
before which body he made several important 
addresses. He en- 
listed as a volunteer 
visitor to the poor in 
1876, in a movement 
which reformed and 
subsequently abolish- 
ed the system of out- 
door relief in Kings 
county, and in 1878 
he organized and was 
first president of the 
Bureau of Charities. 
fi[e was married Dec. 
9, 1880, to Annie, 
daughter of Benjamin 
R. Curtis, of Boston. 
He was president 

of a Republican campaign club organized in 
Brooklyn in 1880 to promote the election of 
Grarfield and Arthur, and the conspicuous success 
of the organization in swelling the party vote 
brought its president into public view. He vvaa 
elected mayor of Brooklyn in 1881 as a reform 
candidate, and re-elected in 1883, serving until 
1886. He was the first mayor to introduce th& 
system of competitive examination for appoint- 
ment to municipal offices. Upon the expiration 
of his term of office he visited Europe. He- 
was elected a trustee of Columbia college in 1881, 
and president of the college, Oct. 7, 1889. During- 
his administration the college became a univer- 
sity, the College of Physicians and Surgeons was. 
incorporated with the university and the School 
of Mines was broadened into the Schools of 
Applied Science. An entire new set of buildings- 
was erected for the university on a new site on 
Morningside Heights at a cost of about $7,500,000. 
In 1894 he gave for the endowment of the Henry 

CdUU>v\BlA UNIVERSITY 




Drisler classical fund, in memory of his old 
professor, $10,000. In 1895 he gave $1,100,000 for 
the erection of a new university library ; and in 
honor of his munificence the trustees established 
twelve scholarships in the college for Brooklyn 



LOW 

boja, and twelve ia Barnard college for Brookljn 
girls, and agreed to eattibliah eight annual uni' 
vereity scholarships. Id 16M he gave |10,000 to 
Barnard college and fSOOO to the New York Kin- 
dergarten association. In 1S98, during the threat- 
ened cholera epidemic, he was cfaainnan of a 
committee appointed by the New York chamber 
of commerce to aid the authoritiee in precau- 
tionary measures, and Camp Low, named after 
lii[u, was established at Sandy Hook by the 
national government. He became a student o{ 
social science and a frequent arbitrator of labor 
disputes. Withhis brother. Abbot Augustus Low, 
he built in 1804, and presented to the mission 
station of the Protestant Episcopal church in 
Wu Chang, China, a completely equipped hos- 
pital for tlie use of the mission, erected to per- 
petuate the memory of his father. He succeeded 
Charles P. Daly, deceased, as president of the 
American Geographical society in 1900, and also 
served as president of the Archaeological Institu- 
tion of America, and as vice-president of the 
New York Academy of Science. The honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by Amherst 
college in 1888, by Harvard university, the 
University of the State of New York, the Univer- 
aity of Pennsylvania, and Trinity college, Con- 
neotiout, in 1890, by Princeton in 1896 and by Yale 
in 1901. He resigned the presidency of Columbia 
nniverrity in 1901, upon his election as mayor of 
the city of New York, and was succeeded by Dr. 
Nicholas Hurray Butler (q. v.), who was inaugu- 
nted in May. 1903. 

LOW. Will Hicok, artist, was bom in Albany, 
N.T., MaySI, 1853; son of Addison and Elvira 
(Steele) Low, and grandson of Samuel Steele. 
His father was a constructing engineer and an 
inventor. The son attended school very little, on 
account of delicate health, and spent most of his 
time in drawing. In 18T0 he sold a sketch to the 
New York Independent for $50, and soon after 
settled in New York, where he drew for Apple- 
ton's Jottmal. the Hearth and Home, and other 
periodicals, 1870-73. In 1672 he exhibited a 
small oil painting at the National Academy 
of Design. In 1878 he went to Paris, where he 
studied flrst under O^rdme and later under 
Carolus Duran. In 1671 he met Robert Louis 
Stevenson, who became his closest friend. He 
was married in 1875 to Bertha Eugene Marie 
Julienne, of Paris. In 1876 he flr^t exhibited at 
the Salon, his subject being " Reverie," and the 
following year he sent a large painting of Albani 
as Lucia de lAmmermoor, painted from life, 
and also " Le Jour des Morts." He returned to 
America in 1877 and opened a studio in New 
York city, where he occasionally made illustra- 
tions for books and magazines. He was a teacher 
in the antique and life classes of the Woman's 



LOWE 

Art school, Cooper Union, 1888-85, and tn th» 
schools of the National Academy of Desig:n, 
188fr~93. He was one of the founders of the 
Society of Americ-an Artists, 1677, and was made 
a National Academician in 1S90. His more im- 
portant illustrations 
are the drawings for 
Keats's ' ' Lamia " and 
" Odes and Sonnets'* 
(1885) ,and a selection 
of the drawings from 
these works received 
award of a silver 
medal at the Paris 
Eiposition in 1869. , 
His flrst mural paint- 
ing was done in 1861, 
when he assisted John 
La Farge in decorat- 
ing the Vanderbilt j-^jaJ' 
houses ; and his sub- ^^>-^*'f* ^ ^ 
sequent works in 

this line include ; a ceiling for the reception- 
room of the Waldorf hotel. New York city, 
1892 ; four panels in the music-room of C. T. 
Yerkes's residence. New York, 1606, and twenty 
panels for the concert' hall and ball-room of 
the Waldorf-Astoria hotel, 1897. He designed 
a series of ten stained-glass windows for St. 
Paul's Methodist Episcopal clmrcli. Newark, 
N.J. ; the diploma of awards for the Columbian 
exposition, 1808 ; several silver certificates for 
the U.S. government, and many stained-glass 
windows for large churclies throughout the coun- 
try. Besides the works already mentioned, his 
more notewortliy achievements include : Calling 
Home the Cows(1860); Slci]>per Ireaon'a Bide 
(1881); Arcades (1862); Telling tlie Bees (1884); 
Dolee Far Niente ; In a Paris Garden ; The 
Beautiful Book; My Lady; Aurora (1895). 
He is the author of numerous articles, chiefly on 
art subjects, contributed to periodicals. 

LOWE, Enoch Louis, governor of Maryland, 
was bom in Frederick county, Md., Aug. 10, 
1830 ; son of Lieut. Bradley S.A., and Adelaide 
Bellumeau (de la Vincendiere) Lowe; grandtton 
of Lloyd M. and Rebecca (Blaccubhin) Lowe, and 
great-grandson of Michael and Ann (Magruder) 
Lowe. His ancestors settled in Maryland about 
1875. He attended St. John's school in Fred- 
erick, Md., the Roman Catholic college near 
Dublin, Ireland, and a school at Stonyhurst, 
Lancashire. England, until 1830. He was ad- 
mitted to the Maryland bar in 1842, and was a 
Democratic delegate to the Maryland legislature 
in 1845. He was married June 1, 1845, to Esther 
Winder, daughter of Col. James and Anne Maria 
(Stuart) Polk, of Maryland. He was governor of 
Maryland, 1851-53, and during his tenure of office. 



LOWE 



LOWE 



introduced many changes in the election laws 
and other reforms. He was appointed U.S. 
minister to China in 1867 by President Buchanan, 
but declined the office. He was a presidential 
elector in 1861, voting for Breckinridge and 
Lane. He removed to Brooklyn, N.Y..in 1866, 
and practised law in that city until his death, 
which occurred in Brooklyn, N.Y., Aug. 23, 1892. 

LOWBf ilartha Perry, author, was bom in 
Keene, N.H., Nov. 21. 1829 ; daughter of Gten. 
Justus and Hannah (Wood) Perry ; granddaugh- 
ter of Dr. Justus Perry and of Stephen Wood of 
Concord, Mass., and a descendant of Judge 
Ephraim Wood of Concord, Mass. She attended 
the Keene academy and was graduated from Mrs. 
Elizabeth Sedge wick's school at Lennox, Mass., 
in 1845. She studied music in Boston, Mass., 
1848, and passed the winter of 1849 in the West 
Indies and the next year in Spain, where her 
brother, Horatio J. Perry, who married Caroline 
Coronado, poet laureate of Spain, was secretary 
of the American legation at Madrid. She was 
married in 1857 to the Rev. Charles Lowe of 
Exeter, N.H., pastor of the North church at 
Salem, Mass. She went with him to Somerville, 
Mass., in 1859, where he took charge of the First 
Congregational (Unitarian) society. She was in 
Europe with her husband, 1871-78, and after his 
death, June 20, 1874, she resided in Somerville. 
With Mrs. Maria Teresa Hollander she founded 
the Woman's Educational Union in Somerville, 
and served as its president during its existence. 
She was a member of the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, and honorary president of the 
Suffrage league in Somerville. She is the author 
of : The Olive and the Pine ( 1859) ; Lave in Spain 
and other Poenis (1867); Tlie Story of Chief Joseph 
(1881); Bessie Oray ; Memoir of Charles Lotce 
(1883); The Immortals (Easter Poems). She 
■died in Somerville. Mass., May 6, 1902. 

LOWBt Peter Perlee, pioneer lawyer, was bom 
near Lebanon, Ohio, June 11, 1801 ; son of Jacob 
D. and Martha (Perlee) Lowe. Jacob D. Lowe 
was born near Somerville, N.J., in 1767, removed 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1791, and at his house in 
1794 the first Masonic lodge in Ohio was organized. 
In 1800 he located near Lebanon in Warren 
-county. Peter Perlee Lowe studied classics under 
the Rev. James Kemper, a pioneer preacher, and 
law under Thomas Corwin ; was admitted to the 
bar in 1835, and practised in Dayton, Ohio, 1825- 
i86. In 1832 he was admitted to practise in the 
U.S. courts of Washington, D.C. He was prose- 
cuting attorney for Montgomery county, 1832, 
and took rank as the leader of the criminal 
bar in Ohio, and was also a noted civil lawyer. 
He was a Democratic representative in the Ohio 
legislature, 1838-39 ; and chairman of the judi- 
•ciary committee. He declined the nomination 



for governor in 1850 in favor of his friend Reuben 
Wood, who was elected. He was a Whig until 
1836, when he left the party on account of the 
Tyler exposure of the dealings of the U.S. bank 
with members of congress. He was a delegate to 
the Democratic state and national conventions, 
1836-56, and in 1856 he joined the newly formed 
Republican party in national issues, but continued 
for some time to work with the Democrats in state 
I)olitics. He was a delegate to the Republican 
national convention at Chicago, May 16, 1860. 
He was a promoter of the use of electricity as 
early as 1845, when he advanced a large sum of 
money to an inventor in Cincinnati by the name 
of Starr to visit Europe with his patent and 
obtain the opinion of scientists. When the in- 
vention was declared successful, Starr died sud- 
denly and his patents in Europe and the United 
States were unknown to Mr. Lowe until the time 
to complete the same had expired. Mr. Lowe 
was a trustee of Miami university, 1839-57. He 
died at Dumbarton Farm, Baltimore county, Md., 
Aug. 7, 1886. 

LOWE* Ralph Phillips* governor of Iowa, 
was born in Warren county, Ohio, Nov. 27, 1805 ; 
son of Jacob D. and Martha (Perlee) Lowe ; grand- 
son of Derick and Rebecca (Emmons) Low ; 
great-grandson of Cornelius and Judith (Middagh) 
Low ; and a descendant of the Middaghs, Bergens, 
Rapaeljes, Hansens, Tricos and Van Nests, early 
Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam, 1607-1664. 
He was graduated from Miami university, A.B., 
1829, A.M., 1882; studied law, and was admit- 
ted to the bar at Ashville, Ala. He removed to 
Dayton, Ohio, in 1834, and to Muscatine, Iowa, in 
1840. He was appointed prosecuting attorney for 
tlie second judicial district of the territory of 
Iowa in 1841 ; was appointed general of the 2d 
division of Iowa militia by Oovernor Chambers 
in 1842 ; was district judge of the first judicial 
district of Iowa, 1852-57 ; governor of the state, 
1858-60 ; judge of the supreme court, 1860-68 ; 
U.S. district attorney, 1868-71, and was appointed 
agent for the state to press claim against the 
United States for $800,000 for which purpose he 
removed to Washington, D.C, in 1874. He died 
in Washington, D.C, Dec. 22, 1883. 

LOWE, Thaddeus S. C, scientist and inven- 
tor, was born at Jefferson, N.H., Aug. 20, 1832; 
son of Clovis and Alpha (Green) Lowe, and 
grandson of Thomas and Lydia Green of Berlin 
Fails, N.H. In early life he studied chemistry, 
with particular reference to its relation to gas 
and metallurgy. In 1855 he was married in New 
York city to Leontine A. Gachon of Paris, 
France. In 1856 he began the study of air cur- 
rents, and as an aid to his investigations he 
constructed balloons of various sizes. In 1858- 
59 he secured instruments from the government, 



LOWE 



LOWE 




and inyented other instruments for investigating 
upper air currents, among these being an alti- 
meter, for quickly measuring latitude and longi- 
tude without a horizon. In 1859-60 he built an 
aerostat 150 feet in perpendicular diameter, with 

a transverse diameter 
of 104 feet, lifting 
more than 16 tons, in- 
cluding instruments, 
a car for carrying 
crew, and a Francis 
metallic life boat, 80 
feet long, 7-foot 
beam, and schooner- 
rigged. The trial trip 
of this monster ma- 
chine was made in 
the summer of 1860, 
when a burden of 8 
tons was carried from 
Point Breeze, Phila- 
delphia, to Atlantic 
City, N.J. Preparatory to making a trip across 
the ocean, a long-distance land trip was made 
on April 20, 1861, under the auspices of the 
Franklin Institute of Philadelphia and the 
Smithsonian Institution of Washington, when 
the distance of more than 800 miles from Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, to near the coast of South Carolina 
was covered in nine hours. Immediately after 
this, he entered the government service as chief 
of the aeronautic corps, which he organized, 
rendering valuable service by his observations in 
nearly all the battles of the Army of the Potomac, 
1861-63. During the siege of Yorktown, the day 
before the evacuation, the enemy trained all its 
guns in the fort upon the balloon which was in 
the air from early morning until nightfall. 
Mr. Lowe, by continuing his observations during 
the night, discovered that the enemy were appa- 
rently evacuating the forts, and tliis inforhiation, 
confirmed by General Heintzelman, who made an 
observation from the balloon, enabled McClellan 
to overtake the enemy at Williamsburg. His 
observations before Richmond, and especially 
previous to and during the battle of Fair Oaks, 
furnished continual reports of the movements of 
the enemy. While on the Peninsula in 1862, he 
invented the system of signals from a high alti- 
tude to the commander of the field batteries, thus 
enabling the gunners to locate objects beyond 
their vision. This system was also extensively 
used in clearing the blockades at Island No. 10 on 
the Mississippi river. After the close of the war he 
used his balloons in instructing commissions sent 
from various countries, and finally sold the entire 
equipment to the Brazilian government, who 
used it effectively in their war with Paraguay. 
In 1865 he invented the compression ice machine, 



and was the first to make artificial ice an article 
of commerce. He established the first cold 
storage for the preservation of meats, fruits and 
other food supplies, and was the first to equip a 
steamship with cold storage rooms which sys- 
tem made possible the great packing houses that 
followed his introduction of cold storage. He 
engaged in building regenerative metallurgical 
furnances for the use of gas and petroleum as 
fuel, 1869-72. He invented and built in 1873-75 
the fii*st water-gas machinery, which revolution- 
ized the gas industry of the world. He was 
awarded by the Franklin Institute a diploma and 
three medals for the manufacture and utilization 
of water-gas and appliances connected therewith, 
in 1885, one of these medals being the highest 
that had ever been awarded by the Institute. 
In 1888 he removed to California and built in Los 
Angeles the first heavy crude oil water-gas ap- 
paratus, afterward extensively used wherever 
heavy oils abound. In 1891-94 he built the 
Mount Lowe atrial railway, projected a continua- 
tion of the road from the mountain top to the 
next peak by a suspended cable, and established 
the Lowe observatory in the Sierra Madre. He in- 
vented and put into operation, 1897-1901, the new 
Lowe C'Oke oven system, for simultaneously pro- 
ducing gas and metallurgical coke. 

LOWEt WUHam flanniiig, representative, 
was bom in Huntsville, Ala., Jan. 16, 1842 ; son 
of Qen. Bartley M. and Sarah Sophia (Manning) 
Low^ and grandson of Dr. James and Sopliia 
(Thompson) Manning. He attended school at 
Florence, Ala. ; was graduated at the law depart- 
ment of the University of Virginia in 1860, and 
was attending the law department of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia in 1861 when he entered the 
Confederate army as a private in the 4th Ala- 
bama infantry. He was seriously wounded at 
the first battle of Manassas ; was appointed on 
the staff of Governor John G. Shorter with 
the rank of colonel, and engaged in organizing 
companies for the field. He was appointed cap- 
tain on Gen. Jonas M. Withers's staff, serving 
through the Kentucky campaign and being 
wounded before Murfreesboro, Tenn. He was 
afterward transferred to Gen. J. H. Clanton's 
staff and served with him in Georgia, Alabama 
and Tennessee until captured at the battle of 
Franklin. He was imprisoned at Camp Chase 
and at Fort Delaware until after the close of 
the war, and then returned to Huntsville, Ala. 
He was solicitor of the 5t}i judicial circuit of 
Alabama, 1865-68 ; represented Madison county 
in the Alabama legislature in 1870 ; and was a 
delegate to the state constitutional convention in 
1875. He was a representative from the eighth 
Alabama district in the 46th congress, 1879-81. 
He died in Huntsville, Ala., Oct. 12, 1881. 



LOWE 



LOWELL 



LOWE, WUIIam Warren, soldier, was bom in 
Indiana, Oct. 12, 1881. He was graduated at the 
U.S. Military academy and brevetted 2d lieuten- 
ant of dragoons, July 1, 1853. He was promoted 
2d lieutenant, Oct. 22, 1854 ; was transferred to 
the 2d cavalry, March 8, 1855, and was on frontier 
duty and on scouting expeditions in Texas, 1855- 
60. He was promoted 1st lieutenant, Dec. 1, 
1856 ; and served as adjutant from May 81, 1868 
to May 9, 1861. He served in the civil war in 
the defences of Washington, D.C., 1861; was pro- 
moted captain in the 2d cavalry. May 9, 1861, and 
was transferred to the 5th cavalry, Aug. 8, 1861. 
He participated in the Manassas campaign of 
July, 1861 ; was commissioned colonel of the 5th 
Iowa volunteer cavalry, Jan. 1, 1862 ; participated 
in the Tennessee campaign, being engaged at 
Fort Donelson, Feb. 13-15, 1862, and in command 
of Forts Henry, Donelson and Heiman, February, 
1862, to March, 1863 ; and engaged in cavalry 
operations in middle Tennessee, northern Ala- 
bama and Georgia, commanding a brigade or 
division from March, 1863, to July, 1864. He was 
brevetted major, Oct. 9, 1863, and lieutenant- 
colonel, Dec. 15, 1863, for gallant and meritorious 
services in the cavalry engagement near Chicka- 
mauga, Ga., and in the cavalry action near 
Huntsville, Ala., and was mustered out of the 
volunteer service, Jan. 24, 1865. He was brevetted 
colonel in the U.S. army and brigadier-general of 
volunteers, and also brigadier-general in the U.S. 
army, March 13, 1865. He was promoted major 
of the 6th cavalry, July 31, 1866, and on June 23, 
1869, resigned from the army. He established 
smelting and refining works in Omaha, Neb., en- 
gaged in mining in Utah, and built the first 
smelting works in Idaho. He also constructed a 
railroad and discovered a well of lubricating oil 
on the Little Popogie river, Wyoming Territory. 
He died at Omaha. Neb., May 18, 1898. 

LOWELL, Anna Cabot (Jackson), educator, 
was born in Boston, Mass., Sept. 29, 1811 ; daugh- 
ter of Patrick Tracy and Lydia (Cabot) Jackson, 
and granddaughter of the Hon. Jonathan (q.v.) 
and Hannah (Tracy) Jackson. She was married, 
April 18, 1832, to Charles Riissell Lowell, son of 
the Rev. Charles (q.v.) and Harriet Bracket 
(Spence) Lowell, who graduated at Harvard, 
1826, and died in 1870. She was the mother of 
two daughters and two sons. The latter. Charles 
Russell and James, were both killed in the civil 
war. She established and carried on in Boston a 
large girls* school, 1840-53. She is the author of ; 
The Theory of Teaching (1841); Edimrd's First 
Lessons in Orammar (1843); Edward's First Les- 
sons in Geometry (1844); Olympic Garnes CiSify) : 
Outlines of Astronomy, or the World as it Appears 
(1850); introduction to Madame Pulksy's '* Black, 
Red and White " (1852); Thoughts on the Educa- 



tion of Girls (1858) ; Seed- Grain far Thought anS 
Discussion (1856); Posies for Children{lS70) . She 
died in Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 7, 1874. 

LOWELL, Charles, clergyman, was bom in 
Boston, Mass., Aug. 15, 1782 ; sou of Judge John 
(bom 1743) and Rebecca (Russell) Tyng Lowell^ 
and grandson of the Rev. John and Sai-ah 
(Champney) Lowell and of Judge James and 
Katharine (Graves) Russell. He was graduated 
from Harvard, A.B., 1800, A.M., 1803: studied 
theology in Edinburgh, Scotland, 1802-04 ; trav- 
elled in Europe in 1805 ; was installed as pastor of 
the West Congregational church, Boston, Mass., 
Jan. 1, 1806, and remained assucli fifty-five years. 
On the failure of his health in 1837, Dr. Cyrus A. 
Bartol became his colleague, and Dr. Lowell 
travelled in Europe and the Holy Land, 1837-40. 
He was married, Oct. 2, 1806, to Harriet Bracket, 
daughter of Keith and Mary (Traill) Spence, of 
Portsmouth, N.H., and sister of Capt. Robert 
Traill Spence, U.S.N, (q.v.), and their son, Charlea 
Russell Lowell, married Anna Cabot Jackson 
(q.v.). He was secretary of the Massachusetts 
Historical society ; a corresponding member of 
the Archaeological Society of Athens, and one of 
the founders and a member of the Society of 
Northern Antiquarians of Copenhagen. He was 
a fellow of Harvard in 1818 and received the 
degree of S.T.D. from there in 1823. He is the 
author of : Occxisiojial Sermons (1855) ; Practical 
Sermons (1855); Meditations for the Afflicted, Sick 
and Dying ; Devotional Exercises for Communi- 
cants. He died in Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 20, 1861. 

LOWELL, Charles Russell, soldier, was bom 
in Boston, Mass., Jan. 2, 1835 ; son of Charles 
Russell and Anna Cabot (Jackson) Lowell, and 
grandson of the Rev. Charles (q.v.) and Hannah 
Bracket (Spence) 
Lowell. He was gi*ad- 
uated at Harvard, 
A.B., 1854, first in his 
class. When the civil 
war broke out he 
was manager of the 
Mount Savage iron 
works, Maryland, and 
he made his way at 
once to Baltimore and 
on foot to Wash- 
ington from the 
Relay House, railway 
communication hav- 
ing been suspended 
from that point. He 

was commissioned captain in the 6th U.S. 
cavalry, April 20, 1861, and was the officer 
who recruited Adna R. Chaffee as private in 
that regiment. He was in command of a squad- 
ron of the 6th U.S. cavalry in the Army 




L 



LOWELL 



LOWELL 



•of the Potomac all through the Peninsula 
•campaign, at the close of which he was bre- 
'vetted major for gallantry and assigned to the 
personal staff of General McClellan. At Antie- 
^m he conveyed the orders of the command- 
ing general under severe fire, rallied broken 
regiments and displayed a degree of courage that 
was rewarded by his being selected to carry the 
•captured standards to Washington. In the au- 
iiumn of 1863 he organized the 2d Massachusetts 
cavalry, and in May, 1868, was commissioned 
colonel of the regiment. He was in command of 
the advanced defences of Washington during the 
winter of 1868-64, and was engaged against the 
attack of Early in July, 1864. Later he com- 
manded the provisional cavalry brigade under 
Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley, and finally 
he was given command of the reserve brigade, 
made up of three regiments of U.S. cavalry, his 
•own regiment and a battery of artillery, which 
•distinguished itself at the battle of Opequon 
Creek (Winchester), Sept. 19, 1864, and on Octo- 
ber 9 took a leading part in the overthrow of 
•General Rosser's cavalry. At Cedar Creek, Oct, 
19. 1864, he held the enemy in check until the 
arrival of Sheridan, who formed his new line 
•close behind Lowell's men. Though wounded 
•early in the day, he was lifted on his horse and 
led his brigade in the final successful charge, 
"where he received his mortal wound. His com- 
mission as brigadier-general, issued at the request 
of General Sheridan, was signed at Washington 
on the day of this battle. He was married in 
^October, 1863, to Josephine (q.v.), daughter of 
Francis and Sarah Blake (Sturgis) Shaw. He 
died at Middletown, Va., Oct. 20, 1864. 

LOWELL, Edward Jackson, author, was 
born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 18, 1845 ; son of Fran- 
'Cis Cabot and Mary Lowell (Gardner) Lowell, 
and grandson of Francis Cabot and Hannah 
•(Jackson) Gardner. He was graduated from Har- 
vard, A.B., 1867, A.M., 1870, was admitted to the 
•Suffolk bar in June, 1872, and practised law in 
3oston, Mass. , when he retired from the bar and 
devoted himself to literary work. He was a mem- 
'ber of the Massachusetts Historical society, the 
New York Historical society, the American His- 
torical association, the Military Historical society 
of Massachusetts, and a fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was married, 
Jan. 1, 1868, to Mary Wolcott, daughter of Samuel 
»Griswold and Mary (Boot) Goodrich; she died, 
April 5, 1874. He was married secondly, June 19, 
1777, to Elizabeth Gilbert, daughter of George 
(q.v.) and Sarah M. (Gilbert) Jones of New York 
■city. He contributed a chapter on The Diplo- 
macy and Finance of the Revolution to Winsor's 
'•Narrative and Critical, History of America" 
<(1884) , and is the author of : The Hessians and 



the other German Auxiliaries of Great Britain in 
the Revolutionary War (1884); The Eve of the 
French Revolution (1892), and the following 
essays : The Bayeux Tapestry ; Life of Benvenuto 
CeUini; Clothes Historically Considered ; A 
Liberal Education, and A Memoir of Tennyson, 
He died in Cotuit, Mass., May 11, 1894. 

LOWELL, Francis Cabot, manufacturer, was 
bom in Newburyport, Mass., April 7, 1775 ; son 
of Judge John and Susan (Cabot) Lowell, and 
grandson of the Rev. John and Sarah (Champney) 
Lowell, and of Francis and Mary (Fitch) Cabot. 
He was graduated from Harvard, A.B., 1793, 
A.M., 1796. He was married, Oct 31, 1798, to 
Hannah, daughter of the Hon. Jonathan and 
Hannah (Tracy) Jackson, of Newburyport, Mass.; 
she died May 10, 1815. He travelled extensively 
through England and Scotland, 1810-11. In 1812, 
with Patrick Tracy Jackson, his brother-in-law, 
he undertook the manufacture of cotton under 
many difficulties, as the war of 1813 prevented 
the importation of machinery from England. 
After numerous experiments they succeeded in 
the autumn of 1812 in producing a loom with the 
assistance of Mr. Paul Moody, a mechanic, of 
Newburyport, and they obtained a charter under 
the name of the Boston Manufacturing company 
with a capital of $100,000. They established their 
mill in Waltham, Mass. , which was probably the 
first mill in the United States that combined all 
the operations necessary for converting the raw 
cotton into finished cloth. Mr. Lowell was 
mainly instrumental in procuring from congress 
in 1816 the establishment of the minimum duty 
on cotton cloth, an idea which originated, with 
him. After Mr. LowelFs death, Mr. Jackson pur- 
chased a section of Chelmsford and located mills 
there and the town was incorporated under the 
name of Lowell in 1826. He died in Boston, 
Mass., Aug. 10, 1817. 

LOWELL, Francis Cabot, judge, was born in 
Boston, Mass., Jan, 7, 1855 ; son of George Gard- 
ner and Mary Ellen (Parker) Lowell ; grandson of 
Francis Cabot and Mary Lowell (Gardner) 
Lowell, and of James'and Annie (Tucker) Parker, 
and great-grandson of Francis Cabot (born 1775) 
and Hannah (Jackson) Lowell. He was gradu- 
ated from Harvard, A.B., 1879, and became a 
member of the firm of Lowell, Stimson & Lowell. 
He was married in New York city, Nov. 27, 1882, 
to Cornelia Prime, daughter of Edmund Lin- 
coln and Nathalie (Ray) Baylies. He was a 
member of the Boston common council, 1889-92, 
and a representative in the Massachusetts leg- 
isature, 1895-98. He was appointed judge of 
the U.S. district court of Massachusetts by 
President McKinley, Jan. 10, 1898. He was an 
overseer of Harvard, 1886-91, and again from 
1894 ; was made a fellow of that corporation, 1895, 



LOWELL 

uid succeeded Roger Wolcott as president of the 
Unitarian club ot Boston in 1697. He delivered a 
course of lectures before the Lowell Institute, 
Boston, in 1695-96. He is author of: Joan of 
Are (1896). 

LOWELL, Jsmes Riusell, poet, was bom in 
Cambridge. Mass.. Feb. 22, 1619 ; son of the Rev. 
Charles and Barriet (Spence) Lowell. He at- 
tended the boarding school of William Wells at 
Cambridge and was graduated from Harvard, 
A.B., 1638, LLB., 
1840, A.M. 1841. 
While in college be 
edit«d the Harvar- 
diana, 183T-S8, and 
after his graduation 
he opened a law 
office in Boston, but 
did not practise, de- 
Toting himself in- 
stead entirely to iit- 
erature. In 1641 his 
first book of poetna 
appeared, some of 
which had been previ- 
ously published in 
magazines, and in 
1843, with Robert Carter, he started the Pioneer, 
a short-lived monthly magazine. He was mar- 
ried in 1844 to Maria White of Watertown, Mass., 
who was herself the author of several published 
poems, and was also a pronounced abolitionist. 
Both Mr. Lowell and bis wife were regular contrib- 
utors to the Liberty Bell and tiowell subsequently 
became corresponding editor of the Anti-Slavery 
Standard. His " Biglow Papers," satirical poems 
in Yankee dialect, the first of which appeared 
in the columns of the Boston Courier in June, 
1846. wielded a powerful influence on the politics 
of the day. and gained a permanent place among 
the classics. He was a frequent contributor to 
the Dial, the Democratic Revieio and the Jtfossa- 
ehuaetta Quarterly, his articles being generally 
political. lu 1851 he went to Europe where he 
remained more than a year, hoping to benefit 
Mrs. Lowell's health, but in 1858 she died. He 
spent 1854r-55 in study in Europe, and in the 
latter yee.r succeeded Henry W. Longfellow as 
Smith professor of the French and Spanisii lan- 
guages and literature and belles lettresat Harvard, 
and served, 185.V86. He was university lecturer, 
1963-64. In 1657 he was married to Frances Dun- 
lap, a niece of Governor Robert P. Dunlap of 
Portland, Maine. In addition to his college 
duties he was editor of the Atlantic Monthly 
1657-63, and a joint editor, with Charles Eliot 
Norton, of the North American Review, 1863-72. 
In 1856 he became an active member of the Re- 
publican party, and although he never sought 



LOWELL 

office, in 1676 he was elected presidential elector 
and in 1877 was appointed by President Hayes 
U.S. minister to Spain. In 1880 he was trans- 
ferred to the court of St. James. London, Eng- 
land, where he was U.S. minister until 1885. 
During his residence in England he was elected 
lord rector of the University of St. Andrew's, 
Scotland, Jan. 2, 1864, and received other notable 
recognition for his literary acquirements. He 
delivered many public addresses and was the 
orator on the occasion of the unveiling of tiie 
bust of Coleridge in Westminster Abbey in May, 
1885. In 1887 he delivered before the Lowell In- 
stitute, Boston, a course of lectures on the Eng- 
lish dramatists. He returned to his country seat 
at " Elmnood " on tlie Charles river, Cambridge, 
Mass.. where he devoted himself to study and liter- 
ature, and continued his lectures at Harvard. Th» 
honorary degree of D.C.L. was conferred on him 
by Oxford university in 1873, and that of LL.D. by 
the University of Cambridge in 1874, St. An- 
drew's, Edinbui^h, and Harvard in 1884, and 
Bolf^iui in 1888. He wasan overseer of Harvard, 
1887-91 ; a fellow of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences ; a member of the Massachu- 
setts Historical society, the American Philosoph- 
ical society, and the Royal Academy of Spain ; 
and a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
and the Royal Society of Literature in London. 
He edited the poetical works of Marvell, Donne, 
Keats, Wordsworth and Shelley for the collection 
of Brltfeh poets edited by Prof. Francis J. Child 
of Harvard. His published writings include : 
C;a«*R)em (1888) ; A Year's Life (1841) ; A Ia- 
gend of Brittany and Other Miscellaneous Poemg 
and Sonnets (1884) ; The Vision of Sir Launfal 
(1B45) ; Conversations on Some of the Old Poet» 
(164.^); Poems (1848); Tlie Bigloto Papers (1848, 
2d ser.. 1867) ; A Fable for Critics (1848) ; Poems 
(2 vols., 1849) ; Poents (3 vols,, 1854) ; Poetieat 
Works (2 vols. , 18.*)8) ; JfosoH and SlideS, a Yan- 
kee Idyl (1802); Fireside Travds (1864); The 
President'* Policy (1864) ; Voder tlie Willows and 
Other Poems (1809); Among My Books (1870) ; 
My Study Windotes (1871) ; The Courtin' (1874) ; 
Tl>ree Memorial Poems (1876) ; Democracy and 
Otlier Addresses (1887). Anierican Ideas for Eng- 
lish Readers, Latest Literary Essays and Ad- 
dresses, and Old English Dramatists were pub- 
lished posthumously (1802). He was engaged on a 
Life of Haiethome at the time of his death. His 
last published poem, entitled My Book, appeared 
in the New York Ledger of December, 1890. In. 
1898 part of bis estate, " Elmwood," was pur- 
chased by the Lowell Memorial Park Fund, nearly 
S40.000 having been obtained by popular subscrip- 
tion. Horace E. Scudder prepared adefinitive life ; 
James Russell LotoeU : A Biography (2 vols., 1901). 
He died in Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 18, 1891. 



LOWELL 



LOWELL 




LOWELL* John, jurist, was born in Newbury- 
port, Mass., June 17, 1743 ; son of the Rev. John 
and Sarah (Champney) Lowell ; grandson of Eb- 
enezer and Elizabeth (Shailer) Lowell and of 
Koah and Sarah (Tunnell) Champney ; great- 
grandson of John and 
Hannah (Proctor) 
Lowell ; greats-grand- 
son of John and Mary 
Lowell, and a de- 
scendant of Percival 
Lowell, who came 
from Bristol, Eng- 
land, in 1639 and 
settled in Newbury. 
He was graduated 
from Harvard, A.B., 
1760, A.M., 1763; 
studied law in the 
office of Oxenbridge 
Thacher, and settled 
in practice in New- 
buryport in 1762. He was a representative 
in the general court from Newbury port, Mass., 
in 1777 and from Boston in 1779. He was one 
of the delegates to the state convention that 
framed the constitution of Massachusetts in 1780, 
and caused the clause, ** All men are bom free 
and equal, and have certain natural, essential and 
inalienable rights, among which may be reckoned 
the right of enjoying and defending their lives 
and liberties," to be inserted in the preamble 
of the constitution of the Commonwealth. He 
was a delegate to the Continental congress, 1782- 
83, and was appointed by that body one of three 
judges of the court of appeals, for the trial of all 
appeals from the courts of admiralty of the sev- 
ertil states. In 1789 he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Washing^n judge of the U.S. district court 
of Massachusetts, and in 1801 President Adams 
appointed him chief justice of the U.S. circuit 
court for the first circuit, which included Maine, 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Rhode Is- 
land. He originated the subscription for a pro- 
fessorship of natural history at Harvard ; was a 
fellow of Harvard, 1784-1802, and received the 
degree of LL.D. there in 1792. He was one 
of the founders of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences in 1780, and served as one of 
its counselors. He was married, Jan. 3, 1767, to 
Sarah, daughter of Stephen H. and Elizabeth 
(Cabot) Higg^nson ; she died May 5, 1772. He 
was married secondly. May 31, 1774, to Susanna, 
daughter of Francis and Mary (Fitch) Cabot, of 
Salem, Mass. ; she died March 80, 1777. He was 
married thirdly, Dec. 25, 1778, to Rebecca, widow 
of James Tyng, and a daughter of Judge James 
and Katherine (Graves) Russell, of Charlestown, 
Mass. He died at Rozbury, Mass., May 6, 1802. 



LOWELL* Johiiy publicist, was born in New- 
buryport, Mass., Oct. 6, 1769; son of Judge 
John and Sarah (Higginson) Lowell, and grand- 
son of the Rev. John and Sarali (Champney) 
Lowell and of Stephen H. and Elizabeth (Cabot) 
Higginson. He was graduated from Harvard, 
A.B., 1786, A.M., 1789; studied law with his 
father, and was admitted to the bar in 1789. He 
was married, June 8, 1773, to Rebecca, daughter 
of John and Katharine (Greene) Amory, of Bos- 
ton. His health began to fail, and in 1803 
he retired from practice. He travelled in Eu- 
rope, 1803-06, and on his return devoted himself 
to literature, writing on politics, agriculture and 
theology under the signatures, ** Citizen of Mas- 
sachusetts,** ** Massachusetts Lawyer,** ** Lay- 
man *' and " Norfolk Farmer.** During the war 
of 1812 he wrote constantly in support of the 
Federal policy, and when the Unitarian contro- 
versy broke out he published '* An Inquiry into 
the Right to Change the Ecclesiastical C!onstitu- 
tion of the (Congregational Churches of Massa- 
chusetts,** which in all probability stopped the 
proposed plan for an arbitrary consociation of 
churches. He was the first man in the United 
States to establish a greenhouse on an ample scale 
and on scientific principles. His private charities 
were so extended that for many years he em- 
ployed an almoner, with whom he placed a sum 
annually to be expended in fuel for the poor. 
He was a prominent promoter of the establish- 
ment of the Massachusetts General Hospital and 
of the Provident Institution for Savings ; presi- 
dent of the board of trustees and a member of 
the Massachusetts Agricultural society, and a 
patron of the Boston Athenaeum. He was a fel- 
low of Harvard, 1810-22, and an overseer, 1823- 
27. He received the degree of LL.D. from Har- 
vard in 1814. He was a fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of 
the Massachusetts Historical society. His polit- 
ical pamphlets were published in two volumes, and 
in 1901 were still extant. Among the pamphlets 
are : Peace without Dishonor, War unthout 
Hope , an Inquiry into the Subject of the Chesa- 
peake (jl807); Candid Comparison of the Wash- 
ington and Jefferson Administrations (1810) ; Di- 
plomatic Policy of Mr, Madison Unveiled (1810) ; 
and Mr, Madison's War ; a Dispassionate In- 
quiry into the Reasons alleged by Madison for de- 
claring an Offensive and Ruinous War against 
Oreat Britain (1812). His theological writings in- 
clude Are You a Christian oraCalvinist f (1815). 
He died in Roxbury, Mass., March 13, 1840. 

LOWELLf John, founder of the Lowell Insti- 
tute, was born in Boston, Mass., May 11, 1799; 
son of Francis Cabot and Hannah (Jackson) 
Lowell. After attending the schools of Boston, 
he went with his father to Europe and entered 



LOWEXL 

th« high school at Edinburgh, Sootland. He 
was & student at Harvard, 1813-15, but was ob- 
liged to leave on account of ill-health, and in 
1816 and again in 1817 went to India. He be- 
«ame a sucoewful merchant in Boston, devoting 
all his leisure to study 
and collecting one of 
the largest and moat 
valuable private li- 
braries in t))e citj. 
He was repeatedly 
elected to the com- 
mon council of Boston 
and to tlie state leg- 
islature. He was 
married in Boston, 
. April 6, 1825, to Oeor- 
^ gina Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Jonathan and 
Ljdia (Fellows) Am- 
ory. In the winter 
of 1830-81 his wife 
and two daughters died, and after that time 
Mr. Lowell duvoted much of his time to travel. 
In 1835, while travelling in Egypt, he was taken 
and during convalescence wrote his last codi- 
cil m whicli he completed the plan he had 
partially formulated in his will several years 
bffore. Tbis will provided that one-half of his 
property should be used for the establishment 
and maintenance of the Lowell Institute, to con- 
sist of regular courses of free public lectures 
upon phitoBophy, natural history, and the arts 
and sciences, to be annually delivered in the 
city of Boston. This sum, amounting to nearly 
4350,000, was at tbat time, with the exception of 
Stephen Qirard'a bequest, the largest ever given 
in America by a private individual for the 
endowment of a literary institution. Besides the 
popular lectures the will provided for others 
" more abstruse, erudite and particular," for stu- 
dents. Tlie funds were placed in the hands of 
the founder's cousin, John Amory Lowell (il.v.). 
constituted by the will sole trustee, and the will 
Stated that " each trustee shall appoint his suc- 
cessor," and that "in selecting a successor the 
tnistee shall ahvays chooBe in preference to all 
others some male descendant of my Grandfather 
John Lowell, provided there be one who is com- 
petent to hold the office of trustee, and of the name 
of Lowell." The trustee was permitte<i to " estab- 
lish from time to time lectures on any subject 
that in his opinion the wants and taste of the age 
may demand." See" History of the Lowell Insti- 
tute," by Harriette Knight Smith (1898), and also 
"Memoir of John Lowell. Jr.," by Edward Ever- 
ett, delivered in Boston. Dec. 31, 1839. as the intro- 
ductory lecture on Mr. Lowell's foundation. Mr. 
Lowell died in Bombay, India, March 4, 1830. 



LOWELL 

LOWELL. Joliiit jurist, was bom in Boaton, 
Mass., Oct. 18, 1834; bod of John Amory and 
Susan Cabot (Lowell) Lowell, and grandson of 
John (born 176B) and Rebecca (Amory) Lowell 
and of Francis Cabot and Hannah (Jackson) 
Lowell. He was graduated from Harvard, A.B., 
1818, LL.B.. 1845, A.M., 1846. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1846, and practised in Boston, 1846- 
65. He was appointed judge of the U.S. district 
court of tiassacbusetts, March II, 1865. by Presi- 
dent Lincoln ; judge of the U.S. circuit court by 
President Hayes, Dec. 18, 1878, and resigned. May 
1, 1884, to resunie general practice. He was a 
fellow of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences ; a member of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural and Historical societies ; a trustee of the 
Massacliusetts General hospital, and an overseer 
of Harvard. 1875-86. He received the degree 
LL.D. from Williams college in 1870 and from 
Harvard in 1871. He was elected president of 
the board of trustees of the Peabody Education 
Fund in 1806. He was married in Boston, Mass., 
May 18. 1853, to Lucy Buckminster, daughter 
of Gteorge Barrell and Olivia (Buckminster) 
Emerson. Hia decisions were published in two 
volumes (1873-77). He died at Chestnut Hill, 
Brookline, Mass., May 14, 1897. 

LOWELL, John Amory, merchant, was bom 
in Boston, Mass., Nov. 11, 1798; aon of John 
(b. 1769) and Kebecca (Amory) Lowell. He was 
graduated from Harvard. A.B., 1815, A.M., 1818, 
and became a manufacturer on tlie Merrimack 
river. He wasa member of the convention that re- 
vised the state constitution in 1853 and was prom- 
inently connected with many public, literary and 
benevolent enterprises. By the wilt of his cousin, 
John Lowell. Jr., he was made sole trustee of the 
Lowell Institute, and as such he interpreted the 
will, put it into operation and for forty years 
managed the fund and engaged the lecturers. 
At the time of his death more than 3000 lec- 
tures had been given in the regular courses. 
In 1850 he established in connection with the 
Lowell Institute a free drawing school which 
was contiimed until 18T9, and in 1866 he en- 
tered into an engagement with the Massacliu- 
setts Institute of Technology. Boston, whereby 
courses of free lectures arS provided for advanced 
students. These lectures, known as the Lonell 
Free Courses of Instruction under the supervi- 
sion of the Institute, comprise nearly 150 an- 
nual lectures on science, language, history, archi- 
tecture and engineering. Mr. Lowell also inaug- 
urated in connection witli the bequest many 
unique educational plans, including courses of 
instruction in science for the teachers of Boston, 
instruction by lectures to workingmen, and the 
Lowell School of Practical Design, established in 
1873. For a furttier account of Mr. Lowell's woik 



LOWELL 

as trustee see " History ot the Lowell Institnto " 
(1898),b;Harriette Eoight Smith. Hr. Lowell 
was twice married : first in Boston, Feb. 14, 1832, 
to SoBan Cabot, daughter of Francis Cabot and 
Hannah (Jaakson) Lowell, who died Aug. 15, 
1827; and secondlj at Salem, Haes., April 2, 
1829, to Elizabeth Cabot, daughter of Judge 
Samuel and Sarah (Oooll) Putnam, and their eon, 
Augustus Lowell, born Jan. 10, 1830, succeeded 
aa trustee of the Lowell Institute. He was a 
fellow of Harvard, 1887-77 ; a member of the 
Linnean society, London, of the Massachusetts 
Eisterical society, and a fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received 
from Harvard the honorary degree of LL.D. in 
18S1. He died in Boston, Mass., Oct. 81, 1861. 

LOWELL. Joaephlna Shaw, humanitarian, 
was born in West Roibury, Mass., Deo. 16, 1843 ; 
daughter of Francis George and Sarah Blake 
(Sturgis) Shaw, and a sister of Col. Robert Gould 
Shaw(q.T.)' In 1891 she went abroad with her 
parents, returning in 1855, when they made 
Staten Island their home. She attended schools 
in New York and Boston. She was married, Oct. 
81, 1863, to Col. Charles Russell Lowell (q.v.). 
She took an active interest in the sanitary com- 
mission during the civil war, and after her hus- 
band's death devoted herself to work for the 
freedmen and to philanthropy and reform. She 
was appointed a member of the New York state 
board of charities by Governor Tilden in 1876, 
and served until 1889, having been reappointed 
by Governors Robinson and Cornell. She was 
one of the founders of the Charity Organization 
society of New York city in 1881. She advocated 
the rights of labor and of labor organizations, and 
became interested in civil service reform and in 
prison reform. In 1890 she was appointed by 
Oovemor Boosevelt a member of the board of 
managers of the New York State Reformatory 
for Women. She is llie author of : Public Belief 
and Private Charity (1884); Induitrial ATbitra- 
iian and Conciiiation (1893), and contributions to 
periodicals. 

LOWELL, Joshua A., representative, was 
born in Thomaston, Maine, March 20, 1801; son of 
Rosiiamus and Deborah (Keen) Lowell ; grandson 
of Reuben and Priscilla (Bartlett) Loivell ; great- 
grandson of Stephen and Miriam (CoUinH) Lowell ; 
g;reat*.gTandaon of Captain Gideon and Miriam 
(Swett) Lowell ; g;reat*-gTandson of Richard and 
Mai^ret Ixiwell, and a descendant in the eighth 
generation of Percival and Rebecca Lowle, 1639. 
His mother was of Scottish ancestry. He acquired 
bis education without help from his father from 
whom he purchased his time in 1810. He was 
admitted to the bar in East Machias, Maine, in 
September, 1826; te the U.S. circuit court In 
1836, and to the U.S. supreme court at Wash- 
VU.— 4 



LOWELL 

ington, B.C., in 1840. He was married in 1637 to 
Miranda Turner of East Machias. He was a 
Democratic representative in the Maine legisla- 
ture in 1831, 133S, 183S and 1887 ; a representative 
from Maine in the 26th and 27th congresses, 
1639-43, and a presidential elector on the Folk 
and Dallas ticket in 1645. He devoted bis leisure 
time to scientific farming. He died in East 
Machias, Maine. March 13, 1678. 

LOWELL, Percival, astronomer, was born 
in Boston, Mass., March 18, 1855 ; son of Augus- 
tus and Eatberine Bigelow (Lawrence) Lowell. 
Be was graduated from Harvard with the degree 
A.B. in 1876. For several years he resided in 
Japan and while there in 1683 was appointed 
seoretary and counsellor to the Corean special 
commission to the United States, the firet eni- 
bassy sent from there to any Occidental power. 
In 1804 he established the Lowell observatory, 
Flagstaff, Ariz. In 1896 this observatory was for 
a time removed to the city of Mexico. He deliv- 
ered before the Lowell Institute six lectures on 
" Japanese Occultism " in 1603-94, and four 
lectures on "The Planet Mars "in 1894-95. He 
was elected a fellow of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences ; a member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 
of the American Philosophical society of Phila- 
delphia and of the American Oriental society. 
He is the author of: Choadn: the Land of the 
Morning Calm (1885) ; The Soul of the Far East 
(1888); Noto : an Uhea^jlored Comer of Japan 
(I80I) ; OccuU Japan, or the Way of the Ood* 
(1895) ; JIfars (1895) ; and scientific papers. 

LOWELL, Robert Traill Spence, clergyman, 
was born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 8, 1816 ; son of 
the Rev. Charles and Harriet Bracket (Spence) 
Lowell. He was pre- 
pared for college at 
Round Hill school, 
Northampton, Mass., 
under Joseph G. 
Cogswell and George 
Bancroft, 1823-28,and 
was graduated from 
Harvard, A.B., 1888, 
A.M., 1636. He stu- 
died medicine at 
Harvard for a time, 
and was employed 
by his brother Chariea 

Eu«ellLo»,ll .l»d. ^^t^XjjC^Jf^ 
ing merchant, in Bob- "^* 

ton, Mass. He com- 
menced the study of theology in 1630, and on 
the invitation of Bishop Spencer of Newfound- 
land, went to Hamilton, Bermuda, where be 
was ordered deacon in 1842. ordained priest in 
1848, and served as domestic chaplain to the 



LOWNDES 

bishop and as inspector of soliools. Be was 
rector at Bay Roberts, Newfoundland, 1648-47. 
Duiiog the famine there in 1646, his medical 
training enabled him to serve as chairman of the 
relief committee of the district and for his eer- 
vice? he received the thanks of the government 
and of the people. He was married OoL 28, 
1815, to Mary Ann, daughter of James and Har- 
riet (Constable) Duane of Duane, N.Y. He 
returned to the United States in 1847, on account 
of failing health, and did mission work among 
the poor in Newark, N.J. He organized Christ 
church, and in 1849-50 built a stone edifice, 
serving as rector, 1850~5S. He was rector of 
Christ church, Duanesburg, N.Y., 1859-69; head 
master of St. Mark's school at Southboro, Mass., 
1869-73, and professor of latin language and 
literature at Union college, Schenectady, N.Y., 
1673-79. He received the degree of D.D. from 
Union in 1864. He is the author of : The New 
Prieatin Conception Bay (2 yala., 1858); Freak 
Hearts that Failed Three Tiiouaand Yeara Ago, 
and other Things (I960) ; POema (1864) ; Antony 
Brade (1874) ; Burgojpie'a March (the poem at the 
SaratogaCentennial celebration at Bemis Heights, 
1677) ;ASloryorTu>ofromaDuttA 3*01^1(1878). 
He died in Schenectady, N.T., Sept. 18, 1891. 

LOWNDES, Arthur, clergyman and author, 
was born in London, England, June 13, 1656. 
He waeeducatedat St. Qermain-en-Laye, France, 
King's College school, and King's college, Ixm- 
don. He came to America in 1860 and entered 
the ministry of the Anglican church, 1864, being 
ordained deacon and 
priest in the cathe- 
dral church , Frederic- 
ton, N.B., by the 
Host Rev. the Metro- 
politan, Dr. John 
Medley. He waa 
rector of Prince Wil- 
liam, 1884-89; in 
charge of Doane 
Hemorfal chapel, 
South Amboy, N.J., 
1889-91 ; rector of 
St. Mark's, Philmont, 
N.Y., 1691-94; ch^>- 
lain of St. Gabriel's 
school, Peekskill, 
N.Y., 1894-98, and became rector of the Church 
of the TransfigUTation, Freeport, N.Y., in 1898. 
He contributed to the American Church Review 
and the Church Edectie, of which latter magazine 
he becameeditorinl900. He received thedegrees 
D.D. from Hobart and LL.D. from Rutherford 
in 1896. He is the author of: Vindication of 
Anglican Orders (2 vols. 1897) . Tliis work was sent 
out to all the bisliope in Christendom not ou-inc; 



LOWNDES 

allegiance to the see of Rome with an encyclical 
printed In English and modern Greek dat«d 
June 34, 1809. This encyclical was the first 
issued in America and the first since the Reform- 
ation, by any Anglican bishops, and was signed 
by the bishops of Long Island, Springfield and. 
Delaware. 

L0WNDB5, CborlM, naval officer, was bom 
in Kent county, Md., in 1796 ; son of Charlee and 
Elizabeth (Llcyd) Lowndes. He entered the 
U.S. navy as a midshipman, March 18, 1815 1 
waa promoted lieutenant, Jan. 13, 1825 ; com- 
mander, Sept. 8, 1841 ; and captain, Sept. 14, 
1655. He commanded the steam sloop Hartford, 
1660-61, and was placed ou the retired list, Dec. 
21, 1861. He was promoted commodore on the 
retired list July 16, 1863, and served as a prize 
commissioner, 1854-65. He was married. May 
24, 1824, to Sally Scott, daughter of Gov. Edward 
and Sally Scott (Murray) Lloyd. Commodore- 
Lowndes died in Easton, Md., Dec. 14, 1885. 

LOWNDES, Lloyd, governor of Maryland, was. 
bom in Clarksburg, Va., Feb. SI, 1645; son of 
JJoyd and Maria Elizabeth (Moore) Lowndes ^ 
grandson of Charles and Elizabeth (Lloyd) ]>>wn- 
des ; and great-grandson of Gov. Edward Lloyd 
and of Christopher Lowndes, whoemigrated from 
England, settling in Bladenahurg, D.C., before the 
national capital waa located at Washington, and 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Got. Benjamin. 
Tasker. Lloyd attended Clarksburg academy, 
studied at Washington college. Pa., 1861-68, and 
was graduated from Allegheny college. Pa., 
with honors in 1865, and from the University of 
Tennessee, LL.B., 1867. He was married in. 
December, 1869, to Elizabeth Tasker Lowndes 
and settled in Cumberland, Md., where his father 
had started in business. He was a Republican 
representative in the 43d congress, 1873-75, hut- 
was defeated for re-election in 18T4 by William 
Walsh. He was elected president of the Second 
National bank of Cumberland, Md., in 1873. He- 
was governor of Maryland. 1S95-S9, and was de- 
feated in 1809 with the entire Republican ticket. 

LOWNDES, Rawlins, president of South Car- 
olina, was born at St. Kitts, Biitish West Indies, 
January, 1721 ; son of Charles and Ruth (Rawlin8> 
Lowndes, and grandson of Charles and Sarah 
Lowndes, and of Henry Rawlins. His father 
settled in Charleston, S-C, in 1730. On his: 
mother's return toSt. Kitts in 1735, he was placed 
in the family of Provost-Marshal Robert HalU 
where he studied law. On Mr. Hall's death in 
1740, the office of provost-marshal was tempomrily 
filled until 1742, when Mr. Lowndes became of 
age and he was appointed to the ofilce and held 
it until 1762. He commenced the practice of law 
in Charleston in 1752, was a member of the South 
Carolina legislature and subsequently speaker ot 



LOWNDES 



LOWNDES 



the house and justice of the quorum. He received 
the appointment of associate judge from the 
crown in 1766, and delivered the first judicial 
opinion in America upon the Stamp Act, May 18, 
1766, declaring it to be against common rights. 
He also refused to enforce the use of the stamped 
paper in his c^urt. He was removed from the 
bench by the governor of the province in 1775, 
but was soon after reinstated and made chief 
justice of South Carolina by the crown. He was 
a member of the Provincial congress of South 
Carolina, and of the committee of safety appointed 
in 1775, and also of the committee of eleven who 
drafted a constitution for the province in 1776. 
South Carolina declared her independence of the 
British crown in March, 1776, John Rutledge was 
elected president of the state and Mr. Lowndes 
became a member of the legislative council. He 
also served as president of South Carolina, 1778- 
79, and participated in the defence of Charleston. 
He subsequently served as a member of the state 
senate from St. Bartholomew's parish, and upon 
the declaration of peace in 1783, was elected a 
representative from Charleston in the state legis- 
lature, serving until the removal of the seat of 
government to Columbia in 1790. In January, 
1788, when the constitution of the United States 
was submitted to the states for adoption he 
strenuously opposed it, objecting principally to 
the restrictions on slavery. He was married, 
Aug. 15, 1748, to Amarinthia, daughter of Thomas 
Elliott of Rantoules, Stono River ; she died Jan. 
14, 1750. He was married secondly, Dec. 28, 
1751, to Mary Cartwrightof Charleston, S.C, and 
thirdly about 1780, to Sarah Jones of Georgia. 
He died in Charleston, S.C, Aug. 24, 1800. 

IjOWNDES* Thomas, representative, was bom 
in Charleston, S.C, Jan. 22, 1766 ; son of Rawlins 
and Mary (Cartwright) Lowndes. He was edu- 
cated for the law and settled in practice in his 
native city. He was a representative in the 
state legislature for several terms and in the 
7th and 8th congresses, 1801-05. He was chair- 
man of the committee on commerce and manu- 
factures. He was married, March 8, 1798, to 
Sarah Bond, daughter of Richard Ion. He retired 
to his plantation near Charleston, S.C, in 1805, 
where he resided up to the time of his death, 
m Charleston, July, 8, 1843. 

L0WNDE5, William, statesman, was born 
in Colleton district, S.C, Feb. 11, 1782 ; son of 
Governor Rawlins and Sarah (Jones) Lowndes. 
He attended a school in London, England. 1789-92, 
where he contracted rheumatic fever that forced 
his return to South Carolina and affected his 
health throughout his life, causing his premature 
death. He continued his studies in South Caro- 
lina at private schools ; entered the office of 
De Saussure & Ford, and was admitt-ed to the 



bar in 1804. He was married in 1802 to Elizabeth 
Brewton, daughter of Gen. Thomas Pinckney, of 
South Carolina. He gave up the practice of law 
after six months, and retired to his plantation 
near Charleston. He wrote a series of papers de- 
fending the proposition that free ships made free 
goods, and his views led to his election as a 
representative in the state legislature, where he 
served, 1806-11. In 1809 on the formation of the 
Washington light infantry of Charleston, S.C, 
he was elected captain of the organization. He 
was elected a representative from the Beaufort 
and Carleton districts to the 12th-17th congresses, 
1811-23, but resigned in 1822, on account of con- 
tinued ill-health. He was chairman of the com- 
mittees on ways and means, 1815-18, coins and 
weights, 1818-19, and foreign affairs, 1819, and 
was a conspicuous advocate of the measures that 
led to the war of 1812. He was chairman of the 
naval committee, 1814, and moved the vote of 
thanks to Commodore Perry and other naval 
heroes and subsequently obtained a pension for 
the widow of Commodore Perry. He opposed 
privateering, devised the sinking fund, favored 
the Missouri compromise and was chairman of 
the committee to report on that measure. In 
the contest over the act of General Jackson in 
executing Arbuthnot and Ambrister, Represen- 
tative Lowndes pursued a conciliatory course and 
gained the title " mediator of the house." His 
retirement caused the regret of the entire con- 
gress, irrespective of political affiliation. At his 
death Mr. Clay pronounced him the wisest man 
he had ever met ; Speaker John W. Taylor, of 
New York, said that had Mr. Lowndes lived he 
would have been President of the United States 
and this belief was largely held both in and out 
of congress; and in after years Mr. Buchanan 
spoke of him in highest praise. He declined im- 
portant cabinet positions and foreign missions 
from Presidents Madison and Monroe, on the 
ground that he was '* of more use to the country " 
in the house of representatives. In 1821 the 
legislature of South Carolina nominated him for 
President by a very large vote, notwithstanding 
that Mr. Calhoun had accepted the nomination 
presented by the legislature of Pennnsylvania, 
and it was on this occasion that Mr. Lowndes 
made his celebrated remark: "The Presidency 
is not an office either to be solicited or declined.** 
He urged his friends to cast the vote of South 
Carolina for Calhoun if the vote of the state 
would nominate him. He visited Europe in 1819 
and on Oct. 21, 1822, sailed from Philadelphia for 
England on the ship Moss, with his wife and 
daughter, hoping to regain his health, but died 
at sea six days later. On learning of his deaths 
congress, notwithstanding he was not a member 
at the time, voted that both houses honor his 



LOWREY 

memory by wearing mourning for thirty days. 
Bee " Life and TtmeH at William Lowndes, of 
South Carolina, 1T83-182S "(1900), by hia grand- 
daughter, Hrs. St. Julien RaTenel. He died at 
tea, Oct. Sf7, 1833. 

LOWRBY, B. a. (no Christian name), educa- 
tor, was born in Kossuth, Miss., May 35, ltJ62; 
son of Oen. Mark Perrin and Sara (Holmes) 
Lowrey, and grandson of Adam and Marguerite 
(Doss) Lowrey. He was prepared for college by 
Capt. T. B. Winston at Blue Mountain academy, 
and was graduated at Mississippi college, B.S., 
1867, A.M., 1890. He also took a special course in 
English at Tulane university, New Orleans, 1888- 
89. He was married July 35, 1889, to Marylee 
Booth. He was professor of English at Blue 
Mountain college, 1690-98, and on the resignation 
of his brother, the Eev. Dr. W. T. Lowrey, in 
1698, he became president of Blue Mountain col- 
lege, Tippah county, Miss. 

LOWRBY, Mark Perrin, soldier, was born in 
HoNairy county, Tenn., Dec. 6, 1826 ; son of 
Adam and Marguerite (Doss) Lowrey. Adam 
Lowrey was of Scotch descent and came from the 
north of Ireland to East Tennessee, early in the 
nineteenth century 
settling at Lowrey 
Ferry in East Tennes- 
see. Mark was a sol- 
dier in the war with 
Mexico, 1847 ;^came 
a Baptist minister, 
and served churches 
in Farmington, Cor- 
inth, Bienzi, Ripley, 
and other north Mis- 
sissippi points, 1853- 
61. He married Sarah 
Holme and resided 
j^ ^ J at Meadow Creek, 

captain in and then 
colonel of the Sd Mississippi regiment, enlisted 
for sixty days, his regiment going direct to 
Bowling Green, Ky., where they were dis- 
banded. He then raised the S3d Mississippi 
regiment for the war and was commissioned its 
colonel. He took part in Bragg's invasion of 
Kentucky and was severely wounded at Perry- 
ville, Oct. 8, 1863, where he led his regiment in 
Wood's brigade, Buckner's division. At Chick- 
amauga, Sept. 19-30, 1868. he commanded Oen. 
S. A. H. Wood's brigade, Cleburne's division. 
Hill's corps, as senior colonel in command of the 
8Sd and 45th Mississippi ; and after the battle, 
whenOeneral Wood resigned, he was given com- 
mand of the brigade in recognition of his 
gallantry. He covered the retreat of the Con- 
federate army into Georgia notably at Ringgold 



LOWRIE 

Gap, Not. 37, 1863, and when Cleburne succeeded 
to the command of Hardee's corps he became 
commander of Cleburne's division. At the battle 
of Franklin, Nov. 30,1864. when General Cleburne 
was killed, General Lowrey succeeded to the 
command of the division, and soon after, when 
Gen. John C.Brown was severely wounded, he was 
transferred to the command of Cheatham's divi- 
sion, which be led in the battle of Nashville, Dec. 
15-16, 1864, after the battle covering the retreat 
of the Confederate army. During his service in 
the army, General Lowrey preached regularly to 
the soldiers, and on one occasion baptized up- 
wards of forty soldiers, going into the water in 
his major-general's uniform. At the close of the 
war he resumed his missionary duties, and re- 
organized the Baptist churches throughout the 
state. He edited the Mississippi department in 
the Baptist. Memphis, and contributed to the 
Ckrittiaii Index, Ho founded the Blue Mountain 
Female college in 1873, and was its president, 
1873-85, when ho iva.t succeeded by his son, 
William T^ndale Lowrey (q. v.). He refused 
political office when urged to stand as candidate 
for U.S. senator, for representative in congress 
and for governor of the state. While president of 
the college, he wasaotive pastor of the churches at 
Blue Mountain and at Ripley ; for ten years was 
president of the Mississippi Baptist state conven- 
tion, and was a trustee of the University of 
Mississippi, 1873-76. Ho received the honorary 
degree of D.D. from Mississippi college- He 
died suddenly, surrounded by a company of his 
pupils, in the waiting-room of the railroad depot, 
Middleton. Tenn.. Feb. 37. 1885. 

LOWREY, William Tyndale, educator, was 
bom at Meadow Creek, Miss., March 3, 1866 ; son 
of Gen. Mark Perrin and Sara (Holmes) Lowrey, 
and grandson of Adam and Marguerite (Doss) Low- 
rey. He prepared forcoUege at the Blue Mountain 
academy; was graduated from Mississippi college, 
A.B., 1881, A.M., 1884; attended the Southern 
Baptist Theological seminary, 1881-85. and was 
president of the Female college. Blue Mountain, 
Miss., 1885-98. He was married, Sept. 1, 1886, to 
Theodoaia, daughter of the Rev. James Bryant 
Searcy, D.D., of Biloii. Miss. In July, 1898, ho 
accepted the presidency of Mississippi college. 
Clinton, Miss. 

LOWRIE, John Cameron, clergyman, was 
bom in Butler, Pa., Dec, 16. 1808 ; son of Senator 
Walter and Amelia (McPherrin) Lowrie. and 
grandson of John and Catherine (Cameron) 
liowrie, who were born and married in Scotland, 
and came to America with their son, Walter, In 
1793. John C, Lowrie was graduated from Jeffer- 
son college. Canonsburg. Pa., in 1839 ; studied at 
the Western Theological seminary, Allegheny. 
Pa., 1839-83 ; was licensed to preach by the pree- 



LOWRIE 



LOWRIE 



bytery of Ohio, June 21, 1832 ; stadied at Prince- 
ton Theological seminary, 1882-83, and was or- 
dained by the presbytery of New Castle, May 23, 
1833. He was sent out by the Western Foreign 
Missionary society as a missionary to Northern 
India in 1888, and returned in 1886 on account of 
failing health. He was married in 1888 to Louisa, 
daughter of Thomas Wilson, of Morgantown, Va., 
who died in India, and secondly in 1888 to Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Samuel Boyd, of New York 
city. He was assistant secretary of the Presby- 
terian Board of Foreign Missions, 1888-^, corre- 
sponding secretary, 1850-91, and secretary em- 
eritus, 1891-1900. He was pastor of the 42d Street 
Presbyterian church. New York city, 1845-60, and 
moderator of the general assembly of the Presby- 
terian church in 1865. He received the degree of 
D.D. from Miami university, Ohio, in 1858. He 
edited the Foreign Missionary Chronicle (188&- 
49); the Foreign Record (1850-53, and 1861-86), 
and the Foreign Missionary (1842-65). He con- 
tributed articles and sermons to the Princeton 
RemeWf and is the author of : Travels in North 
India (1841), reissued as Two Years in Upper 
India (1850); A Manual of the Foreign Missions 
of the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America (1855); Missionary Papers (1882); 
Presbyterian Missions (1898); and Memoirs of 
Hon. Walter Lowrie (1896). He died at East 
Orange, N. J., May 81, 1900. 

LOWRIE* John Marsliall, clergyman, was 
bom in Pittsburg, Pa., July 16, 1817 ; son of Mat- 
thew and Sarah (Anderson) Lowrie, and nephew 
of Senator Walter Lowrie (q.v.). He was gradu- 
ated from Lafayette college in 1840, and from 
Princeton Theological seminary in 1843. He was 
licensed to preach by the Newton presbytery, 
April 27, 1842, and was ordained at Blairstown, 
N.J., Oct. 18, 1843. He was pastor at Blairs- 
town and Knowlton, N.J., 1843-45 ; at Wellsville, 
Ohio, 1846-50 ; at Lancaster, Ohio, 1850-56, and 
at Fort Wayne, 1856-67. He received the degree 
of D.D. from Miami university in 1858. He is 
the author of: Adam and His Times (1862); 
Esther and Her Times (1862); The Hebrew Law 
Oiver (1866); A Week with Jesus (1866); The 
Trandated Prophet (1868); Tlie Prophet Elijah 
(1869); The Life of David (1869); and a tract en- 
titled : The Christian in the Church (1879). He 
died at Fort Wayne, Ind., Sept. 26, 1867. 

LOWRIE* Jonathan Roberts, lawyer and 
botanist, was bom in Butler, Pa., March 16, 
1828; son of Walter and Amelia (McPherrin) 
Lowrie. He was graduated from Jefferson col- 
lege in 1842, and studied law with his cousin, 
Walter Hoge Lowrie (q.v.). He practised at 
Holidaysburg, Pa., 1846-54, and at Warrior's 
Mark, Pa., in 1854-^. He devoted much time to 
the study of botany and to the cultivation of an 



arboretum on his estate. He made a large colleo- 
tion of rare plants and discovered one new species, 
Prunus AUeghaniensiSf and others new to the 
state of Pennsylvania. He was married, Feb. 15, 
1848, to Mary, daughter of John Lyon, and after 
her death to Matilda, daughter of the Rev. Dr. 
Nassau. He served as a ruling elder in the Pres- 
byterian church for several years. He died at 
Warriorsraark, Pa., Dec. 10, 1885. 

LOWRIE* Randolph Washington* clergyman, 
was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, Jan. 26, 1889 ; son 
of William Frederick and Margaret Elizabeth 
(Sheriff) Lowrie, and g^randson of Levi and 
Matilda (Wilson) Sheriff. His father, a native 
of Nottinghamshire, England, emigrated to Amer- 
ica in 1828. He attended Bladensburg academy, 
Md., and studied law, but abandoned it for the 
ministry in 1861. He was admitted to the diaco- 
nate in 1863, and was ordained priest in 1865, at 
Baltimore, Md. ; was curate in St. A 1 ban's and 
the Ascension parishes, Washington, D.C., 1868- 
65 ; rector of the Church of Incarnation, Wash- 
ington, 1865-71 ; of St. Paul's, Winona, Minn., 
1878-78 ; curate of a parish in Prince (George's 
county, diocese of Washington, 1885-91, co- 
editor for some years of the Church Press, New 
York city, and literary editor on several other 
corps. He received the honorary degree of M.A. 
from Trinity college, Hartford, in 1885, and that 
of D.D. from St. John's college, Annapolis, in 
1898. He is the author of : History of the English 
Church (1874-80); How to Behave in the Parish 
(1881); The English Church for American Chil- 
dren (1888); Openly before the Church (1884), 
and many poems, among them. The Bock of 
Israel (1875), and Ship of My Soul. He fur- 
nished articles for Johnson*s Universal CyclO' 
pcedia ; also contributed to various American 
periodicals, and wrote many carols, poems, songs 
and hymns. 

LOWRIE* Reuben Post, teacher and mission- 
ary, was bom in Butler, Pa., Nov. 24, 1827; 
son of Walter and Amelia (McPherrin) Lowrie. 
He was graduated from the University of the 
City of New York in 1846, and from Princeton 
Theological seminary in 1849. He was princi- 
pal of an academy at Wyoming, Pa., 1849-51 ; 
assistant professor of the Greek and Latin lan- 
guages and literature in the University of the 
City of New York, 1851-52, and during the vaca- 
tions of 1851-52, a teacher in the Spencer academy 
of the Choctaw Indian mission. He was or- 
dained an evangelist by the presbytery of 
Luzerne, Pa., March 22, 1854. He was married, 
March 29, 1854, to Amelia Palmer, daughter of 
James N. Tuttle, and she accompanied him to 
Shanghai, China, on his missionary duties in 
1854. He spent the remainder of his life there, 
and devoted himself to the study of the Chinese 



LOWRIE 



LOWRIE 



language. He translated the shorter catechism, 
a catecixism of the Old Testament history, and a 
commentary on St. Matthew*s gospel, into the 
Shanghai colloquial dialect. He also devoted 
himself to the completion of a Dictionary of the 
Four Books whicli had been begun by his brother, 
the Rev. Walter Macon Lowrie (q. v.). He died 
in Slianghai, China, April 26, 1860. 

LOWRIB, Samuel Thompson, clergyman, 
was born in Pittsburg, Pa., Feb. 8, 1835 ; son of 
Walter H. and Rachel A. (Thompson) Lowrie ; 
grandson of Mathew B. and Sarah (Anderson) 
Lowrie, and of Samuel and Mary (Parke) Thomp- 
son, and a descendant of John and Catherine 
(Cameron) Lowrie. John Lowrie (born in Scot- 
land, Sept. 20, 1751) came with his family to the 
United States in 1793, and settled in Butler 
county. Pa. Mathew B. Lowrie was born May 
12, 1778, in Scotland, came to the United States 
with his father, spent most of liis life in Pitts- 
burg, Pa., and was an older brother of Walter 
Lowrie (q. v.). Samuel T. Lowrie was graduated 
from Miami university, A.B., 1852, A.M., 1854 ; 
from the Western Theological seminary in 1856, 
and was licensed the same year by the presbytery 
of Ohio ; studied at the University of Heidel- 
berg, 18.'>6-57, and at the University of Berlin in 
1883. He was ordained by the presbytery of 
Huntingdon in 1858, and was pastor of Presbyte- 
rian churches at Alexandria, Pa., 1858-63 ; Phila- 
delpliia. Pa., 1865-69 ; Abington, Pa., 1869-74 ; 
Ewing, N.J., 1879-85, and co-pastor of Wylie 
Memorial church at Philadelphia, Pa., 1891-96. 
He W.IS professor of New Testament literature 
and exegesis at the Western Theological seminary, 
Allegheny, Pa., 1874-78, and was chaplain of the 
Presbyterian hospital at Philadelphia, 1886-89. 
In 1893 he became corresponding secretary of the 
Presbyterian Historical society, and in 1893 was 
elected a director of the Princeton Theological 
seminary. He was married Sept. 6, 1860, to 
Sarah A. Hague, who died March 6, 1862, and 
secondly March 5, 1867, to Elizabeth A., daughter 
of the Rev. H. S. Dickson, of West Chester, Pa. 
The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred upon 
him by Washington and Jefferson college in 
1875. He was the principal translator of the 
commentary on Isaiah and Numbers in tlie 
Lange-Schaff Bible work, and is author of : An 
Explanation of the Epistle to the Hebretcs (1884) ; 
Tlie Lord's Supper (1888); and translator of 
Beyond tlie Sea ( 1 885 ) . 

LOWRIE, Walter, senator, was born in Edin- 
burgli, Scotland, Dec. 10, 1784 ; son of John and 
Catherine (Cameron) Lowrie. He came to the 
United States with his parents in 1792. They 
settled first on a farm in Huntingdon county. 
Pa., and later removed to Butler county. He 
was prepared for tiie ministry by the Rev. John 



McPherrin, the first Presbyterian minister in 
Butler county, but took up the study of law and 
entered political life. He was married in 1808 to 
Amelia, daughter of the Rev. John McPherrin. 
She died in 1832, and he married, secondly, in 
1833, Mary K., daugliter of Joshua Childs, of 
Springfield, Mass. He was a state senator from 
Butler county, 1811-18, and U.S. senator, 1819-25. 
During his senatorial term he was regarded as an 
authority on questions of political history >.and 
constitutional law. He was secretary of the 
U.S. senate, 1825-36 ; corresponding secretary of 
the Western Foreign Missionary society, 1836-37, 
and of the Presbyterian board of foreign missions, 
1837-68. He was one of the founders of the Con- 
gressional prayer-meeting and the Congressional 
temperance society, and was for many years a 
member of the executive committee of the 
American Colonization society. He died in New 
York city, Dec. 14, 1868. 

LOWRIE, Walter Hoge, jurist, was born in 
Armstrong county. Pa., March 81, 1807 ; son of 
Matthew and Sarah (Anderson) Lowrie. He was 
graduated from the Western University of Penn- 
svlvania in 1826, and was admitted to the bar, 
Aug. 4, 1829. He established himself in practice 
in Pittsburg, Pa., and was judge of the district 
court of Allegheny county, 1846-51 ; justice of 
the supreme court of Pennsylvania, 1851-57, and 
chief justice, 1857-63. He resumed practice in 
Pittsburg, Pa., in 1863, and later became presi- 
dent judge of the court of common pleas of 
Crawford county, which position he retained 
until his death. He was ruling elder in the 
Second Presbyterian church, Pittsburg, Pa,, for 
many years ; was a trustee of the W^estem Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, 1851-55, and received the 
degree of LL.D. from Washington college. Pa., in 
1852. He contributed to the Princeton Repertory 
and other periodicals, and his published communi- 
cations to the American Philosophical society 
include Origin of Tides, and Cosmical Motion, 
Many of his judicial opinions were also printed. 
He died in Meadville, Pa., Nov. 14, 1876. 

LOWRIE, Walter Macon, missionary, was 
bom in Butler, Pa., Feb. 18, 1819; son of Wal- 
ter and Amelia (McPherrin) Lowrie. He was 
graduated from Jefferson college in 1837, and 
from Princeton Theological seminaiy in 1840 ; 
and was ordained evangelist by the second 
Presbytery of New York, Nov. 9, 1841. He was 
sent as a foreign missionary to Macao, China, by 
the second presbytery of New York in January, 
1842, and after three years of labor at this sta- 
tion, he removed in 1845 to Ningpo. He made a 
journey to the city of Shanghai in the summer of 
1847 to attend a conference of missionaries, and 
on his return voyage his vessel was attacked by 
pirates and he was thrown overboard. He was 



LOWRT 

unmarried. He is the author of : The Land of 
Sinai, or an Es^xmUon of Imiah XLIX, IS 
(I860); SemtonM Preached in Cftina (1861). His 
Metnoir was edited bj his father and published 
in 1840. He died in the China eea, Aug. 19, 1847. 
LOWRV, Joseph Edmond, educator, was bom 
in Uonroe county, Teiin., May 11, 1868; son of 
Hugh Ktilso and Isabella (Cook) Lowry, and 
grandson o( William and Nancy (Kelso) Lowry 
and of Jacob and Mary (Shields) Cook. He at- 
tended the High school in Loudon, Tenn., and was 
graduated from Hiwassee college, A.D., 1886, 
A.M., 1889. He was admitted to the Holston con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal church south, 
Oct. 3, 1888, and served charges in MaynardviUe, 
£nosville. Louisrillo, Madisonville, and Philadel- 
phia, Tenn. Ha was married July IB, 1802, to 
Mary Cordelia Ault of Knoiville, Tenn. On May 
20. 1808, he was elected president of Hiwassee 
colli>geand was re-elected to that office May 21, 
1900. 

LOWRV. Robert, representative, was bom in 
Ireland in 18S2. Hb parents immigrated to the 
United States and located in Rochester, N.Y., 
where he attended the public schools. He was 
librarian of the Rochester Athentenm and Young 
Men's C/hristian Association ; studied law, and in 
1843 removed to Fort Wayne, Ind. He was city 
recorder of Fort Wayne in 1844, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1845. and settled in practice in Oo- 
ahen. Ind., in 1846. He was appointed judge of 
the 10th circuit in 1853 to fill out an unexpired 
term ; was the defeated candidate on the Demo- 
cratic ticket for repreuentative in the 35th con- 
- gress in 1856 ; was president of the Democratic 
state convention that year, and one of the four 
delegatee-at- large to the Democratic national 
Convention at Charleston, April 23 and Balti- 
more, June 18. 1860. He practised law in 
Chicago, III., 1861-62 ; was judge of the 10th 
Tn ^^i^^ Tll^ circuit, 1864-75 ; was the defeated candi- 
date for representative in the 40Ch congress in 
1866 and again in 1868, and settled in practice 
in Fort Wayne in 1867. He resigned, and 
was a delegate-at-large to the Democratic 
national convention at Baltimore, July 9, 18T3 ; 
and in 18TS resigned his circuit judgeship 
and became a member of the law firm of 
Lcwry, Robertson & O'Rourke. He was judge 
of the newly established superior court of Allen 
county. 1877-82 ; was first president of the State 
Bar association in 1879, and was a represent- 
ative from the 13th Indiana district in the 
48th and 49th congresses, 1883-87, where he was 
chairman of the house commission to investigate 
and report concerning the reorganisation of the 
several scientific bureaus of the govemmeut, and 
of the committee on expenditures in the treasury 
department. 



LOWRY 

LOWRY, Robert, clergyman and song writer, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 12,1826; 
son of Crozier Lowry. Hia parents were mem- 
bers of (he Associate Presbyterian church. He 
joined the Baptist church April 28, 1843. and began 
Sunday-school work. He was graduated at Buck- 
nell university with valedictory honors, A.B., 
1864, A.M., 1867 ; was pastor of the First Baptist 
church, Westchester, Pa., 1854-58; the Bloom- 
ingdale Baptist church, New York city, 1858- 
61 ; the Hanson Place Baptist church, Brooklyn, 
N.Y., 1861-69 ; was Crozer professor of rhetoric, 
Bucknell university, and pastor of the Lewisburg 
Baptist church, 1869-76 ; curator of Bucknell 
university, 1876-82, and chancellor of the board, 
187fr-83. He removed to Plainfield, N.J., in 1875, 
and WHS the first pastor of tlie 1 lii k Avenue Bap- 
tist church, 1676-85, He made the tour of 
Europe twice, and in 1880 was a speaker at the 
Rol)ert Raikes centennial in London, England. 
He was twice elected moderator of the East New 
Jersey Baptist association ; was for several years 
president of the New Jersey Baptist Sunday, 
school convention, and a member of the New Jer- 
sey Baptist Education society. He received the 
honorary degree of D.D. from Bucknell in 1876. 
He edited eighteen collections of hymns for 
church choirs and Sunday schools, and his com- 
positions are in all the popular hymnals. He is 
the author of numerous well known gospel hymns, 
including: Shall We Gather at the River; I Need 
Thee Every Hour ; WJiere is My Wandering Boy ■ 
all Immediately popular in America and Eng- 
land. He died in Plainfleld, N.J., Nov. 26, 1800. 

LOWRV, Robert, governor of Mississippi, was 
bom in Chesterfield district, S.G., March 10, 
1820 ; son of Robert and Jemima (RuahiDg) Lowry, 
and grandson of 
Job n and Temperance 
(Rushing) Lowry. He 
received a country 
school education, be- 
came a lawyer and 
practised in Brandon, 
Rankin county, Miss., 
where he volunteered 
in 1861 as a private 
in 0>. B. eth Missis- 
sippi infantry, for 
service in the Con- 
federate army. When 
the regiment was 
organized he was 
elected major, and 



t^ ^^ eC-u^ 



the regiment was stationed at Bowling Green, 
Ky., and formed part of Oen. A. S. Johnston's 
army of the Mississippi. At the battle of 
Shiloh (Pittehurg Landing). April 8-7. 1862, 
the 6th regiment, which was part of Oen. P. 



1 



LOY 



LOZIER 



B. Cleburne's brigade, Gren. W. J. Hardee's 
oorps, lost more in killed and wounded accord- 
ing to numbers than any other regiment on 
either side. In the first day's fight Major Lowry 
was wounded. On the reorganization of the 
regiment he was elected colonel, and he com- 
manded the regiment at the battle of Corinth, 
Dec. 3-4, 1862 ; in the Vicksburg campaign, in- 
cluding Port Gibson, April 80-May 1, 1863 ; at 
Jackson, May 14, 1863, and Baker's Creek or 
Champion Hills, May 16, 1863 ; throughout the 
Qeorgia campaign in Adamsls brigade, Loring's 
division, Johnston's army, being for a time in 
command of Featherstone's brigade ; at Frank- 
lin, Tenn., Nov. 80, 1864, where he succeeded to 
the command of Adams's brigade when that 
officer was killed, and he soon thereafter was ap- 
I)ointed brigadier-general ; at Nashville, Dec. 15- 
16, 1864, where he led the brigade ; and in the 
Carolina campaign, where he siirrendered with 
Johnston's army, April 26, 1865. He then re- 
sumed the practice of law at Brandon ; served in 
both branches of the state legislature, and was ap- 
pointed with Col. Giles M. Hillyer a commissioner 
to visit President Johnson in 1866 in behalf of 
Jefferson Davis, and he visited Davis during his 
confinement in Fort Monroe. He was governor 
of Mississippi, 1882-90, and president of the 
boards of trustees of the University of Missis- 
sippi, the Agricultural and Mechanical college at 
Starkviile, and the Industrial Institute and Col- 
lege for the Education of White Girls, Columbus. 
LOY, riatthias, educator, was born in Cumber- 
land county, Pa., March 17, 1828 ; son of Matthias 
andChristina (Reaves) Loy. His father came from 
Germany in 1817. He was graduated from the 
Lutheran Theological seminary, Columbus, Ohio, 
in 1849, and received the degree of A.M. in 1852. 
He was married Dec. 25, 1853, to May, daughter 
of Henry Willey of Delaware, Ohio. He was 
pastor of the Lutheran church of Delaware, Ohio, 
1849-65. In 1865 he became professor in the 
Theological seminary and in Capital university, 
Columbus, Ohio, and in 1881 he was elected 
president of Capital university and subse- 
quently of the Theological seminary. In 1860 
he was elected president of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Synod of Ohio and other states and con- 
tinued in that office by repeated re-election until 
1892. He received the degree of D.D. from 
Muhlenberg college in 1887. He edited the 
Lutheran Standard ^ 1864-90, was editor-in-chief of 
the Columbus Theological Magazine^ 1881-87, and 
edited a translation of Luther's '* House Postil" 
(3 vols. , 1874-84) . He is author of : The Doctrine 
of Justification (1862) ; Life of Luther, transla- 
tion (1869) ; Essay on the Ministerial Office 
(1870) ; Sermons on the Oospels (1887) ; Christian 
Prayer (1890) ; The Church (1897). 




LX>YALL, L. Qeors:e» representative, bom in 
Norfolk, Va., May 29, 1789 ; son of George and 
Sarah ( Willoughby) Loyall, and grandson of Paul 
Loyall, whose wife was Frances Newton, daugh- 
ter of George and Alphea (Wilson) Newton. 
He was graduated from the College of William 
and Mary in 1808. He was a representative in 
the Virginia legislature, 1817-27 ; a delegate to 
the state constitutional convention in 1829, and a 
representative from Virginia in the 2l8t congress, 
as successful contestant for the seat of Thomas 
Newton. He served in the 2l8t congress from 
March 9, 1880, and in the 23d and 24thcongresse8» 
1833-37. He was navy agent at Norfolk, Va., 
almost continuously, 1837-61. He died in Nor- 
folk, Va., Feb. 24, 1868. 

LOYZANCE, Joseph flarie Rene, educator, 
was born in the parish of St. Ouen des AUeux, 
Rennes, France, March 12, 1820. He studied the 
classics and theology at Rennes, and was or- 
dained a secular priest. On Dec. 3, 1849, he was 
received into the Society of 
Jesus at Vannes, and in 1852 
was sent to New York city 
and assigned to the College 
of St. Francis Xavier, of 
which he was made president 
in 1863, and held the position 
until 1870 when he went to 
Canada as treasurer of St. Mary's college, Mon- 
treal. He was afterward superior of Manresa 
institute, a house of retreat, Keyser Island, 
South Norwalk, Conn. He died at Holy Cross 
college, Worcester, Mass., Feb. 23, 1897. 

LOZIER, Clemence Sophia, physician, was 
born in Plainfield, N. J., Dec. 11, 1812 ; daughter 
of David Hamed. She was married in 1829 to 
Abraham W. Lozier of New York, and their son, 
Dr. Abraham W. Lozier, married Charlotte Irene 
Denman, who became a well-known physician. 
She conducted a school in the city of New York, 
1887-48, during her husband's protracted illness. 
She became a member of the Moral Reform 
society, and after her husband's death attended 
lectures at the Rochester Eclectic Medical college ; 
and was graduated M.D. from the Syracuse Medi- 
cal college in 1853. She engaged in the practice 
of medicine in New York city and rose to promi - 
nence as a surgeon for women. She gave a series 
of lectures on medical subjects in her parlors in 
1860, which resulted in organizing and establish- 
ing in 1863 the New York Medical college and 
hospital for women of which she was the dean of 
the faculty and clinical professor of the diseases 
of women and children. She was also president 
of the New York City Woman Suffrage society 
and of the National Woman Suffi-age society, and 
a member of philanthropic and reform societies. 
She died in New York city, April 26, 1888. 



LUBBOCK 



LUCAS 




.'^xf^ 




>P-£. 



LUBBOCK* Francis Rlchardt fcoyernor of 
l^zas, was bom in Beaufort, S.C., Oct. 16, 1815 ; 
son of Dr. Henry Thomas Willis and Susan 
(Saltus) Lubbock and grandson of Captain Rich- 
ard and Diana Sophie (Sandwich) Lubbock and 

of Captain Francis 
Saltus of Port Royal, 
S.C. Both grand- 
fathers were English. 
He was employed as 
a clerk at Charleston, 
182^-32, and at Ham- 
burg, S.C, 1832-84; 
and engaged in the 
drug business in New 
Orleans, La., in 1834. 
He was married Feb. 
5, 1835, to Adele 
Baron, a French Cre- 
ole. In January, 1837, 
he settled in Houston, 
Texas, and was one 
of the first to build a home there. He was 
clerk of the congress of the Republic of Texas, 
1837-38; comptroller, 1838; and adjutant in 
the Texan army in the protection of the fron- 
tier, 1830. He removed to Austin, the new seat 
of government, where he was comptroller in 
1841, and district clerk of Harris county, 1841-56. 
He was secretary of the first Democratic state con- 
vention, 1845, and a Democratic presidential elec- 
tor in 1856. He was lieutenant-governor of Texas, 
1857-59 ; was a delegate to the Charleston and Bal- 
timore Democratic national conventions in 1860 
and governor of Texas, 1861-63. During his term 
he aided the Confederate States in its struggle for 
independence. He refused re-nomination in 1863, 
and entered the Confederate army as lieutenant- 
colonel and assistant adjutant-general in the 
Trana-Mississippi department, commanded by 
Gen. E. Kirby Smith. He served with Gen. John 
A. Wharton, commanding the entire cavalry in 
the Red river campaign until its close, when he 
was appointed to the staff of President Davis with 
the rank of colonel of cavalry in July, 1864. He 
went to Richmond, Va., with President Davis, and 
was captured with his chief and imprisoned in 
Fort Monroe, and was removed to Fort Delaware, 
where he remained in solitary confinement nearly 
eight months. He returned to Houston, Texas, 
in December, 1865, engaged in business in 1867 at 
Gkilveston, and established a beef -packing house at 
Anahuac. He was tax-collector at Galveston, 
1873-76; president of the New York and Texas Beef 
Preserving company, 1874-75; was treasurer of 
Texas, 1878-00, and during his office improved 
the financial standing of the state. He was a 
member of the board of pardon advisers and of 
the Confederate home. His first wife died in 



1882 and in 1888 he was man*ied to Mrs. Sarah 
Elizabeth (Black) Porter, daugliter of the Hon. 
James Augustus and Elizabeth Sarah (Logan) 
Black, and widow of the Rev. Dr. A. A. Porter, a 
Presbyterian dargyman. See Six Decades in Texaa, 
or Memoirs of Francis Richard Lubbock (1000). 

LUCAS, Daniel Bedlnger, jurist, was bom in 
Charlestown, Va., March 16, 1836 ; son of William 
and Virginia (Bedinger) Lucas, and descended 
from Robert Lucas, General Assembly of 
Pennsylvania, 1683. He graduated from the 
University of Virginia in 1856, and from 
the law department of Washington college, 
Lexington, in 1858. He practised in Charles- 
town, 1858-40, and in Richmond, 1860-41. In 
1861 he was appointed on the Staff of Gen. Henry 
A. Wise, and at the close of the war returned to 
Charlestown and resumed the practice of law. 
He was married, Oct. 7, 1860, to Lena T., daugh- 
ter of Henry L. Brooke, of Richmond, Va. He 
was a presidential elector on the Grant ticket in 
1872, on the Tilden ticket in 1876, on the Cleve- 
land ticket in 1884, and on the Bryan ticket in 
.1806, and was a representative in the West Vir- 
ginia legislature, 1884-86. In March, 1887, on 
the failure of the legislature to elect a U.S. sena- 
tor as successor to J. M. Camden, Gov. E. Willis 
Wilson appointed Mr. Lucas to the vacancy, and 
in 1888, when the legislature elected Charles J. 
Faulkner to complete the term. Governor Wilson 
appointed him president of the supreme court of 
appeals of West Virginia, and he held the office 
until 1803, when he returned to his practice. He 
received the degree of LL.D. from the University 
of West Virginia in 1888. He is the author of : 
Memoir of John Yates Bell (1865) ; The Wreath of 
Eglantine and other Poenis (1860); The Maid of 
Northumberland (1870); Ballads and Madrigals 
(1884); Nicaragua and the Filibusters (ISSi^). 

LUCAS, John Baptiste Charles, representa- 
tive, was bom in Normandy, France, in 1762. He 
was graduated from the University of Caen, 
D.C.L., in 1782, and practised law in France. In 
1784 he settled on a farm near Pittsburg, Pa. 
He was a representative in the state legislature, 
1702-08; judge of the court of common pleas^ 
1704-1802, and a representative in the 8th con- 
gress, 1803-05. He was re-elected to the 0th con- 
gress in 1804, but resigned in 1805 before taking 
his seat in order to accept the appointment of 
judge of the U.S. district court for the Territory 
of Louisiana from President Jefferson. He re- 
moved to St. Louis, the capital, and the name of 
the territory was changed to Missouri in 1812 on 
the admission of Louisiana as a state. He also 
served as a member of the commission for the 
adjustment of land titles, 1805-12, and continued 
on the bench of the U.S. district court until 1820. 
He died in St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 8, 1842. 



LUCAS 

LUCAS, Roben, governor of Iowa Territoir, 
waa born at Shepherd stowa. Vs., April 1, 1781 ; 
son of Capt. William (of the B«volutianarj 
arinj) and Siuannah Luoas, and a descendant of 
William Fenit. He was taught mathemAticu and 
surveying, and re- 
moved with hia pa- 
rents in 1800 to Ports- 
mouth, Scioto county, 
Oliio. He was ap- 
pointed county sur- 
veyor in 1808 and 
justice of the pcaoe 
for the town of Union 
in 1805. He was com- 
missioned lieutenant 
ia the state militia 
by Oovernor TiflSn in 
1303, and was pro- 
moted through the 
successive grades to 
that of major-gen- 
eral in 1818. He was appointed captain in 
the regular army, March 14, 1812, and waa as- 
signed to the 10th infantry, July 6, 1812. He 
served on the frontier against the Indians and in 
Canada against the British, escaping capture at 
the surrender of General Hull to the British on 
Aug. 10, 18IS. He returned to Ohio, resigned bis 
commission as captain io the regular army, Jan. 
3, 1818. and wasoffered the commission of lieuten- 
ant-colonel, Feb. 30, 1818, and that of colonel, 
subsequently, but declined both commissions. 
He was married, April 8, 1810, to Elizabeth 
Brown, who died Oct. 18, 1813, and secondly, on 
March T, 1816, to Friendly A. Sumner, a native 
of Vermont. He served as state representative, 
1808-09 and 1831-33, and aa State senator for four- 
teen terms, 1814-30 ; and was speaker of thesenate, 
1839-30. He presided over the first Democratic 
national convention at Baltimore, May 21, 1832. 
He resided in Piketon, Pike county, 1816-38 ; was 
a presidential elector-at-largeon the Jackson and 
Calhoun ticket in 1828, and governor of Ohio, 1S33- 
a«. He removed to Iowa Territory in 1838, having 
been appointed territorial governor by President 
Van Buren. During his term he succeeded in 
settling the boundary line controversy between 
Missouri and Iowa, organized the public-school 
system, and enforced the law against the sale of 
intoxicating liquors. He settled on his farm near 
Iowa City in 1841 and was a member of the first 
state constitutional convention in 1846. He died 
in Iowa City, Iowa, Feb. 7, 1858. 

LUCAS, Thomaa Jobn, soldier, was bom in 
Lawrenceburg, Ind,, Sept. 8, 1826; son of 
Frederick and Letitfa (Netherby) Lucas. Hia 
father, a native of Rennes, France, was edu- 
cated for the priesthood, but became a soldier 



LUCAS 

under Napoleon and immigrated to the United 
States in 1S16, where he learned the trade of 
watch-making and worked at his trade in Balti- 
more, Md., Marietta and Cincinnati, Ohio, and 
at Lawrenceburg, Ind., where be married and 
established his home. 
Thomas learned the 
trade of watch-mak- 
er, and in 1817 he 
enlisted in the 4th 
Indiana volunteers as 
drummer boy, and 
the next day was 
made 2d lieutenant 
of the company, and 
while in service in 
Mexico was promot- 
ed 1st lieutenant and 
adjutant. He re- 
sumed his trade in ^ ^ '^ a 
1818. In 1861 he C^^' -^^*«-*-* 
raised a company 

of volunteers, was chosen captain, joined the 
16th Indiana regiment, was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel, and distinguished himself at Ball's Bluff, 
Va., where he covered the retreat of the defeated 
federal army. On Aug. 19, 1863, he was chosen 
colonel of the regiment, which re-enlisted for 
three years or during the war. He engaged in 
the battle of ]{iohmond, Ky., Aug. 28, 1862, and 
his regiment, after a loss of 200 men, was com- 
pletely routed, escaped to Lexington, Ky.,Bnd 
was sent to Indianapolis, Ind., and furlougbed. 
The regiment was reorganized, embarked for 
Memphis, Tenn., Nov. 23, 1862, at which tinie 
the officers presented Colonel Lucas with asword, 
and in December joined Grant's array at Vicka- 
bui'g. being assigned to the lat brigade, 10th di- 
vision, 13th army corps. He served at Weiaburg, 
where his regiment ccvered the retreat from 
Chickasaw swamp, and at Arkansas Post, where 
his command made a charge and was the first to 
gain entrance to the fortification a He was 
slightly wounded three times, on account of 
which he went home on furlough, June 10, 1868. 
On liis return in August, 1863. he was assigned 
to the command of the post of Venn illionvi lie. 
La., and was placed at the head of a cavalry 
brigade, including his own regiment, mounted, 
Oct. 34, 1863. He served in the Red River expe- 
dition, commanding the 1st brigade of Gen. A. 
L. Lee's cavalry division, first in the advanceand 
next in covering the retreat of Banks's army at 
Alexandria, and led the advance to the Missis- 
sippi in 1864. He was promoted brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, Nov. 10, 1861, and commanded 
his brigade of cavalry in the operations around 
Mobile, defeated the Confederates at Claiborne, 
and led raids into western Florida, southern 



LUCE 

Georgia and Alabama. He was brevetted major- 
general of volunteers, March S6, 1866, and after 
ilia brigade had been mustered out was ordered 
to New Orleans bj General Sherman, wliere he 
served until the affairs of the French in Mexico 
were settled, and he returned to Law re nee burg, 
Ind., in January. 1866. He was employed in the 
U.S. revenue service, 18T5-81 ; waa poatmaater of 
Lawrenceburg, 1881-85, and waa an unHuccessful 
candidate for representative in congress on the 
Republican ticket in 1886. 

LUCE, Allc« Hanaon, educator, was born in 
Winthrop, Maine. June 24, 1861 ; daughter of 
George Qorman and Hannah Jane (Carr) Luce, 
and granddaughter of Oorham and Sabrina (Joy) 
Luoe and of Daniel and Patience (Noyes) Carr. 
She attended the Edivard Little high school at 
Auburn, Maine, and wa.i graduated from Welles- 
ley college, B.A., 1883. She was a teacher at 
the Putnam, Conn., high school, 1883-84 ; tiie 
Wellesley high school, 183M<j ; the Oirls' Latin 
school, Boston, Mass., 1885-93 ; studied in Leipzig 
university, 1993-95, and was regularly matricu- 
lated at Heidelburg university, in 1895. She was 
tlie first American woman to receive the doctor's 
degree from the pitilosophical faculty of Hei- 
delberg university, it being conferred on her in 
1696. She was teacher in the English depart- 
ment of Smith college. 1896-97 ; in the depart- 
ment of English literature at Wellesley college, 
1897-1900, and was appointed dean of women and 
full profeaior of English literature at Oberlin 
college. April 14. tOOO. Slie is the author of : 
The Countega of Pembroke'i Antonio " (I8&7), her 
inaugural dissertation presented to the philoao- 
p'lical faculty at Heidelberg, for the degree of 
Ph.D. 

LUCE, Cyras Qray, governor of Michigan. 
wa.s barn in Windsor. Ohio, July 8, 1824 ; son of 
Walter an I Mary (Gray) Luce ; grandson of 
Cyrus Gray, whose ancestors canie from England 
and settle 1 near Winchester, Va., about 1T50, and 
of Joshu.i Luce who settled in Tolland, ConL., 
c&rly in 1700, liis ancestors being early settlers in 
3fartlui's Vineyard. Mas-i., about 1050. His 
father, a native of Tolland, Conn., was a soldier 
in the war of 1813 and at its close went to Ashta- 
bula county, Ohio, where lie married Mary Gray, 
a Virginian. Tiiey removed to iSteubeii county, 
Ind., in 18S6 witli tlieir six boys, and cultivated a 
farm amid the hardships of frontier life. Cyrus 
attended tlie log schoolhouse ; the Northeastern 
Indiana Collegiate institute for one year; was 
-employed in a wool-carding and cloth- dressing 
e!)tablishment, 1842-48 ; purchased land in Gilend, 
Mich .in 1848, and after 1849 engaged in farming. 
He was supervisor of the town of Gileod for 
twelve years ; representative in the state legisla- 
ture, 1854-56 ; treasurer of Branch county, 1858- 



LUCE 

62 ; state senator, 1865-69 ; state oil inspector, 
1877-88 ; and governor of Michigan, 1887-91. He 
was married, Aug. 20, 1849, to Julia A. Dickin- 
eon, a native of Amherst, Mass., who removed to 
Gilead, Ind., in 1836, and died Aug. IS, 1862, and 
secondly Nov. 8, 1883, to Mrs. Mary E. Thomp- 
son, of Branson, Mich. 

LUCB, Stephen Bleecker, naval officer, was 
born in Albany, N.Y., March 25, 1827 ; son of 
Vinaland Charlotte (Bleecker) Luce ; grandson of 
Cornelius and Olive (Foster) Luce, and a descend- 
ant of Jan Jansszen Bleecker, Albany, 1658. He 
was appointed a mid- 
sliipnian in the U.S. 
navy, Oct, 19, 1841 ; 
was promoted passed 
midshipman, April 1, 
1848 ; circumnavi- 
gated the globe in the 
Columbus, 74, Com- 
modore James Bid- 
die, 1845-48, visiting 
Japan ; served on the 
coast of California 
during the Mexican 
war, 1846-47 ; was 

attached to the aa- y /^ ^ ■ — v 
tronomical partly un- ^ ^oL-^TWfCl^.^ 
der Lieut. James M. 

Qilliss in December, I6SS. and to the U.S. coast 
survey, 1854-57. He was married Dec. 7, 1(^54, to 
Eliza, daugliter of Commodore John Dandridge 
Henley, U.S N. He was promoted lieutenant, 
Sept. 16. 1855 ; was assistant instructor at the 
U.S. Naval academy, 1860-61 ; third lieutenant 
of the "Wahath. flagship, attached to the blo<-k- 
ading squadron off the COBst of South Carolina, 
1861, and participated in the battle of Port Royal, 
Nov. 18, 1861. He was ordered to the naval 
academy at Newport, R.I., Jan. 10. 1862, was 
commissioned lieutenant-commander. July 16, 
1863 ; took command of the practice sliip JUbce- 
dontuu on a European cruise. June 1, 1868 ; 
commanded the Nantackft. Sonoma, CanaTtdaigua 
and Prnttiac of the North Atlantic blockading 
squadron, 1868-65, and during this time engaged 
with the Confederate fi)rt'j Sumter, Moultrie 
and Battery Marshall. He reported to Generiil 
Slierman at Savannah, Ga.. for duty in connec- 
tion with the army, Deceml)er. 1864, and with 
the Fontiac he guarded tlie pontoon bridge at 
Sister's Ferry on the Savannah, while General 
Slocum's division crossed into South Carolina. 
He was ordered to the naval academy at Anna- 
polis, Md., in September, 1865; relieved Com- , 
modore Fairfax as commandant of midshipmen 
in October, 1865 ; was commissioned as com- 
mander. July 35, 1866 ; commanded the practice 
squadrons of the naval academy, the Mohongo, 



LUCKEY 



LUDLOW 



of the Pacific squadron, and the Juniata of the 
Mediterranean squadron, 186&-72 ; was equip- 
ment officer at the Boston navy yard, 1871^-75 ; 
was commissioned captain, Dec. 28, 1872 ; com- 
manded the Hartford, flagship of the North 
Atlantic squadron, in November, 1875 ; was in- 
spector of training ships, 1877-78 ; commanded 
the U.S. training-ship Minnesota, 1878-81 ; and 
the U.S. naval training squadron, 1881-84 ; was 
commissioned commodore, Nov. 25, 1881, and 
served as president of the commission on the sale 
of navy yards in 1882. He was ordered to the 
command of the North Atlantic squadron as act- 
ing rear-admiral, July 26, 1884, and was made 
president of the U.S. Naval War college. Coaster's 
Harbor Island, R.I., Sept. 20, 1884. He was pro- 
moted rear-admiral, Oct. 5, 1885, commanded the 
naval forces of the North Atlantic station, 1886-80, 
and was placed on the retired list, March 25, 1889. 
He was appointed conmiissioner-general to the 
Ck)lumbian Historical exposition at Madrid in 
1893. On March 1, 1898, the Queen Regent of 
Spain conferred on him the Grand Cross of Naval 
Merit with the white distinctive mark, for serv- 
ices as delegate to the exposition. On June 1, 
1901, he was appointed a member of the board of 
visitors to the U.S. Naval academy. He was an 
associate editor of Johnson's Universal CyclopsB- 
dia ; naval editor of the Standard Dictionary, and 
is the author of Seamanship (1868), used as a 
text-book at U.S. Naval academy, and editor of 
Naval Songs (1888). 

LUCKEY* 5amuelt educator, was bom in Rens- 
selaerville, N.Y., April 4, 1791. He became a 
Methodist itinerant preacher in Ottawa, Canada, 
1811, and served the Oneida conference, N.Y., 
1812-21. He was president of the Grenesee Wes- 
ley an seminary, 1822-26; was stationed at New 
Haven, Brooklyn and Albany, and served as 
presiding elder of the New Haven district. New 
York East conference, 1826-36 ; was editor of the 
publications of the Methodist publishing society. 
New York city, 1836-40 ; presiding elder of the 
Rochester, N.Y., circuit, 1842-69, during which 
time he was chaplain of the Monroe county peni- 
tentiary nine years and regent of the University 
of the State of New York, 1847-69. He received 
the honorary degree of A.M. from Union in 
1824. He is the author of : Treaties on the Sacra- 
ment (1859) ; Hymns and Lessons for Children, and 
sermons. He died in Rochester, N.Y., Oct. 11, 1869. 

LUDDEN, Patrick Anthonyt Roman Catholic 
bishop, was born near Castlebar, county Mayo, 
Ireland, Feb. 4, 1836. He was educated at St. 
Jarlath*s college, Tuam, Ireland, and in 1854 
came to the United States. He completed his 
education in the Grand seminary at Montreal, 
Canada, where he was ordained priest, May 21, 
1864, by Mgr. Ignatius Bourget. He was rector 



of the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, 
Albany, N.Y., and secretary and chancellor to 
Bishop Conroy; pastor of St. Joseph's church, 
Malone, N.Y., and vicar-general of the diocese of 
Albany, 1877-80 ; pastor of St. Peter's church, 
Troy, N.Y., 1880-87, and was consecrated the 
first bishop of the newly formed diocese of Syra- 
cuse, N.Y., May 1, 1887, by Archbishop Corrigan, 
assisted by Bishops Loughlin and McNiemy. He 
held his first diocesan synod, Oct. 4, 1887. He 
was present at the oecumenical council at Rome 
in 1869, and was the theologian to the Bishop of 
Albany at the plenary council of Baltimore. He 
is the author of: Church Property (1882). 

LUDINQTDNy Harrison, governor of Wiscon- 
sin, was bom in Kent, Putnam county, N. Y., July 
31, 1812 ; son of Frederick and Susannah (Grif- 
feth) Ludington ; grandson of Col. Henry and 
Abigail (Ludington) Ludington, and of Joshua 
and Charity (Scofield) Griffeth ; and a descendant 
of William Luding^n, who settled at Charles- 
town, Mass., 1632, and died at the East Havc-n 
Iron Works, Conn., 1662-3. He received a com- 
mon-school education, and in 1838 removed to 
Milwaukee, Wis., where he engaged in general 
merchandising, and from 1841 in the lumber busi- 
ness. He was elected an alderman of the city of 
Milwaukee for two terms ; was mayor, 1872-74 
and 1875-76, and governor of Wisconsin, 1876-78. 
He died in Milwaukee, Wis., June 17, 1891. 

LUDLOWy Beii]aiiiin Chambers* soldier, was^ 
bom at Ludlow Station, Hamilton county, Ohio, 
in 1831. He was a student at Carey's academy,. 
College Hill, Ohio, and at Kenyon college, and 
was graduated from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, M.D., in 1854. He practised in New York 
city in 1854, in California in 1855, in Mexico, 
185&-59, and in Cincinnati, Ohio, 1859-61. He 
raised a troop of cavalry in 1861, and offered hia 
mounted men to the government, but both Sec- 
retary Cameron and Qeneral Scott considered the 
four regular cavalry regiments all the mounted 
troops required and he went to St. Louis, Mo., 
and offered his services to General Fremont. He 
was commissioned 1st lieutenant and afterward 
captain of the **Fr6mont Hussars." They 
marched to southwestern Missouri under General 
Curtis in February, 1862, and the hussars were 
consolidated with the 5th Missouri cavalry in the 
autumn of 1862, and Ludlow was made major of 
the new organization. He was ordered to the 
army of the Potomac as aide-de-camp to Major- 
General Hooker in December, 1862, and was on 
his staff until Hooker was relieved by General 
Meade, when he became inspector of artillery on 
Meade*s staff and served in the campaign of the* 
Army of the Potomac from June, 1863, to Feb- 
ruary, 1864. He was appointed chief of cavalry 
of the Department of Virginia and North Caro- 



LUDLOW 

lina under Oen, B. F. Butler in February, 1864, 
and in 1864 ccmmanded the troops and the work- 
ing party employed in cutting the Dutch Gap 
canal on the James river. Re was brevetted 
brigadier>general for gallant and meritorious 
services at Dutch Gap and at Spring Hill, Va., 
Oct. 28, 1864, and commanded the Jamee and 
York river defences, with headquarters at Fort 
Hagruder mitil the surrender of Lee, after 
which he commanded the Eastern district of Vir- 
ginia, with headquari^ers at WiHiamsburg until he 
resigned from the army in the autumn of 1863. 
He then resumed the practiceof medicine in Cin- 
cinnati. Ohio, and removed to California in 1685. 
His sister, Sara Bella Dunlap Ludlow, married 
Chief-JuHtice Salmon P. Cfaaae. He died in Los 
Angeloa, Cal., Jan. 10, 1898. 

LUDLOW, FKz Hugh, author, was bom in 
New York city, Sept. 11, 1836; son of the Kev. 
Henry G. Ludlow. He was prepai'ed for col- 
lege at Poughkeepeie, N.Y., and was graduated at 
Union college in 1856. He studied law in the 
office of William Curtis Hoyes, New York city, 
1858-60, and supported himself by editing Vanity 
Fair. He was admitted to the bar in 1859 but 
after 1860 devoted himself entirely to literature. 
He was employed on the editorial ittafts of the 
World and Commercial Advertiger, 1860-61 ; 
waa dramatic and musical critic of the Evening 
Post and of the Home Journal, 1861-62, and 
visited California and Oregon in 1B63, making his 
journey over the course subsequently adopted by 
the Pacifto railroad. He dramatized " Cinder- 
ella" and coaohed a troop of children to act it for 
the benefit of the U.S. Sanitary Fair in 1864 and 
visited Europe for his health in 1870. He is the 
author of: Apocalypse of Haaheeth (ISSS); T?ie 
Hatheeah Eater (1857) ; Due South (1861), being 
a series of letters from Florida published in the 
Commercial Advertiser; Biographical Sketch of 
John Nelion Pattiton (1863); Through Ticket to 
San-PranciKO : A Prophecy ( 1864) ; Little Brother 
and oifier Genre Pictures (1867); What shall they 
do to he Saved f (1807), published as The Opium 
Habit (1808); The Heart of the Continent (1870), 
and a number of poems and stories. He died in 
Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 12, 1870. 

LUDLOW, Qeorge Craig, governor of New 
Jersey, was born in Milford. Hunterdon county, 
N.J., April 6, 1830; son of Cornelius and Julia 
Ann (Disborough) Ludlow, and grandson of Oen. 
Benjamin Ludlow of Long Hill, MoriLj county, 
N.J. His father removed to New Brunswick, 
N.J.,in 1835, and he was graduated from Rutgers 
coll^^, A.B., 1850, A.M., 1853. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1853, and practised in New Bruns- 
wick, N.J., serving as counsel for that city and 
for eeveral large corporations. He married, 
Sept. 28, 1838, Hary Elizabeth, daughter of Bobert 



LUDLOW 

Horris Goodwin of Savannah, Oa. He at one tima 
served on the board of chosen freeholders of 
Middlesex county, and was president of the New 
Brunswick board of education. He was senator 
from Middlesex county in 
the state legislature, 1876-79, 
and was president of the i 
senate in 1879. He was elected h 
governor of New Jersey by IS 
the Democratic party, serving \ 
1881-84, was a delegate to the 
constitutional convention of 

1894, and wus appointed a justice of the supreme 
courtofNew Jei-Eey, June 13,1895, succeeding 
Alfred Reed, his term to expire in 1902. He re- 
ceived the honorary degree of LL.D. from Rut- 
gers college. New Brunswick, in 1895. He died 
in New Burnswick, N.J., Dec. 18, 1900. 

LUDLOW, Jamea Meeker, clergyman, was 
born in Elizabeth, N.J., March 15, 1841 ; son of 
Ezra and Mary (Crane) Ludlow ; grandson of Jo- 
seph Ludlow, and a descendant of William Lud- 
low of Connecticut and Southampton colony, who 
came from Shropshire, England, in 1640. He 
was graduated from the College of New Jersey, 
A.B., 1861, A.M., 1864, from the Princeton Theo- 
logical seminary in 1864, and was ordained by 
the presbytery of Albany, Jan. 18, 1865. He 
was married, July 5, 1865, to Emma, daughter 
of David Orr. He was pastor of the First Pres- 
byterian church, Albany, N.Y.. 1864-68, and 
of the Collegiate Reformed ohurch of New York 
city, 1868-77, and during his pastorate there, 
a new church edifice was built on Fifth ave- 
nue at a cost of nearly 1900,000. He was pastor 
of Westminster church, Brooklyn, N.Y,, 1877- 
85, and of the First Presbyterian church, E^t 
Orange, N.J., from 1886. In 1886 he declined 
the presidency of Marietta college, Ohio. He 
received the degree of D.D. from Williams 
college in 1S7S and that of L.H.D. from the 
College of New Jersey in 1890. He Is the 
authorof: A Man for a' That {19»3); Concentric 
Chart of History (1885); Captain of the Jani- 
zaries (1886); A King of Tyre (1891); Tliat 
Angelic Woman, (1892) ; The Baritone's Parisii 
{I8m): The Age of the Crusades (1897); and 
Delyorah (1901). 

LUDLOW, .tallies Ryley, jurist, was born in 
Albany, N.Y., May 3, 1835 ; son of the Bev. Dr. 
John and Catlyntje Van Slyck (Ryley) Ludlow. 
He was graduated at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, A.B., 184S, A.M., 1846. He was admitted 
to the Philadelphia bar in 1846 : was judge of 
the court of common pleas, 1857-75, and pre- 
siding judge, 1875-86. He was a trustee of Jeffer 
son Medical college ; a member of the American 
Philosophical society, 1884, and the Historical 
society of Pennsylvania. He received the bon- 



LUDLOW 



LUDLOW 



orary degree of LL.D. from Rutgers college and 
from the University of PenDsylvania in 1870. 
He married Henrietta Francis, daughter of Jabez 
Lovett of New York. He was joint editor of 
Adani8 on Equity (1852). Richard Vaux pre- 
pared a memorial of his life. He died in Phila- 
delphia, Pa.. Sept. 20, 1886. 

LUDLOW, John, educator, was bom in Ao- 
quackanonck, N.J., Dec. 13, 1793; grandson of 
Richard Ludlow, a major in the American army 
during the Revolution, and grand nephew of 
Judge George Duncan and Col. Gabriel G. Lud- 
low, sons of Gabriel Ludlow who came from 
Holland to America in 1699 and settled on Long 
Island opposite New Amsterdam. John Ludlow 
was graduated at Union college, N.Y., in 1814 
and from the New Brunswick Theological sem- 
inary, N.J., 1817. He was tutor at Union college, 
1815-16 ; minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, 
New Brunswick, N.J., 1817-28. He was married 
about 1817 to Catlyntje Van Slyck Ryley of New 
Brunswick. He was professor of Biblical litera- 
ture and ecclesiastical history in the Theological 
seminary, 1819-23 ; minister of the Dutch Re- 
formed church, Albany, N.Y., 1823-34; provost 
of the University of Pennsylvania, 1835-58, and 
professor of ecclesiastical history and church 
government, New Brunswick Theological semi- 
nary, 1854-57. He received the honorary degree 
of D.D. from Union in 1827 and that of LL.D. 
elsewhere. His sons, James Ryley (q.v.), John 
Livingston and Richard, were graduated of the 
University of Philadelphia. He died at the home 
of his son. Dr. John Livingston Ludlow, in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Sept. 8, 1857. 

LUDLOW, Nicoll, naval officer, was bom at 
"Riverside," Islip, Long Island, N.Y., Sept. 11, 
1842 ; son of William Handy and Frances Louisa 
(Nicoll) Ludlow, grandson of Ezra and Rachel 
(Saguine) Ludlow and of William Nicoll of 
Nicoll's Patent, Long Island, and his wife Sarah 
Greenly, and a descendant of Roger Ludlow, born 
1590, in Wiltshire, England, who landed at Nan- 
tasket, Mass., 1630, and was lieutenant-governor 
of Massachusetts under Endicott, and of Rhode 
Island under Roger Williams. Nicoll Ludlow 
entered the U.S. Naval academy, Oct. 28, 1859, 
and was ordered into active service and pro. 
moted ensign, Oct. 1, 1863 ; was attached to the 
steam-sloop Wachusett, of the Brazil squadron, 
1863-65 ; to the Monadnock on her passage from 
New York to San Francisco in 1866, and was pro- 
moted master, Nov. 10, 1866. He served on the 
Iroquois of the Asiatic squadron, 1866-70, was 
promoted lieutenant, Feb. 21, 1867, and lieuten- 
ant-commander, March 12, 1868, and was an in- 
structor in gunnery at the U.S. Naval academy, 
1870-73. He served on the Monongahda and the 
Brooklyn of the South Atlantic station, 1873-76 ; 




on torpedo duty, 1876-77 ; on the Trenton^ flag- 
ship of the European station, 1877-80, and re- 
turned to the United States on the Constellation, 
He was ordnance inspector at the West Point 
foundry and South Boston iron works, 1881-82 ; 
was promoted com- 
mander, Oct. 1, 1881, 
and served on duty at 
the Midvale Steel 
works, Philadelphia, 
Pa., 1882-83. He com- 
manded the Quin- 
nebaug on the Euro- 
pean station, 1883-86 ; 
was light-house in- 
spector, 12th district, 
1887-90 ; inspector of 
ordnance at Mare 
Island navy yard, 

California, 1890-91 ; . , /* /A 

light-house inspector, *7tl£!&{Jl, QOUXWuf^ 
9th district, 1891-92, 

and in command of the Mohican of the Pacifio 
squadron, January to November, 1898, serv- 
ing as senior officer in command of the Ber- 
ing sea squadron during that time. In 1894 
he was on leave of absence. He was promoted 
captain, May 21, 1895 ; served on duty at the war 
college in 1895, and commanded the Monterey, 
1896 ; was ordered to the Terror of the North At- 
lantic squadron, July 8, 1897, and commanded 
that monitor in the war with Spain up to Sept. 
22, 1898, when he was transferred to the com- 
mand of the Massachusetts, which he held until 
June, 1899. He was promoted rear-admiral, Nov. 
1, 1899, and retired on his own application after 
forty years' service. He was married. May 12 • 
1870, to Frances Mary, daughter of Dr. Daniel 
Thomas, of Bloomfield, N.J., and secondly, Feb. 
15, 1897, to Mrs. Mary (McLean) Bugher, daugh- 
ter of Washington McLean, of Cincinnati, Ohio. 
LUDLOW, William, soldier, was bom at 
"Riverside ", Islip, Long Island, N.Y., Nov. 27, 
1843 ; son of William Handy and Frances Louisa 
(Nicoll) Ludlow. He was graduated at the U.S. 
Military academy and promoted 1st lieutenant ia 
the corps of engineers, June 13, 1864. He served 
as chief engineer of the 20th army corps in the 
Georgia campaign, July to September, 1864. He 
had charge of the construction of defences at 
Rome, Ga., October and November, 1864, and waa 
chief engineer of the army in Georgia from No- 
vember, 1864, to March, 1865. He was brevet ted 
captain, July 20, 1864, and major, Dec. 21, 1864, 
for meritorious services in the defence of Alla- 
toona Pass, Ga., and in the campaign through 
Georgia. He was assistant engineer on the staff 
of General Sherman in the "March to the Sea" 
and through the Carolinas, and was engaged vcl 



LUDLOW 

the battles of Averygboro and Bentonville, in the 
occupation of Ooldsboro, and in the capture 
of Haleigh, N.C. He was brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel, U.S.A., March 13, 1865, for meritorioua 
conduct in the campaign in the Carollnas ; raised 
and commanded a 
company of engineers 
at JeSerHon barrack::, 
Mo., 1865-66; com- 
manded the depot and 
company at Jefferson 
barracks, 1866-67 : 
was promoted cap- 
tain, March 7, 1867 ; 
served as assistant 
engineer under Major 
Gillmore, 1867-72 ; as 
chief engineer of the 
department of Da- 
. , kota. 1873-70 ; as as- 

^A^Ac«~v%. ^£^.i0Lia„,j-. sistant engineer to 
Lieutenant - Colonel 
EurtE, 1876-77 ; assistant engineer under Colo- 
nel Macomb, 1877-81 ; in charge of Delaware 
river and harbor improvements and works of de- 
fence, 18St-82. and was promoted major, June SO, 
1882. He was engineer aeoretary of the lights 
house board, 1882-83 ; chief engineer of the Phila- 
delphia water department bj authority of con- 
gress, 1883-86 ; engineer commiBsioner of the 
District of Columbia, 1886-88 ; engineer of the 
4th light-housediatrict, March to December, 1888; 
in charge of river and harbor work in western 
Michigan and engineer of the (*th and 11th light- 
house districts, 1888-98 ; military attache of 
the U.S. embassy at London, England, 1898-96, 
and president of U.S. Nicaragua canal commis- 
sion in 1895. He was promoted lieutenant-colo- 
nel of the corps of engineers, Aug. 13, 18G5, as- 
signed to the command of the lighthouse depot 
and had charge of the river and liarbor work of 
New York harbor. He was commissioned briga- 
dier-general of volunteers. May 4, 1698, and as- 
sig^ned to the staS of the commanding general as 
engineer-in-chief of the armies in the field, and 
on June 29, 1898, was assigned to the command 
of the lat brigade, 2d division, 5th army corps, 
under General Shaft«r, and served in the Santiago 
campaign, where he was promoted major-general 
of volunteers, Sept. 7, 181)8. He was made presi- 
dent of the board to establish the military trans- 
port service ; then assigned to the command of a 
division with head-quarters at Columbus, Ga. He 
was appointed military governor of the city of 
Havana, Dec. 13, 1898, and on April 13, 1899, he 
was honorably discharged from the volunteer 
service, and the same day was commissioned 
brigadier-general, U.S. volunteers. He was pro- 
looted brigadier-general in the U.S. army, January 



LOEBS 

21, and vacated his oommiBsion as lieutenant- 
colonel, corps of engineers, Jan. 29, 1900. He 
left Havana in February to become president 
of the board of officers appointed to consider the 
establishment of a war collie for the army, and 
he visited France and Germany in the interests 
of this project. In April, 1901, he was ordered to 
the Philippines to command the departnient of 
the Visayas but was compelled to return immedi- 
ately on sick-leave. He was married in 186ft 
to Genevieve A. Sprigg, of St. Louis, Mo. He 
was elected to membership in many scientific 
societies in Aniericaand abroad. He is the author 
of : Explorations of the Black HilU and Yellote- 
stone Country; Report of tl^e U.S. Nicaragua 
Canal Commieaion, and several annual and special 
reports. He died at Convent, N. J., Aug. 30,1901, 
LUERS, John Henry, B.C. bishop, wasbornat 
Leutton, Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, Germany, 
Sept. 29, 1819. He came to the United States 
with his parents in January, 1888, and settled on 
a farm in Piqua, Ohio. He was a clerk in a store, 
and in 188.5 the bish- 
op of Cincinnati per- 
suaded liim to study 
for the priesthood, 
and he was ordained 
by Bishop Purcell 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Nov. 11, 1846, He 
was pastor of St. 
Joseph's church, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, 1845- 
57, and completed 
the churoh building, 
cleared the parish 
from debt and built 
several schools. The 
diocese of Fort 
Wayne, Tnd., was established Sept. 23, 1SS7, and on 
Jan. 10, 1858, he was consecrated bishop of Fort 
Wayne by Archbishop Puvcell. assisted by Bishops 
St. Palais and Carrell. He built the cathedral and 
many churches, and held a synod in 1868 at the 
University of Notre Dame, where statutes were 
enacted that resulted in the abolition of the sys- 
tem of lay trustees. He visited Some in 1884, 
and was authorized to make a distinct and sep- 
arate society of the "Sisters of the HolyCrosn" 
in the Unite^il States, and he founded St. Ignatius' 
academy at Lafayette, Ind.. and also ejitablished 
the "Sisters of tlie Most Precious Blood" and 
placed them in charge of St. tlarj''s Home, Dick, 
Jay county, Ind. He erected an asylum for sol- 
diers' orphans at Rensselaer, Ind., in 1868. and 
also built a hospital within his diocese. He or- 
ganized the Catholic Clerical Benevolent associa- 
tion for pensioning aged priests, anil attended all 
the provincial councils of Cincinnati and the 



J^sC^ 



LULL 

plenMT oounoU of Baltimore, Hd., in 1860. He 
died of apoplexy, having just finished oonferring 
holy orders, at Cleveland, Ohio, June 29, 1671. 

LULL, Edward Phelps, naval officer, was bom 
in Windsor, Vt., Feb. 20, 1886. Hia father died, 
and his mother, with a large family of children, 
removed to Wisoonsin when he was a child and 
obtained for him in I8S1 an appointment to the 
U.S. Naval academy. He was graduated, June 8, 
1865; was attached to the Congre»», Mediterra- 
nean squadron, 185S-58, and was assistant fenc- 
ing master and profeaaor of ethics at the Naval 
academy, 185&-d0. He was promoted passed mid- 
shipman, April 15, 1858 ; master, Nov. 4, 1858, and 
lieutenant, Oct. 30, 1860. He waaattachedtothe 
Roanoke of the home squadron, 1861, taking part 
in the engagement with the forts at Hatteras In- 
'-* ^-ly 10, 1881. 
eived pro- 

comman- 
ly 16, 1862, 

nt of tnid- 

i oflBcer of 
.8. Naval 
" ~ - - - - aoaaemy, New- 

port, R.I., 1862-63 ; and was attached to 
the Brooklyn, Capt. James Alden, West Gulf 
blockading squadron, 1864. He participated 
in the passage of the forts in Mobile Bay 
and the engagement with the Confederate 
gunboats, August 5, the bombardment of Fort 
Morgan, August 14, and commanded the cap- 
tured iron-clad Tennettee at the second bom- 
bardment of Fort Morgan. Aug. 33, 1884. He 
subsequently commanded the Seminole in the 
blockade at Galveston, Texas ; the iron-clad La- 
fayette in the Bed River blockade, 1865, and the 
steamer Suxttara on the West India station in 
1866, and waa at the Naval academy at Annapolis, 
1867-69. He was promoted commander, June 10, 
1870 ; commanded the store-ship Guard, 1871 ; 
served in the bureau of Yards and Docks in 1872, 
and on the Nicaragua survey expedition, 1872-73. 
He served at Torpedo station, and was a member 
of the interoueanic ship-canal commission, 1878- 
74, and had oharge of a speoial survey of the 
Panama canal route, 1874-75. He was hydro- 
graphic inspector of coast survey, 1675-60 ; was 
promoted captain in 1681, and was in command 
of the Penaacola navy yard at the time of his 
death. He received the honorary degree ot A.M. 
from the College of New Jersey in 1868. He died 
at the navy yard. Pensacola, Fla.. March 5, 1687. 
LUMMI5, Charles Fletcher, author and 
journalist, was bcirn in Lynn. Muss., March 1, 
18.5B; w)M of the Rev. Dr. H^my und Harriet 



LUMPKIN 

(Fowler) Lummis ; and grandson of William 
tiummis and of Oscar F. Fowler. He was edu- 
cated at home, and at Harvard in the class of 
1881, leaving college with brain fever three days 
before the completion of bis course. In 1882 he 

removed to Chilli- 

cotbe, Ohio, where 
he edited the Scioto 
Qatette. In 1884 he 
walked from Cincin- 
nati to Loe Angeles, 
Cal., by a roundabout 
route, for adventure 
and observation, cov- 
ering 3507 miles in 
143 days. He was 
city editor of the Loa 
Angeles Daily TimeM 
three years, and its 

correspondent in the ^hcA 7»««h*m«>iC^ 
Apache war of 1886. ^ 

being the only news- 
paper man in the Held. He was selected by 
General Lawton as chief of scouts for the cam- 
paign which captured Geronimo, but was re- 
called by the reorganization of the Times, ot 
which he became one of the owners. Stricken by 
paralysis in 1868, he recovered his health in New 
Mexico, living Ave years in the Indian pueblo of 
Isleta, studying intimately the Indian customa 
and languages of the territories and travelling on 
horseback and on foot over the whole of the 
southwest. He thus explored practically the 
whole continent from Canada to Chile, and be- 
camea recognined authority on Spanish- American 
history and ethnology. He edited and conducted 
after 1893 the Land of Sunshine. " a magazine of 
the west," issued monthly at Los Angeles, and 
largely devoted to the publication of old historical 
documents. His books, mostly on Spanish-Amer- 
ican themes, include : A A'eio Mexico David 
(1891); A Tramp across the Continent (1898); 
SoTne Strange Comers of Oar Country (1893); 
ITie Land of Poco Tiempo (1893); The Spanish 
Pioneers (1894); Ths Man Who Married the 
Moon, and other Pueblo Indian FdUe-Storie* 
(1894); The Gotd-Fish of Gran Chimu (1896); 
The ETichanted Burro (1897); The King of the 
Broncos (1897); The Awakening of a Nation, 
Mexico of To^ay (1898). He is also the author 
of contributions to the leading periodicals and in 
1901 had in preparation critical editions of Bena- 
vides's "Memorial of New Mexico in 1630," and 
Villagran's " Conquest of New Mexico in 1598," 
and an econoniio and historical study of Cali- 

LUMPKIN, John Henry, jurist, was bom in 
Oglethorpe county, Ga., June 13, 1812; sou of 
George and Sarah (Pope) Lumpkin ; grandson of 



LUMPKIN 

John and Luo^ (Hopson) Lumpkin, and of Henrr 
Pope at Oglethorpe countv, Oa. He was reared 
on his father's farm, and assisted John Lan- 
drum, clerk of oourt of Oglethorpe county for 
one year. He attended Franklin college. Uni- 
versity of Georgia, 183»-30, Yale college, 1830-!t3, 
when an epidemic of yellow fever broke up the 
class and he returned to Georgia. He served as 
secretary on the staff of hia uncle, Gov. Wilson 
Lumpkin, 1832-33, and studied law with his 
nude, Joseph Henry Lumpkin, 1833-34. He was 
admitted to the bar in March, 1834. and settled 
in practice at Borne, Floyd county, Ga. He was 
a representative in the state legislature in 1835, 
where he secured an appropriation of |10,000 to 
build academies in the Cherokee country. He 
was solicitor-general of the Cherokee circuit, 
1839-43 ; Democratic representative in the 28th, 
2Sth and 30th congresses. 1843-49, and in the 84th 
congreas, 1855-57 ; and judge of the Cherokee 
circuit court, 1848-^3. He was the Democratic 
candidate for governor in 1837, but was defeated 
by Joseph E. Brown. He was appointed a dele- 
gate to the Southern Commercial convention at 
Montgomery, Ala., in 1858, by Governor Brows, 
and was a delegate at large to the Democratic 
national convention held at Charleston, S. C, 
April 23, and at Richmond, June 21, 1860, and to 
the state Democratic convention in June, 1860. 
He was married in February, 183S, to Martha 
Antoinette, daughter of Robert M'Oomhs, of Mil- 
ledgeville, Ga. She died inSeptember, 1838, leav- 
ing one son. He married secondly in May, 1840, 
Mary Jane, daughter of Thomas CrutchAeld, of 
Athens. Oa. He died at Rome, Oa., June 6, 1860. 
LUMPKIN, Joseph Henry, jurist, was burn 
in Oglethorpe county, Ga., Deo. 28, 1799 ; son of 
John and Lucy (Hopson) Lumpkin, natives of 
Virginia, who settled in Oglethorpe when the 
country was a wilderness ; and a descendant of 
English settlers in Virginia. He entered the 
junior class at Nassau Hall, College of New Jer- 
sey, in 1817, and was graduated in 1819. He 
studied law at Athens, Ga., under Judge Cobb, 
was admitted to the bar in October, 1820, and 
practised at Lexington, Ga., for nearly twenty- 
four years. He represented Oglethorpe county 
in the Georgia legishiture in 1824 and 1825. He 
visited Europe, 1844-45, and in 184S, during his 
absence, he was elected chief justice of the newly 
organized supreme court for the correction of 
«rror8, which office he held until his death, He 
organised the Phi Eappa society at the University 
of Georgia about 1819-20, declined the professor- 
ahip of rhetoric and oratory there in 1846. and hy 
his exertions and those of Gen. T. R. R, Cobb, 
and W. H. Hull, established the Lumpkin law 
school as the law department of the University 
of Georgia in 1859, the school being named in his 
VU.— 3 



LUMPKIN 

honor. Ho was the first to occupy the chair of 
law at the University of Georgia, 1869-61. The 
civil war closed the school, 1861-65, and he re- 
sumed the ohair in 1369. He declined a seat on 
the bench of the U.S. court of claims offered him 
by President Pierce 
in 1855, and the chan- 
cellorship of the Uni- 
versity of Georgia in 
1860. He was an ad- 
vocate of temperance 
and worked zealously 
for the reform. He 
received the honorary 
degree of A.M. from 
the University of 
Georgia in 1823, and 
that of LL.D. from 
the College of New 
Jersey in 1851, and 
was a trustee of the 
University of Geor- 
gia, 1854-67. He was one of the compilers of 
tlie penal code of Georgia in 1838. He mar- 
ried Calender Grieve, a Scotch lady, who 
survived him with the following children : Wil- 
loughby W., James, Frank, Joseph Henry, Lucy, 
who married Dr.Gerdine, Marion Mc Henry, who 
married Gen. Thomas R. R. Cobb (q.v.) ; Calender, 
who married the Hon. Porter King, of Alabama, 
and became the mother of the Hon. Porter King, 
a prominent citizen of Atlanta, Oa. Judge 
Lumpkin died in Athens, Ga., June 4, 1867. 

UJilPKIN, Samuel, jurist, was bom near 
Lexington, Oglethorpe county, Ga., Dec. 12, 
1848; son of Joseph Henry (Junior) and Sarah 
(Johnson) Lumpkin ; grandson of Samuel and 
Lucy (Deupree) Lumpkin, and great-grandson 
of John and Lucy (Hopson) Lumpkin. Samuel 
Lumpkin, the grandfather, was a brother of 
Wilson Lumpkin, governor of Georgia and U.S. 
senator, and of Joseph Henry Lumpkin, Senior, 
chief justice of Georgia. He was graduated at 
the University of Georgia, A.B., 1866, A.M., 
1869 1 was admitted to the bar in 1868: was 
solicitor-general of the northern judicial circuit 
of Georgia, 1873-78; state senator, 1878-80; 
judge of the superior coui-t, northern judicial 
circuit, 1885-00 ; and on Jan. 1, 1891, became 
associate justice of the supreme court of Georgia, 
having been elected to that office in October, 
1890. On Jan. 4, 1897, was appointed presiding 
justice of the 3d division of that court. He was 
married on Oct. 17, 1878, to Kate, daughter of 
Col. Walker Richardson of Alabama, and grand- 
daughter of Col. Adolphus M. Sanford of that 
state. Hereceived the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from Southwestern Baptist university, Jackson, 
Tenn., in June, 1891. 



LUMPKIN 

LUnPKIN, Wilson, governor of Georgia, was 
bora in Pittojlvauia couutf, Va., Jan. 14, 1783 ; 
son of John and Lucy <Hopson) Lumpkin, both 
natives of Virginia, who liad eight eons and one 
daughter, all citizens of Oeorgia. His ancestors 
were English. Wil- 
son settled with his 
parents in the Wil- 
derness, which after- 
ward formed Ogle- 
thorpe county. Oa., 
in 1T84, and received 
a very limited educa- 
tion as there were do 
established schools. 
At the age of four- 
teen he was em- 
ployed as a copyist 
in the Buperior court 
,«•-*— i-f ^ • "' Oglethorpe coun- 
/^^x* ^( ^,^ ^^ 4 * t^ ty^ of which his 
father was clerk. He 
was admitted to the bar and settled in prac- 
ti^» at Athens, Ga. He represented Oglethorpe 
county in the state legislature and was state 
senator at various times between 1804 and 1815. 
He was a representative from Georgia in the 14th 
congress, 1815-17, and in the SOth and aist con- 
gresses, 1837-31 ; and was governor of Georgia for 
two terms, 1831-35. During his administration 
the Cherokee Indiana were removed beyond 
the Chattahoochee river and the territory they 
had occupied was made into thirteen counties, 
and the town and county of Lumpkin was named 
for him. He was elected U.S. senator, serving 
from Dec. 18. 1837, to March 3, 1841. fllling the 
vacancy caused by the reeignation of John P. 
King. He was commissioned by President 
Monroe to ascertain and mark the boundary line 
between Georgia and Florida in 1833, and was 
appointed one of the first commissioners under 
the Cherokee treaty by President Jackson in 
1835. He served as a member of tlie first board 
of public works of Georgia, and as state sur- 
veyor laid out nearly all the early lines of rail- 
way in Oeorgia. He was a delegate to the south- 
ern commercial convention in Montgomery, Ala., 
In 1858. He died in Athens, Oa., Dec. 28. 1870. 

LUNDV, Benjamin, abolitionist, was born at 
Hardwick, N.J., Jan. 4, 1780 ; son of Joseph and 
Elizabeth (Shotwell) Lundy; grandson of Thomas 
and Joanna (Doan) Lundy and of Benjamin and 
Anne (llallett) Shotwell, and a descendant of 
Richard Lundy, a Quaker, whocamefrom Devon- 
shire, England, and settled in Buckscounty, Pa., 
in 1685. He was a saddler at Wheeling, Va., 
1808-12 ; removed to St. Clairsville, Ohio, in 1812, 
and in 1815, he organized the first anti-slavpry 
association iu tiie United btates, calltni tlie Union 



LUNT 

Humana society. He contributed articles od 
slavery to tlie PkiianiKrofpitt, and joined Charles 
Osborne at Mt. Pleaaant, Ohio, in the publication 
of tliut paper. At that time he decided to seJ 
his property, dispose of his trade and devote 
his energies to the cause of anti-slavery. He 
went to St. Louis, Mo., in 1819, and while there aKJ- 
tated the slave question in the Missouri and llli 
nois papers. On his return to Mt. Pleasant in 1821, 
he established The Genius of Universat Emanei- 
pation, and in 1822 removed the journal to 
Jonesboro, Teiin.. travelling the five hundred 
miles on foot. There lie issued a weekly news- 
paper and an agricultural monthly besides his 
own paper, and he transferred the journal to 
Baltimore, Md., in 1824. He had agents in the 
slave states and between 1820-30 visited nineteen 
states of tlie Union, and held more than two 
hundred publio an ti -slavery meetings. He 
visited Hayti in 1826 and 1829, Canada in 1830, 
and Texas in 1830 and 1838, for tlie purpose uf 
forming settlements for emancipated and fugi- 
tive slaves, but the events preceding the annex- 
ation of Texas interfered with his plans for tlie 
establishment of colonies under the anti-slavery 
laws of Mexico. In September, 1820, he invited 
William Lloyd Garrison to Baltimore, where to- 
gether they printed The Oenius of Emancipation 
until March, 1830, when the partnership was dis- 
solved. During Garrison's imprisonment Lundy 
was fined repeatedly and heavily, and was also 
imprisoned. Being obliged to leave Maryland by 
order of the court at Baltimore, he removed his 
paper to Washington in Oct^iber, 1830, and he 
printed it there until 1634, when he removed it 
to Philadelphia, and changed its name to the 
National Inquirer. It wa?" subsequently merged 
into the Penneylvania Freeman, and his o£Sca was 
destroyed in the burning of Pennuylvania Hall. 
which was fired by the mob in May, 1838. He then 
removed to Lowell, La Salle county. III., and 
printed his paper under its old name, Tlie Geitijin 
of Emancipation, for a few montli». Heinarrltil 
a Miss Iiewis, and had five children. He died at 
Lowell. III., Oct. 23. 1839. 

LUNT, Oeorge, author, was bom in Newbury- 
port, Mass., Dec. 31, 1803 ; .son of Abel and 
Plicebe (Tilton) Lunt. He was graduated from 
Harvard in 1834, was admitted to the bar in 
1831, and practised in Ne*vbury]i<.rt. 1831-48. He 
was a Whig representative in tlie general court 
of JMossacliusetts and a state seniitur from Essex 
county. He was a delegate to the Whig national 
convention at Philadelphia, June 7, 1848. and 
was appointed U.S. district attorney for Massa- 
chusetts by President Taylor in 1849. He was 
retained by President Fillmore, serving 1&1&-S3. 
He removed to Boston. Mass., in 1!M8. where he 
practiiied law and later in life devoted himself lo 



LUNT 

seonring appropriationa for the construction of 
harbors of refuge for storm -distrBSBed vessels 
oil the coast ot Massac; huaetts. He supported tlie 
Deinocmtio party after 1856 and was one of the 
editors of the Boston Courier, 1856-85. He mar- 
ried Sarah Miles Greenwood. He is the author 
of: Leigure Hours (1826); The Orave of Byron, 
mth other Poem* (1826) ; Foema (1839) : The 
Age of Gold (1843) ; The Dove and the Eagle 
(1861) ; Lyrie Poeau (1854) ; Julia (1855) : 
Eat^ford,or Houtehold Sketches (1855) ; Three 
Enu of New Englatid (1857) ; Radiealiem in Re- 
Ugion, mio»ophy and Social Life (1858) ; The 
Union, a Poem (1860) ; The Origin of the Late 
War (,\mii); Old Neus England TVat'fa (1878) ;M(- 
ceBaniee, Paema, etc. (1884), and orations and ad- 
dreasaB. He died in Boston, Mass., Hay IT, 1685. 

LUNT, OrrlnstOD, philanthropist, was bom 
at Bowdoinham, Maine, Dec. 24, 1815 ; son of 
William and Matilda Lunt. He was an a igistant 
)Q his father's store, becoming a partner in 1830 
and Boleproprietor on the retirement of his father 
shortly afterward. He was married Jan. 16, 1342, 
to Cornelia A. Gray of Bowdoinham, and In 
the same year he disposed of his business and re- 
moved to Chicago, 111., where he became an 
operator in grain in 1844. During the civil war 
be raised and equipped the first r^ment to start 
tor Cairo, III., and also provided the army with 
supplies in large amounts throughout the war. 
He left the United States in 1865, being in iU 
health, and travelled In Europe, Egypt and the 
Holy Land for several years. Shortly after his 
return to Chicago the great fire occurred, In 
which he suffered severe losses, which his extraor- 
dinary energy soon retrieved. He was associated 
with John Bvans and others In founding the city 
of Evanston, DL, and in establishing the oorpora- 
tlon known as Trustees of the Northwestern 
University in 1851, chartered Feb. 28, 1867, aa 
Northwestern University and also its theological 
department, the Qarrett Biblical institute. Be 
was an original trustee, a member of the executive 
committee, 1851-47, and vice-president and pres- 
ident of its board of trustees, ISTS-ST. He also 
served as secretary and treasurer of the Oarrett 
Biblical institute for over thirty years. He gave 
the university about f200,000 during his lifetime, 
which included nearly (100,000 for the Orrington 
Lunt library building in 1894. He was water 
oommisaioner of the southern division of 
Chicago, 1855-62 ; treasurer and president of the 
board of public works of Chicago, and auditor of 
the board of directors of the Galena and Chicago 
Union railroad, and its vice-president for two 
years. He died in Evaneton, 111., April 5, 1807. 

LUPTON, Nathoaiel Thoraas, educator, was 
bom near Winchester, Va., Deo. 19, 1880. He 
was graduated from Uiokenaon college A.B., 



LURTON 

1840, A.H., 1852, and at the University of Heidd- 
berg, Germany, where be studied chemistry un- 
der Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, 1866-M. He was 
professor of chemistry and geology at Randolph- 
Macon college, 1857-58, and at the Southern 
University, Qreensboro, Ala., 
from its organization, Oct. 8, 
1859, to July, 1871, when he i 
resigned. He was president £ 
and professor of chemistry E 
atthe University of Alabama, \ 
1871-74; attended the con- 
gress of Orientalists In Lon- 
don, England, in 1874 ; wbs professor of chemistry 
and dean of the faculty of pharmacy at Vanderbilt 
university, Tenn., 1874-85 ; chemist for the state 
of Alabama, 1885-93. and professor of chemistry 
in the Agricultural college of Alabama, 1885-08. 
He was chairman of the chemical section of the 
Amerioan Association for the Advancement of 
Science in 1877, vice-president of the associatimi 
In 1880, and vice-president of the American 
Chemical society in 1889. He received the hon- 
orary degree of M.D. from Vanderbilt university 
and that of LL.D. from the University of Ala- 
bama in 1875. He is the author of : The Element- 
ary Principles of Seientiflo Agriculture (1880). 
He died in Auburn, Ala., June 12, 1808. 

LUQUIBNS, Jules, educator, was bora in 
Lausanne, Switzerland, Jan, 24, 1845. He was 
graduated from the University of Geneva ; im- 
migrated to America in 1868 ; was a t«acher In 
Charlier's institute for tx>ys in New York city. 
In the Wesleyan college for women, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and took a post-graduate course at Tale 
university under Prof. W. D, Whitney, 1868-78, 
receiving the degree of Ph.D. in 1878. He was 
instructor in the University of Cincinnati, 1878- 
74 ; a teacher in the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, 1874-92, and professor of romance 
languages at Yale, 1802-99. He was married, 
Jan. 27, 1875, to Emma, daughter of William 
Henry and Mary (Boileau) Clark, and their son, 
Frederick Bliss Luqulens, became an instructor 
in French language in Yale university. He was 
a member of the Anierican Oriental society and 
of the Modem Language society. He is the 
authorof; French Prose of Poptiiar Science and 
Descriptive Literature (1885) ; A Second Year's 
Course in Prench Grammar (3 parts, 1887) ; 
Plocesandf^eqples (1895), andnumerous articles 
for philosophical and soientifio magazines. He 
died in Salem, Ohio, Aug. 23, 1899. 

LURTON, Horace Harmon, jurist, was bom in 
Newport, Ky., Feb. 26, 1844; son of LyoiuguB 
Leonidas and Sarah (Harmon) Lurton and grand- 
son of William Lurton of Soott county, Ey, He 
was graduated from Cumberland university, 
Lebanon, Tenn., In 1867, was admitted to the 



LUTHER 



LYMAN 



bar in the same year; and settled in practice at 
Clarksville, Tenn. He was married, in Septem- 
ber, 1867, to Francis, daughter of Dr. B. H. Owen, 
of Lebanon, Tenn. He was chancellor of the 6th 
chancery division of Tennessee, 1875-77 ; a justice 
of the supreme court of Tennessee, 1886-93 ; chief 
justice in 1898, and on March 29, 1893, was ap- 
pointed U.S. circuit judge of the sixth judicial 
circuit. 

LUTHERt John Hill, educator, was bom in 
Warren, R.I., June 21, 1824. His mother was of 
Huguenot descent and the Luthers were Welsh 
emigrants who came to Rhode Island and founded 
one of the earliest Baptist churches in America, 
the Rev. Samuel Luther being second pastor of 
Swansea Baptist church. John Hill Luther was 
graduated at Brown, A.B., 1847, A.M., 1850, and 
from the Newton Theological institution in 1850. 
He taught school in Georgia, 1850-53 ; was ordained 
to the Baptist ministry in 1853, at Cuthbert, Ga., 
and was pastor at Robertsville, S.C., 1853-57. He 
was president of a seminary in Kansas City, Mo., 
1858-61 ; pastor at Miami and Palmyra, Mo., 1864- 
65 ; edited the Baptist Journal, 1866-68, and the 
Central Baptist, 1868-78 ; was president of the 
Baylor Female college, Belton, Texas, 1878-91 ; 
pastor at Temple, Texas, 1891-92; professor of 
homilitics, Baylor university, Waco, Texas, 1892- 
94 ; and a missionary in Brazil, 1896-97. He re- 
sided in Dallas, Texas, 1894-96, and in 1897 made 
his home in Temple, Texas. He received the hon- 
orary degree of D.D. from William Jewell college 
in 1871. He is the author of Souvenir Poems. 

LYBRAND, Arclilbald» representative, was 
born in Tarlton, Ohio, May 23,-1840. He removed 
in 1857 to Delaware, Ohio, where he studied at 
the Ohio Wesleyan university. He enlisted as a 
private in the 4th Ohio volunteer infantry in 
1861 ; was transferred to the 73d Ohio volunteers, 
promoted first lieutenant, and captain, and was 
present at Rich Mountain, Cross Keys, Second 
Bull Run, Cedar Mountain, Fredericksburg, Chan- 
oellorsville and Gettysburg. He was aide-de-camp 
to Generals Stein wehr and Sigel and took part in 
the battles of Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, 
and the Atlanta campaign. He was wounded at 
the battle of Peach Tree Creek and again at Dal- 
las, Ga., and returned to Delaware, Ohio, at the 
close of the war. He was elected mayor in 1869 ; 
was admitted to the bar in 1871 and became in- 
terested in the the Delaware Chair company 
in 1873. He was postmaster of Delaware, 1881-85, 
and was a Republican representative from the 
eighth district of Ohio in the 55tli and 56th con- 
gresses, 1897-1901. 

LYELL9 Thomas, clergyman, was born in 
Richmond county, Va., May 13, 1775; the fifth 
son of John and Sarah Lyell. His parents, mem- 
bers of the Protestant Episcopal church, were 



isolated from the privileges of that ohuich and 
he became a Methodist. In 1790 he began to 
exhort and in 1792 to preach in Virginia and sub- 
sequently in Providence, R.I. He was chaplain 
of the U.S. house of representatives, 1797-1804 ; 
was admitted to the diaoonate in the Protestant 
Episcopal church by Bishop Claggett in 1804, and 
advanced to the priesthood by Bishop Moore in 
1805. He was rector of Christ church. New York 
city, 1805-48 ; secretary of the diocesan conven- 
tions, 1811-16 ; member of the standing commit- 
tee, 1813-48 ; deputy to the general convention, 
1818-44 ; trustee of the General Theological semi- 
nary, 1822-48 ; and senior member of the board 
of trustees of the Protestant Episcopal society for 
promoting learning and religion in the state of 
New York at the time of his death. He was 
married three times, his first wife being a daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Dr. Abraham Beach, rector of 
Trinity parish. He received the honorary degree 
of A.M. from Brown in 1803, and that of D.D. 
from Columbia in 1822. He died in New York 
city, March 4, 1848. 

LYLE« Aaroiit representative, was bom in 
Northampton county, Pa., Nov. 17, 1759 ; son of 
Robert and Mary (Gilleland) Lyle, and grandson 
of John Lyle of Scotland, afterward of county 
Antrim, Ireland, who settled with a brother in 
eastern Pennsylvania. He attended the neigh- 
boring school, and served in the Revolutionary 
war. He was appointed by the legislature a 
trustee of Jefferson college under the charter of 
Jan. 15, 1802, and he resigned in April, 1822. He 
was a representative in the Pennsylvania legisla- 
ture, 1797-1801 ; a state senator, 1802-04, to fill 
a vacancy ; and a representative from Pennsylva- 
nia in the 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th congresses, 1809- 
17. He died at Cross Creek, Pa.. Sept. 24, 1825. 

LYMAN, Benjainlii Smith, geologist, was 
born in Northampton, Mass., Dec. 11, 1835 ; son 
of Judge Samuel Fowler and Almira (Smith) 
Lyman, and grandson of Judge Joseph Lyman 
and of Benjamin Smith of Hatfield, Mass. His 
great-grandfather, Capt. Joseph Lyman, was a 
soldier in the Revolutionary war, and of his first 
ancestors in America, Richard Lyman emigrated 
from England in 1631, and settled in Northamp- 
ton, and Lieut. Samuel Smith came from Elngland 
in 1634, and settled in Hatfield, Mass. Benjamin 
attended the common schools of Northampton 
and Phillips academy at Exeter, N.H., and was 
graduated from Harvard in 1855. He was prin- 
cipal of Deerfield academy, Mass., in 1856, and 
aided J. P. Lesley (q.v.) in a geological and topo- 
graphical survey of Broad Top Mountain, Pa. 
He was assistant in Short^s classical school for 
boys in Philadelphia. Pa., in 1856-^7. Through 
the greater part of 1857, he travelled in Massa- 
chusetts Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, 



LYMAN 



LYMAN 




(^ti^, hud^^f^^i^mum^ 



MarylaDd, Delaware, Virginia, Tennessee, North 
Carolina, Georgia and Alabama to coUect statis- 
tics of the iron manufacture for the American 
Iron association. He was assistant to Professor 
James Hall on the state geological survey of 

Iowa in 1858, and as- 
sisted Mr. Lesley in 
private geological 
work in 1850. He 
studied at the Paris 
Mining school, 1859- 
61, and at the Frei- 
berg Mining acade- 
my, 1861-63. He was 
occupied in geolog- 
ical work at Cape 
Breton, N.S., 1863-65, 
and in Pennsylvania, 
California (going by 
way of Panama and 
returning by over- 
land stage in 1864), 
Virginia, Alabama, Illinois and on the Labrador 
Coast, 1863-69. He was employed by the British 
government to make surveys of oil fields in India, 
1869-71. He received a patent on an application 
of the solar compass to the surveying transit in 
1871. He resided in Philadelphia, Pa., 1871-72; 
making surveys in West Virginia and elsewhere ; 
made a geological survey of the island of Yesso 
for the Colonization board of the Japanese gov- 
ernment, 1873-75, and a geological survey of the 
oil fields of Japan for the home department and 
later the public works department, 1878-79. He 
returned to America at the end of 1880, resided 
in Northampton, Mass., and was engaged in geo- 
logical surveys in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Nova Sco- 
tia, Colorado and New Mexico. He made a 
survey of Bucks and Montgomery counties for 
the Pennsylvania state geological survey ; and 
in 1887 he removed to Philadelphia. He was 
elected a member of many learned societies in- 
cluding the Geological Society of France, the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science ; the American Philosophical society ; 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal, the German Geo- 
logical society ; the American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers ; the American Oriental society ; 
the Asiatic Society of Japan ; the German East 
Asiatic society ; the American Folk-Lore so- 
ciety ; the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia and 
the National Geographic society. He is the au- 
thor of : Telescopic Mecumrement in Surveying 
(1868) ; Oenei'al Report on the Punjab OH Lands 
(1870); Topography of the Punjab OH Region 
(1871); General Report on the Oeology of Yesso 
(1877); Character of the Japanese (1885); Report 
on the New Boston and Morea Coal Lands (1889) ; 
An Old Japanese Foot Measure (1890) ; Japanese 



Swords (1893). He also contributed to scientific 
magazines and the transactions of learned socie- 
ties and published reports and articles which in 
1901 had formed a bibliography of upwards of 100 
separate titles covering his progress in geological 
research. 

LYMAN, Chester Smith, physicist, was bom 
in Manchester, Conn., Jan. 18, 1814. He was a 
student of astronomy while a boy, constructing 
apparatus, computing almanacs and making 
tables of eclipses without a teacher, 1880-81. He 
graduated from Yale in 1887, taught school in 
Ellington, Conn., 1888-39 ; and studied theology at 
the Union Theological seminary. New York, 1839- 
40 and at Yale Theological seminary, 1840-42. 
He was ordained to the Congregational ministry, 
Feb. 15, 1848, and was pastor at New Britain, 
Conn., 1843-45. He visited the Sandwich Islands 
in 1846, had charge of the Royal school at Hono- 
lulu for four months and made explorations to 
the volcano Kilauea, and established new theories 
as to the cause of volcanic eruptions. He en- 
gaged in surveying in California, 1847--50, during 
which time he furnished early authentic reports 
of the discovery of gold. He removed to New 
Haven, Conn., in 1850, where he had charge of 
the scientific terms in the revision of *' Webster's 
Dictionary," 1850-58. He was professor of indus- 
trial mechanics and physics and instructor in 
theoretical and practical astronomy in the Shef- 
field scientific school of Yale college, 1859-71 ; 
professor of astronomy and physics, 1871-84; 
professor of astronomy, 1884-89, and emeritus 
professor, 1889-90. He invented a combined 
zenith telescope and transit for latitude, longitude 
and time in 1852 ; an apparatus for illustrating 
the dynamics of ocean waves in 1867 and an ap- 
paratus for describing acoustic curves in 1871. 
He was the first to observe the planet Venus as a 
delicate limiinous ring when seen in close prox- 
imity to the sun near inferior conjunction. He 
was president of the Connecticut Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, 1857-77, and an honorary 
member of the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. The honorary degree of 
M.A. was conferred on hiiH by Beloit college. 
Wis., in 1864. He is the author of numerous 
papers for the leading scientific magazines. He 
died in New Haven, Conn., Jan. 29, 1890. 

LVriANy Daniel, jurist, was bom in Durham, 
Conn., Jan. 27, 1756 ; son of Thomas and Anne (Mer- 
win) Lyman, grandson of Thomas and Elizabeth 
( ) Lyman, and a descendant of Richard Ly- 
man, a native of Essex county, England, who emi- 
grated to America with his family in 1631, and 
settled first in Charlestown, Mass., and in 1635 in 
Hartford, Conn. Daniel was graduated at Yale, 
A.B., 1776, A.M., 1779, and in 1775 served as 
captain in the expedition against Ticonderoga^ 



LYMAN 



LYMAN 



Crown Point and St. John. He returned to the 
army after his graduation, was appointed brigade- 
major, and had his horse shot under him at the 
battle of White Plains, N.Y. He was promoted 
captain under Col. W. R. Lee, in 1777; became 
aide to General Heath in May, 1778, and adjutant- 
general of the eastern department in 1779, and 
was stationed on the Hudson River until the end of 
the war. He was married, Jan. 10, 1782, to 
Mary, daugliter of John Wanton of Newport, 
R.L He practised law in Newport, R.I., 1783- 
1808 ; and was chief justice of the supreme court 
of Rhode Island, 1802-16. He built the Lyman 
cotton mill in Providence, toward the close of 
his life. He was a member of the Hartford con- 
vention that met Dec. 15, 1814 : and was presi- 
dent of the state Society of the Cincinnati. He 
died in North Providence, R.I., Oct. 16, 1830. 

LYMAN, David Belden, missionary, was bom 
in New Hartford, Conn., July 28, 1803 ; son of 
David and Rhoda (Belden) Lyman : grandson of 
David and Mary (Brown) Lyman, and a descend- 
ant of Richard Lyman, 1631. He was graduated 
from Williams college in 1828 and from the An- 
dover Theological seminary in 1831 ; and was 
ordained as a missionary of the A.B.C.F.M. at 
Hanover, N.H., Oct. 12, 1831. He was married 
Nov. 8, 1831, to Sarah Joiner of Royalton, Vt., 
and on November 26 they sailed from New Bed- 
ford, Mass., with a large reinforcement for the 
Sandwich Islands. The company arrived at 
Honolulu, May 17, 1832, after a passage of 172 
days. Mr. Lyman and his wife were subse- 
quently assigned to the station at Hilo, one 
of the remotest of the group. He was placed in 
charge of the church at Hilo and its outlying 
missions where he labored with success for sev- 
eral years. Upon the arrival of Titus and Fidelia 
Coan in 1836, he turned over his mission to Mr. 
Coan, and with the assistance of his wife, estab- 
lished an academy for young men, the pupils 
cultivating a farm and thus supplying the school 
with food. In 1873 Mr. Lyman retired from 
active work in the sciiool. He died in Hilo, 
Hawaii, Oct. 4, 1884, and his wife Dec. 6, 1885. 

LYMANt Henry Munson, physician, was born 
in Hilo, Hawaiian Islands, Nov. 26, 1835 ; son of 
David Belden and Sarah (Joiner) Lyman. He 
was graduated from Williams college, A.B., 
1858, A.M., 1861, and from the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons in New York city in 1861. 
He was house surgeon at Bellevue hospital. New 
York city, 1861-62, enlisted in the Uiiion army 
as acting assistant surgeon of volunteers, and 
served in military hospitals at Nashville, Tenn., 
until 1863, wlien he resigned and established him- 
self in pmctic^e at Chicago, 111. He was professor 
of cliemistry in Rush Medical college, Chicago, 
1870-75; professor of physiology and nervous 



diseases, 1875-00, and professor of the principles 
and practice of medicine, 1890-97. and senior 
dean of the faculty, 1897. He also filled the chair 
of the theory and practice of medicine in the 
Chicago Woman *s Medical college. He is the 
author of: Artificial AncestJieaia and AruBsthet- 
tea (1881); /nsomma (1885); A Text-Book of the 
Prcu;t ice of Medicine ( 1 892 ) . 

LYflAN, Joseph* representative, was born in 
Lyons, Mich., Sept. 13, 1840. He entered Iowa 
college, but upon the outbreak of the civil war 
he enlisted as regimental clerk in the 4th Iowa 
cavalry. He was transferred to the 29th Iowa 
infantry and served as adjutant, 1862-65; was 
aide-de-camp and inspector-general on the staff 
of Gen. Samuel A. Rice in 1864 ; was promoted 
major of the 29th Iowa infantry, Feb. 21 , 1865, and 
served till Aug. 10, 1865, and was aide-de-camp 
and acting assistant adjutant-general on the staff 
of Maj-Gten. Frederick Steele from Feb. 1 , 1865, 
until he was mustered out of service. He was 
graduated from the law department of the State 
University of Iowa in 1866 and practised law at 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. He was deputy collector 
of internal revenue, 1867-70 ; circuit judge of the 
13th judicial district from Jan. 1 till Dec. 31, 
1884, and was a Republican representative in the 
49th and 50th congresses. 1885-89. He died at 
Council Bluffs, Iowa, July 9, 1890. 

LYMAN, Joseph, artist, was born in Ravenna, 
Ohio, July 26, 1843; son of Joseph and Mary 
(Clark) Lyman. He attended the high school at 
Cleveland, Ohio, and studied art in New York 
under John H. Dolph and Samuel Colman. He 
traveled in Europe, 1866-70 and in 1883. He first 
exhibited at the National Academy of Design in 
1886, and was elected an associate of the academy 
the same year. His paintings include : Summer 
Night; Evening (1880); Perce Rock, Gvlf of St. 
Lawrence (1881); Moonlight at Svnset on the 
Maine Coast (1882); Waiting for the Tide (1883); 
Street iyi St. Augustine, Florida (lbS4); Under 
her own Fig-Tree (1885). 

LYilAN, Joseph Bard well, agricultural editor, 
was born in Chester, Mass.. Oct. 6, 1829 ; son of 
Timothy and Experience (Bardwell) Lyman and 
grandson of Timothy and Dorothy (Kinney) Ly- 
man. He was graduated from Yale in 1850 ; 
taught school in the south, 1850-53 ; was gradu- 
ated from the law department of the University 
of Louisiana, LL.B., 1856, and settled in practice 
in New Orleans. In March, 1863, he served as 
commissary in the Confederate army to avoid 
conscription, and in September of that year he 
joined iiis family in Boston, removing to New 
York in 1864 and thence in 1865 to Stamford, 
Conn., where he devoted himself to horticulture 
and literary work. He removed to New York 
city and became agricultural editor of the World 



LYMAN 



LYMAN 



in 1867. He was managing editor of the Hearth 
and Home in 1868 and was a member of the edi- 
torial staff of the New York Tribune, 1868-72. 
He was a member of the Farmers' club; the Rural 
club ; an honorary member of many horticultural 
associations and a manager of the American in- 
stitute. He was married July 14» 1858, to Laura 
Elizabeth Baker who was born in Kent's Hill, 
Maine, April 2, 1831, and was graduated from 
Wesieyan academy, Mass. , in 1840. She published 
a series of articles in the Hearth and Home 
under the pen name '' E^ate Hunnibee," and was 
elected president of the Woman's Physiological 
society of Brooklyn, N.Y., in 1875, and edited the 
" Home Interest " department in the New York 
Tribune, 1869-87, and the Dining Boom Magazine, 
1876-77. In conjunction with his wife, Mr. Ly- 
man wrote The Philosophy of Housekeeping 
<1867). He is the author of : Resources of the Pa- 
<:iflc States (1865); Women of the War (1866), and 
Cotton Culture (1867). He died in Richmond 
Hill, Long Island, N.Y., Jan. 28, 1872. 

LYMAN, Phineas* soldier, was bom in Dur- 
ham, Conn., in 1716 ; son of Noah and Elizabeth 
L3'man and grandson of Thomas and Ruth (Hel- 
ton) Baker Lyman of Northampton, Mass. He 
learned the trade of a weaver and was graduated 
from Yale, Dean's scholar, A.B., 1788, A.M., 1741 ; 
was a tutor there, 1738-41, and was admitted to 
the bar and settled in Suffield, Mass. In 1749 he 
procured the admission of the town, of Suffield as 
part of Ck>nnecticut, and he was senior represent- 
ative from Suffield in the Connecticut assembly, 
1750-53, and a member of the upper house of 
4issistants, 1752-59. He was appointed major-gen- 
•eral, and commander-in-chief of the forces sent 
against Crown Point in March, 1755, and in the 
summer of 1756 he built Fort Lyman, afterward 
Fort Edward. He commanded in the battle of 
Lake George, Sept. 8, 1755, after Sir William 
Johnson was wounded, but Johnson's official 
report gave him no credit for the victory. In 
February, 1757, he commanded a regiment of 1400 
men raised for service under the Earl of Loudoun, 
and during part of the subsequent campaign he 
commanded at Fort Edward. In March, 1758, 
with a force of 5000 men, he took part in the en- 
gagements that led to the repulse of General Aber- 
crombie at Ticonderoga and in the defeat of Lord 
Howe. He commanded the Connecticut troops 
under General Amherst in the capture of Crown 
Point and Ticonderoga ; in the reduction of Fort 
Louis at Oswego and the capture of Montreal. 
In March, 1763, he was placed in command of the 
«ntire provincial force engaged in the unsuccess- 
ful expedition against Havana, Cuba. He was in 
England, 1763-72, in the interest of the survivors 
of the French and Indian war, and obtained a 
j^rant of land 20 miles square, east of the Missis- 



sippi and south of the Yazoo river, and in 1772 he 
went with a few companions to make prepara- 
tion for the removal of the survivors and their 
families. He was married Oct. 7, 1742, to Elea- 
nor, daughter of Col. Timothy Dwight of North- 
ampton, Mass. She removed to the settlement 
near Natchez, Miss., in 1776, where she died in 
Api-il, 1777, and where General Lyman had died 
Sept. 10, 1774. 

LYMANy 5aniuelt representative, was bom in 
Goshen, Conn., Jan. 25, 1749 ; son of Deacon 
Moses and Sarah (Hay den) Lyman, and grandson 
of Capt. Moses and Mind well (Sheldon) Lyman. 
He was graduated from Yale, A.B., 1770, A.M., 
1773 ; studied theology in conformity with the 
wish of his father, and then took up the study of 
law at Litchfield, Conn. He was admitted to 
the bar and opened a law office in Hartford, Conn. 
He was married to Mary Pynchon of Springfield, 
Mass. ; removed to that place, and served as judge 
of the circuit court. He was a representative from 
Springfield in the general court of Massachusetts, 
1786-88 ; a state senator, 1790-98 ; and a represent- 
ative in the 4th, 5th and 6th congresses, 1795- 
1800. He resigned in 1800 on account of failing 
health, and devoted himself to his farm. He 
died in Springfield, Mass., June 6, 1802. 

LYMAN, Theodore, philanthropist, was bom 
in Boston, Mass., Feb. 20, 1792 ; son of Theodore 
and Lydia (Williams) Lyman ; gi-andson of the 
Rev. Isaac and Sarah (Plummer) Lyman ; great- 
grandson of Capt. Moses and Mind well (Sheldon) 
Lyman, and a descendant of Richard and Sarah 
(Osborne) Lyman. Richard Lyman was a native 
of High Ougar, Essex county, England, and came 
to America in the ship Lion in 1681, settling first 
at Charlestown, Mass., and in 1635 at Hartford, 
Conn. Theodore Lyman, Sr., was an eminent 
merchant, engaged in the northwest fur trade 
and in the coast and China trade. Theodore 
Lyman, Jr., was prepared for college at Phillips 
Exeter academy and was graduated from Har- 
vard, A.B., 1810, A.M., 1815. He studied litera- 
ture in the University of Edinburgh, 1812-14, 
travelled on the continent for a short time in 1814, 
and was in France during the first restoration. 
He returned to the United States in the autumn 
of 1814, and revisited Europe in June, 1817. He 
travelled in Germany with Edward Everett, vis- 
ited Greece, Egypt and Palestine, and returned 
to Boston, Mass., in 1819. He was married, May 
15, 1821, to Mary Elizabeth Henderson of New 
York and resided at Waltham, Mass., 1821-44. 
He commanded the Boston brigade, state militia, 
1829-27; was a representative in the Massachu- 
setts legislature, 1821-24, state senator, 1824, 
state representative, 1825, and mayor of Boston, 
1834^5. On Oct. 21, 1835, he rescued William 
Lloyd Garrison from the mob that attacked the 



LYHAN 

meeting of the Female Auti-Slaverj society while 
he was in attendance. After bis wife's death fn 
1B35, he devoted himself to assisting the poorand 
criminal classes. He removed to Brookline in 
iSa. He was president of the Boston Farm 
school, 1810-46 ; and in 1848, and subsequently 
during his lifetime, gave $23,600 to the state 
reform school at Westboro, Mass. He left in hia 
wilt the sum of (50,000 to th^ state reform school I 
(10,000 to the farm school of BoBton, and $10,000 
the Massachusetts Horticultural society of which 
he was a life member. He is the author of : 
Three Weekt in Paris (1814) ; Tke Polilioal State 
of Italy (1830) ; The Hartford Convention (1833) j 
The Diplomacy oftlte United States (3 vols., 1828). 
He died in Brookline. M&bb., July 18, 1840. 

LVMAN, Theodore, naturalist, was born in 
Waltham, Mass., Aug. 38, 1833 ; son of Theodore 
and Mary E. (Henderson) Lyman. He was gradu- 
ated from Harvard college, A.B., 1855, S.B., 
18S8, and was married, Nov. 28, 1656, to Eliza- 
beth, daughter of 
George R. and Sarah 
(Shaw) RuBselL He 
was assistant in sodl- 
ogy at the Museum 
of Comparative Zool- 
ogy, 1860-61, and pur- 
sued his studies in 
Europe, 1861-63. He 
was volunteer aide 
with rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel on the 
staff of Maj.-GeD. 
Qeorge O. Meade, 
commanding the 
Army of the Poto- 
mac, 1863-65, partici- 
pating in the movements on Mine Bun and Cen- 
treville in 1863, the battles of the Wilderness, 
Spottaylvania and Cold Harbor ; through the in- 
vestment of Petersburg ; In the rout and pursuit 
of Lee's army, and its capture at Appomattox 
Court House. He was mustered out of the vol- 
unteer service, April 20, 186S,and returned to his 
home in Brookline, Mass. He vas fish commis- 
sioner for Uassachusetts, 1665-82 ; and made the 
flrst eoientiflo experiments undertaken for the 
cultivation and preservation of food fishes by any 
state In the Union. He also prepared " Reports 
of the Commisaioners on Inland Fisheries of Mas- 
sachusetts" (1865-82). He was a representative 
from the ninth Massachusetts district in the 46th 
congress, 1883-85 ; an overseer of Harvard, 
1868-80 and 1881-88 ; fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences ; member of the 
Massachusetts Historical society ; honorary mem- 
ber of the New York Academy of Scicncesand of 
the National Academy of Sciences, 1872-07. He 



5A<*J*ve- qLit^ 't- 



was president of the Boston farm school, and a. 
trustee of the Peabody education fund, the Pea* 
body Museum of Archaeology, and the state re- 
form school. He received the degree LL.D. 
from Harvard in 1801, contributed to the build- 
ing of Memorial hall and served on the building 
committee. He left $10,000 to Harvard and his. 
collection of scientific books to the Museum of 
Comparative ZoClogy. He contributed articles 
to scientific journals and published : lUuatrated 
Catalogue of the OphiuridcB and Attropkytida in 
the J^useum of Comparative ZoBiogy (1865) ; Re- 
port on Ophiuridce and Attropkytida Dredged by 
Louit F. de Fovrtalei (186S) ; Old and ffew 
Ophiuridce and Astrophytidce of the Hatiler Ex- 
pedition (1875) ; Dredging Operationa of the U.S. 
Steanier Blake; Ophiurant (1878) j Padrome of 
the Ophiuricke and Aatrophytidx of the ChaUen- 
der Expedition (Part I., 1878 i Part IL, 1879) ; 
Report on the Ophiurida Dredged by H. M. S. 
Challenger During the Tears 1873-76 (1883) ; 
Papers Relating to the Oarriton Mob (1870). He 
died at Nahant, Mass., Sept. 0, 16fl7. 

LYHAN, Theodore Benedict, fourth bishop of 
North Carolina and 103d in succession in the 
American episcopate, was born in Brighton, 
Mass., Nov. 37, 1815; son of the Bev. Asa and 
Mary (Benedict) Lyman; grandson of William, 
and Mary (Parker) 
Lyman, and of Aaron 
Benedict of Middle- 
bury, Conn., and a 
descendant of Rich- 
ard and Sarah (Os- 
borne) Lyman. He 
was graduated at 
Hamilton college, 
N.Y., in 1837, and 
at the Oeneral Theo- 
logical seminary, 
]Sew York city, in 
1840. He was ordered 
deacon in Christ ^ %_/ 

church, Baltimore, C%t^i ^.i^yfc***— 
Md., Sept. 20, 1840, 

and ordained priest in St. John's, Hagers- 
town, Md., Deo. 19, 1841, where he was rector,. - 
1841-61. He was rector of Trinity church, Pitta- 
burg, Pa., 1851-60; and during his residence in 
Europe, 1860-TO, he declined the deanship of the- 
GeneralTheologioaleeminary, New York city. He 
established and was rector of the American church 
at Florence, being also the founder of St Paul's 
Within the Walls, the American chapel at 
Rome, Italy. He was rector of Trinity church, 
San Francisco, Cal.. 1870-78, and in the latter 
year was elected assistant bishop of Nort^h Caro- 
lina, and was consecrated in Christ church, 
Raleigh, N.C., Dec. It, 1878, by Bishops Whit- 



LYMAN 



LYNCH 



tingham, Atkinson and Lay, and on the death of 
Bishop Atkinson, Jan. 4, 1881, he succeeded to 
the bishopric as fourth bishop of North Carolina. 
Bishop Lyman was appointed to take charge of 
the American Episcopal churches in Europe, as 
successor to the bishop of Long Island in 1886, 
but the increasing cares of his own diocese com- 
pelled him to relinquish his charge in 1887. The 
fiftieth anniversary of the bishop^s ordination to 
the priesthood was celebrated in Raleigh, on Dec. 
19 and 20, 1891, and the ceremonies were partici- 
pated in, not only by the clergy and the laity of 
the church in North Carolina, but by the citizens 
generally without reference to creed. He was 
married in June, 1845, to Anna M., daughter of 
Jacob Albei-t of Baltimore, Md. ; and secondly, 
Feb. 9, 1893, to Susan B. Robertson of Charleston, 
S.C. He received the honorary degree of D.D. 
from St. James college, Md., in 1856, LL.D. from 
the University of North Carolina in 1887, and that 
of D.C.L. from Hamilton in 1892. He died at 
Raleigh, N.C., Dec. 18, 1893. 

LYflAN, Wlllianiy representative, was bom 
in Northampton, Mass., Dec. 7, 1755 ; son of Capt. 
\Yilliara and Jemima (Sheldon) Lyman ; grandson 
of Lieut. Benjamin and Thankful (Pomeroy) 
Lymau ; great-grandson of John and Dorcas 
(Plumb) Lyman, and a descendant of Richard, 
1631. He was graduated from Yale in 1776, and 
then entered the American army, serving until 
its close as brigadier-general of militia. He was 
a representative in the general court of Massa- 
chusetts, state senator in 1789, and a representa- 
tive in the 3d and 4th congresses, 1793-97. He 
and Gen. Andrew Jackson were the only two 
representatives in the 4th congress who voted 
against the commendatory resolutions on the 
retirement of General Washington from the 
presidency. He was U.S. consul at London by 
appointment of President Jefferson, 1805-11. He 
died in London, England, Sept. 2, 1811. 

LYNCH, Charles, soldier, was born in Vir- 
ginia ; son of Charles Lynch who emigrated from 
Ireland when a boy and settled on a large body 
of land on the James river, near the Peaks of 
Otter. Charles served in the Revolutionary war 
as colonel of a regiment of riflemen, and was 
conspicuous for gallantry at Guilford, N.C. He 
is said to have originated and enacted the cele- 
brated code called '* Lynch Law *' during the 
Revolution, in order to punish a band of lawless 
tories and desperadoes about Lynchburg, which 
place was founded by his brother John. Colonel 
Lynch, who was a staunch Whig, organized and 
led a strong party of patriots and scoured the 
ootmtry for the desperadoes, and when taken 
gave them a summary trial at which he sat as 
judge, empaneled a jury and executed punish- 
ment. He died near Staunton, Va., about 1785. 



LYNCH, Charles, governor of Mississippi, waa 
born in Virginia ; son of Col. Charles Lynch (q.v.). 
He removed to Monticello, Lawrence county. 
Miss., where he established a successful mercan- 
tile business. He was elected governor of Missis- 
sippi in 1836, being the eighth governor chosen 
by the people and the second under the constitu- 
tion of 1832, and he served, 1836-38. He died in 
Monticello, Miss., Feb. 9, 1853. 

LYNCH, James Daniel, author, was bom near 
Old Lombardy Grove, Mecklenburg county, Va. , 
Jan. 6, 1836 ; son of James Daniel and Frances 
Gregory (Baird) Lynch, and grandson of Charlea 
William and Frances (Gregory) Baird. Hia 
father was a member of the family which founded 
the city of Lynchburg, and his mother a descend- 
ant of the famous Dr. John Gregory of Scotland, 
and of the Claibornes of Yirginia. Having lost 
his father in his infancy he was adopted and 
reared by his maternal grandfather. He waa 
matriculated at the University of North Carolina, 
with the class of 1859, but withdrew at the close 
of his junior year on account of ill health, and re- 
turned to his grandfather's home in Virginia. He 
was assistant teacher in the Franklin academy, 
Columbus, Miss. , in 1860. He was married in Feb- 
ruary, 1861 , to Hettie Martin Cochran of Lowndea 
county. Soon afterward he joined the Confeder- 
ate army, and served as a private until after the 
Shiloh campaign, when he was forced to retire on 
account of ill health. Later he organized a com- 
pany of cavalry, and served under General 
Wheeler, being seriously wounded at Lafayette, 
Ga., and was subsequently taken prisoner while 
making a cavalry charge near Rome, Ga., but es- 
caped at Resaca while en route to Johnson's 
Island. He was afterward transferred to the 
Nitre and Mining bureau at Selma, Ala., of which 
he was in charge at Gainesville at the close of the 
war. After the war he practised law at West 
Point, Miss., until obliged to retire from the bar 
on account of defective hearing. He then de- 
voted himself to literary work. He is the author 
of numerous poems, including Robert E. Lee, or 
the Heroes of the South (1876) ; The Ku-Klux Tri- 
bunal (1878) : The Clock of Destiny (1878) ; The 
Siege oftlie Alamo (1884) ; The North Carolina 
University Centennial Ode (1895) ; and Columbia 
Saluting the Nations, the last named being 
adopted by the World's Ck)lumbian Commission, 
in 1893, as the welcome of the United States to 
the nations of the world. The Siege of the Alamo 
was printed on parchment, framed, and hung on 
the walls of tlie fortress by order of the governor 
of Texas. His prose works include : Kemper 
County Vindicated, or a Peep at Reconstruction 
in Mississippi (1878) ; Bench and Bar of Missis- 
sippi (1880) ; Bench and Bar of Texas (1885) ; A 
History of the Five Civilized Nations (1901). 



LYNCH 



LYNCH 



LYNCH, John Roy, representative, was born 
in Concordia Parish, La., Sept. 10, 1847 ; son of 
Patrick and Catherine Lynch. He was a mulatto, 
and after his father's death he was carried with 
his mother to Natchez, Miss., where they were 
held as slaves. After emancipation he engaged 
in photography and obtained a fair education by 
attending evening school. In 1869 he was ap- 
pointed justice of the peace by General Ames, 
military governor of Mississippi. He was a rep~ 
resentative in the state legislature, 1869-73, and 
speaker of the house, 1872-73 ; was a represen- 
tative from the sixth district of Mississippi in 
the 43d and 44th congresses, 1873-77 ; claimed to 
have been counted out by the Democrats in 1876 
for the 45th congress, General Chalmers being 
seated, and in 1880 he defeated Chalmers and 
served in the 47th congress, 1881-^. He was a 
delegate to the Republican national conventions 
at Philadelphia, June 5, 1872, Chicago, June 
3, 1884, and June 19, 1888, and Minneapolis, 
June 7, 1892. He was elected temporary chair- 
man of the Chicago convention of 1884 ; made a 
speech seconding the nomination of Chester A. 
Arthur for President, and was a member of the 
committee appointed to notify James G. Blaine 
of his nomination. In 1884 Mr. Lynch retired to 
his plantation in Adams county, Miss. He was 
chairman of Republican state executive com- 
mittee, 1881-89 ; and was appointed by President 
Harrison fourth auditor of the U.S. treasury, to 
succeed C. M. Shelly of Alabama. He was mar- 
ried Dec. 18, 1884, to Ella W., daughter of James 
A. and Mary E. Somerville, of Mobile, Ala. In 
the war with Spain in 1898, he was appointed by 
President McKinley a paymaster in the U.S. 
volunteer service. 

LYNCH, Patrick Nce5on, R.C. bishop, was 
born in Clones, Ireland, March 10, 1817. His 
parents immigrated to the United States in 1819 
and settled at Cheraw, S.C. Patrick attended 
Bishop England's Seminary of St. John the Bap- 
tist at Charleston, S.C and in 1834 was sent by 
Bishop England to the Propaganda college, Rome. 
He was ordained priest, April 5, 1840, by the 
Cardinal Prefect, and returned to Charleston, 
where he was assistant at the cathedral, 1840-44 ; 
pastor of St. Mary's, Charleston, 1844-55, serving 
also as vicar-general of the diocese. In 1855 he 
became administrator to Bishop Reynolds, de- 
ceased, and governed the see until 1858, when he 
was elected his successor and was consecrated 
bishop of Charleston, March 14, 1858, by Arch- 
bishop F. P. Kenrick, assisted by Bishops Portier 
and Barry. He took personal charge of a yellow- 
fever hospital during the epidemic of 1848. and 
his own life was saved by the nursing of faitliful 
sisters. Bishop Lynch was a firm supix>rter of 
the South in the civil war. In 1861 a fire broke 




out in Charleston, destroying the cathedral and 
the bishop*s house, and during the subsequent 
siege his people were greatly scattered. He was 
sent by the Confederate authorities on a special 
mission to France, intended to counteract the 
efltect of Bishop 
Hughes's mission in 
behalf of the North. 
At the close of the 
war the rebuilding of 
such churches and 
institutions as were 
absolutely necessary 
cost $150,000, and in 
addition he owed the 
sum of $100,000 to 
poor people who had 
intrusted him with 
their money. The 
latter part of his life 
was spent in col- 
lecting this money, 
which was all paid except $17,000 at the time of 
his death. He edited Deharbe's ** Series of Cate- 
chisms," and is the author of an account of the 
Vatican council and Tfie Blood of St, Jauuarius^ 
published in the Catholic World and in book 
form. He died in Charleston, S.C, Feb.26, 1882. 

LYNCH, Thomas, delegate, was born on the 
North Santee river, S.C, about 1720 ; son of 
Thomas Lynch, a pioneer cultivator of rice on 
the alluvial bottoms on tide water of South Car- 
olina; and of Austrian descent. He was edu- 
cated in Europe, where he 
was a resident for several 
years. He was a wealthy 
planter on the North Santee 
river, in South Carolina, and 
a patriot in the Revolutionary 
struggle as early as 1765, when 
he was a delegate to the colo- 
nial congress and took an active part in the debate 
against the usurpation of parliament. He was a 
delegate from South Carolina to the Continental 
congress, 1774-76. He resigned his seat in con- 
gress in the spring of the latter year and returned 
'to his home in South Carolina, where he died 
shortly after his arrival in 1776. 

LYNCH, Thomas, signer, was born in the 
parish of Prince George, on the North Santee 
river, S.C, Aug. 5, 1749 ; son of Thomas Lynch, 
delegate. He was educated in England, studying 
at Eton and taking his degree at Cambridge uni- 
versity, and pursued a course of law in the Tem- 
ple, returning to America in 1772. He was mar- 
ried to a Miss Shubrick. On the outbreak of the 
Revolution he was commissioned captain in the 
1st South Carolina provincials. Col. Christopher 
Gadsden, serving, 1775-76, and on the death of his 



.'^'■.'5*^ 




LYNCH 



LYNDE 



father in 1776, he was elected by the Provincial as- 
sembly a delegate to the Ck>ntinental congress as 
his successor and lie arrived in Philadelphia in 
time to become one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. His health, which had 
been broken by his services in the army, failed 
soon after, and he returned to his plantation in 
South Carolina in 1777. By advice of his physi-- 
cian he undertook tiie sea voyage to the Island of 
St. Eustatius, W.I., in 1779, intending to take 
passage from there for the south of France. The 
vessel in which he sailed from Charleston was 
never heard from after being sighted when four 
days out of port in 1779. 

LYNCH* Thomas, representative, was born in 
Milwaukee county, Wis., Nov. 21, 1844; son of 
Patrick and Mary Lynch, and grandson of John 
Lynch. He was brought up on a farm, and 
acquired his education chiefly in the local schools. 
In 1863 he removed to Chilton, Calumet county, 
Wis., where he taught school until 1871. He 
was a representative in the Wisconsin legislature, 
1873 and 1883 ; was graduated from the Wiscon- 
sin university, LL.B., 1875 ; was district attorney 
of Calumet county, 1878-82, and in the latter 
year removed to Antigo, Langlade county. He 
was mayor of Antigo, 1885 and 1888, and a Dem- 
ocratic representative from the ninth Wisconsin 
district in the 52d and 53d congresses, 1891-95. 
Hi died at Pelican Lake, Wis., May 4, 1898. 

LYNCH, William Francis, naval officer, was 
born in Norfolk, Va., April, 1801. He entered 
the U.S. navy as midshipman in 1819, and was 
promoted lieutenant in 1828. He proposed the 
expedition to explore the river Jordan and the 
Dead Sea in 1847, and receiving from the govern- 
ment a favorable reply to his proposition, 
he sailed on the U.S. store-ship Supply to 
Smyrna, made an overland journey to Constan- 
tinople, and after obtaining the necessary author- 
ity and protection from the Turkish government, 
lie landed at the Bay of Acre, in March, 1848, 
aud in metallic life-boats navigated and explored 
the Jordan from Lake Tiberius toJ;he Dead Sea. 
On his return to the United States he planned an 
expedition to explore Western Africa, which the 
government failed to sanction. He was pro- 
moted commander in 1849, and captain in 1856. 
In 1861 he resigned his commission in the U.S. 
navy and enlLsted in the Confederate navy. He 
was commissioned flag officer, and assigned to 
the conamand of the coast defence of North Caro- 
lina ; captured the Federal supply ship Fanny ; 
commanded the mosquito fleet, composed of the 
Confederate vessels Appomattox, Seabird. Ellis, 
Black Warrior, Curlew and Fanny, in the de- 
fence of Roanoke Island ; unsuccessfully re- 
sisted the attack of Flag-Offlcer Louis M. Golds- 
borough ; fired one of his own steamers, the 



Curlew, to prevent her capture ; blew up Fort 
Forrest, and retreated up the Pasquotank river, 
where he concentrated his vessels behind a four- 
gun land battery, below Elizabeth City, On 
Feb. 10, 1862, he engaged the Union fleet, under 
Commander Rowan, with a loss of five of the six 
vessels comprising his fleet, and he escaped to 
Norfolk in the Beaufort. He subsequently com- 
manded the defences of Smithville, N.C., during 
the attack on Fort Fisher, December, 1864-Janu- 
ary, 1865, and after the surrender he dismantled 
the defences and returned with his marines to 
Wilmington, N. C. He is the author of : Narrative 
of the United States Expedition up the River Jor- 
dan and the Dead Sea (1849) ; Naval Life, or Ob- 
servations Afloat and Ashore (1851). He died in 
Baltimore, Md., Oct. 17, 1865. 

LYNDE» Benlamin» jurist, was born in Salem, 
Mass., Sept. 22, 1666 ; son of Simon and Hannah 
(Newgate) Lynde, and grandson of Enoch and 
Elizabeth (Digbie) Lynde, of London, England, 
and of John Newgate, of Boston, Mass. He was 
graduated from Harvard, A.B., 1686, A.M., 1689, 
and studied law in the Middle Temple, England, 
1692-97. He returned to America in 1697 with a 
commission as advocate-general of the court of 
admiralty of Massachusetts, Connecticut and 
Rhode Island. He removed from Boston to 
Salem, Mass., in 1698, and engaged in practice, 
although he did not take the oath of office till 
1701. He was representative from Salem in the 
general court of Massachusetts in 1708, 1706, 
1711 and 1712, and a member of the council, 
1713-37. He was judge of the superior court of 
Massachusetts in 1712-28, and upon Judge SewalPs 
resignation in 1728, became chief justice, which 
office he held until his death. He was married 
April 27, 1699, to Mary, daughter of Judge 
William and Hannah (Cur win) Browne, of 
Salem. He died at Salem, Mass., Jan. 28, 1745. 

LYNDE« Benjamin, jurist, was born in Salem, 
Mass., Oct. 5, 1700, son of Judge Ben janiin and 
Mary (Browne) Lynde, and grandson of Judge 
William and Hannah (Curwin) Browne. He 
graduated at Harvard in 1718, and studied 
law with his uncle, Samuel Browne. He was 
naval officer for the port of Salem, 1721-29 ; a 
special judge of tlie court of common pleas for 
Suffolk county, 1734 ; agent of the province to 
settle the boundary between Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire, 1737 ; judge of the court of 
common pleas for Essex county, 1737-46 ; judge 
of the supreme court of Massachusetts, 1746-71, 
and chief justice, 1771-72. During his judicial 
term, in the absence of Chief -Justice Hutchin- 
son, he tried the soldiers who fired on the mob 
in State street, and was accused of packing the 
jury. He resigned in 1772. and was appointed 
judge of the probate for the county of Essex. 



LYNDE 



LYON 



He was an active member of the sooiety formed 
for the employment of poor i>eople in the manu- 
facture of linen in 1754 ; a signer of one of the 
Salem addresses to Qen, Thomas Gkige in 1774 ; 
and councillor for Massachusetts for twenty- 
eight years. He was married Not. 1, 1731, to 
Mary, daughter of Maj. John Bowles, of Box- 
bury, Mass. He died in Salem , Mass. , Oct. d, 1781. 

LYNDEt FranciAf author, was bom in Lewis- 
ton, N.Y., Nov. 12, 1856 ; son of WiUiam Tilly 
and Elizabeth (Need) Lynde ; grandson of Haw- 
kins and Maria (Carruthers) Lynde and of 
Thomas and Julia (Sanderson) Need ; and a de- 
scendant of Thomas Lynde, who came from Eng- 
land in 1634 and settled in Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts Bay colony. He attended the gprammar 
school of Kansas City ; pursued home study in New 
England, and studied under private and aca- 
demic teachers. He was married in 1878 to Mari- 
etta Williams, and in 1888 to Mary Antoinette 
Stickle. He was in the railway service in the 
motive power, accounting and passenger depart- 
ments, 1872-93. He retired from the railway 
service in 1893 and devoted his time to writing 
stories. He is the author of ; A Romance in Transit 
(1897); r/ic Helpers (1899); A Private Chivalry 
(1900), and numerous contributions to periodi* 
cals. 

LYNDE. William Pitt, representative, was 
born in Sherburne, N.Y., Dec. 16, 1817; son of 
Tilly and Elizabeth (Warner) Lynde, both natives 
of Massachusetts, who settled in Sherburne in 
1800. Tilly Lynde was a member of the assembly 
seven years and a state senator six years. Will- 
iam P. Lynde was a student at Hamilton college, 
1834-36, and was graduated from Yale, valedic- 
torian, A.B., 1838; A.M., 1841. Heattended the law 
department of the University of the City of New 
York, 1838-39, and Harvard Law school, 1839- 
41 ; was admitted to the bar in New York city in 
1841, and practised in Milwaukee, Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory. He was married in 1841 to Mary E., 
daughter of Dr. Azariah Blanchard of Truxton, 
N.Y. He was attorney-general of Wisconsin 
Territory, 1844-45 ; U.S. district attorney for the 
district of Wisconsin, 1845-47, and upon the 
admission of the state into the Union in 1847, he 
was its Democratic representative in the 30th 
congress, 1847-49. He was an unsuccessful can- 
didate for the supreme court bench in 1840 ; 
mayer of Milwaukee, 1860-62 ; state representa- 
tive, 1866-68 ; state senator, 1868-69, and a repre- 
sentative in the 44th and 45th congresses, 1875-79. 
He died in Milwaukee, Wis., Dec. 18, 1885. 

LYNDON, Josias, governor of Rhode Island, 
was bom in Newport, R.I., March 10, 1704 ; of a 
wealthy and influential family. He was clerk 
of the lower house of the general assembly, 
and of the superior court of the county of New- 



port, 1730-78, with the exception of the one year 
he was governor of the colony, 1768-69. His elec* 
tion as governor was brought about by the respeo* 
tive friends of Samuel* Wood and Stephen Hop- 
kins, who both withdrew from the canvass in his 
favor. Governor Lyndon's administration was 
crowded with the exciting events that preceded 
the Revolution. He was a Arm patriot, and 
wrote several letters as from the ** Governor of 
Rhode Island ^ to the King and to the Earl of 
Hillsborough reciting the grievances of the 
colony chartered by Charles II., and^^rotesting 
against taxation without representation, as re- 
corded in Bartlett*s " Records of the Colony of 
Rhode Island." When the British took posses- 
sion of Newport, Lyndon, feeling that one who 
had been so conspicuous as a rebel would be un- 
safe in the town, removed to Warren, R.I., where 
he died March 30, 1778. 

LYONt Asa, representative, was born in Pom- 
fret, Conn., Dec. 31, 1763. He was graduated 
from Dartmouth college in 1790 ; and studied 
theology with the Rev. Charles Backus. He was 
pastor of the Congregational church at Sunder- 
land, Mass., 1792-93 ; organized and was first min- 
ister of the Congregational church at Grand Isle, 
Vt., serving for over forty years, though he was 
never installed as pastor. He secured a tract of 
valuable land in North Hero, Vt., and built a house 
of cedar logs in which he lived with his family 
most of his life. He was a representative from 
South Hero in the general assembly, 1799-1803. 
1804-08, and from Grand Isle, 1812-15. He was 
chief justice of the county court, 1805, 1806, 1808 
and 1813, and a representative in the 14th congress, 
1815-17. He died in Grand Isle, Vt., April 4, 1841. 

LYON, Caleb, representative, was bom in 
Lyonsdale, N.Y., Dec. 7, 1822; son of Caleb and 
Mary (Dupont) Lyon, and grandson of Lieut. 
Caleb Lyon, wounded at Bunker Hill. His an- 
cestor, Caleb Lyon, was a Scotchman who inuni- 
grated from Hertfordshire, England, and settled 
in New England. His father was the founder of 
Lyonsdale, and built a bridge and a grist mill 
there, 1829-31. Caleb was graduated from Nor- 
wich university, Vt., in 1839, and at an early age 
became known as a lecturer. He was appointed 
by President Polk U.S. consul to Shanghai, 
China, Feb. 15, 1847, but soon after reaching his 
post intrusted the office to a deputy and returned 
to the United States by way of South America 
and Panama. On reaching California he became 
interested in the organization of a state govern- 
ment, and was one of the secretaries of the state 
constitutional convention, and upon the ques- 
tion of selecting a state seal, the design offered 
by Mr. Lyon was accepted, Sept. 2, 1849, for 
which he was paid the sum of $1000. In 1850 ho 
returned to Lyonsdale, N.Y., and was elected to 



LYON 



LYON 




the state assembly, resigning April 26, 1851. He 
-was chosen a state senator in November, 1851, 
and soon after the expiration of his term of 
office, he visited Europe and travelled extensively 

in Turkey, Egypt and Pales- 
tine. While at Constantinople 
he addressed a letter to Com. 
Duncan A. Ingraham of the 
U.S. corvette St. Loui8, highly 
approving of the measure 
taken in the rescue of Martin 
Koszta from an Austrian brig. 
On returning to the United States he was elected a 
representative in the 38d congress, serving 18«5&-55. 
He was governor of Idaho, 1864-66. The degree 
of LL.D. was conferred on him by Norwich uni- 
versity in 1851. A number of his poems were 
published in current magazines. His home in 
Lyonsdaie was burned in 1866 and he removed to 
** Ross Castle,'^ Staten Island, N.Y., where he 
<iied Sept. 8, 1875. 

LYON, Chittenden, representative, was born 
in Fair Haven, Vt., in 1786; son of the Hon. 
Matthew and Beulah (Chittenden) Galusha Lyon, 
4ind grandson of Gov. Thomas and Elizabeth 
(Meigs) Chittenden. In 1801 he removed with 
his father to Eddyville, Ky. He was a rep- 
resentative in the Kentucky legislature ; a state 
senator ; a Jacksonian Democratic representative 
in the 20th, 21st, 22d and 23d congresses, 1827--35, 
and an unsuccessful candidate for presidential 
olector on the Van Buren and Johnson ticket in 
1896. His wife died Feb. 4, 1828, leaving five 
•children, and their daughter, Margaret A., became 
the wife of Willis B. Machen (q. v. ) . Lyon county, 
Xy., of which Eddyville is the capital, was named 
in his honor. He died in Caldwell county, Ky., 
Nov. 23, 1843. 

LYONt David Qordon, orientalist, was bom at 
3enton, Ala., May 24, 1852; son of Isaac and 
Sarah Caroline (Arnold) Lyon. He was a student 
at William Jewell college. Mo., 1869-72 : at How- 
ard college, Ala., 1872-75, receiving his A.B. de- 
gree from Howard college in 1875. While an 
undergraduate he had charge of the business 
interests of the Alabama Baptistf a religious 
weekly, and held this office one year after grad- 
uation. He was a student at the Southern Bap- 
tist Theological seminary, 1876-79. He then 
pursued special courses in Semitic philology at 
the University of Leipzig, 1879 to 1882, receiving 
the degree of Ph.D. in the latter year. In 1882 
be accepted the Hollis professorship of divinity 
in Harvard university, and was also made curator 
of the newly established Semitic Museum in 1891. 
He was elected a member of the American Orien- 
tal society in 1882 and its recording secretary in 
1886, serving in this capacity for nine years. He 
n^as corresponding secretary of the Society of 



Biblical Literature and Exegesis, 1894-99. He 
received the honorary degree of D.D. from Har- 
vard in 1901. His works include : KeUschrifttexte 
Sargons Kdnigs von Asayrien (Leipzig, 1883) ; An 
A88ifrian Manual for the Use of Beginners in the 
Study of the Assyrian Language (1886 ; new ed., 
1892). 

LYON, Francis Strother, representative, was 
bom in Stokes county, N.C., Feb. 25, 1800 ; son of 
James and Beliethland (Gaines) Lyon ; grandson 
of James and Bettie (Strother) Oaines and a de- 
scendant of Fitmcis Strother of Culpeper county, 
Va. He removed to St. Stephens, Washington 
county, Miss. Ty., with his brother, James G. LyoiJ. 
in 1818, and was employed in the office of the clerk 
of the court. He studied law under Abner S. 
Lipscomb, W. H. Crawford and Henry Hitchock ; 
was admitted to the bar in 1821, and practised at 
Demopolis, Ala. He was secretary of the Alabama 
senate, 1820-30 ; state senator, 1833-34, and presi- 
dent of the senate in 1834. He was a representa- 
tive in the 24th and 25th cong^resses, 1835-39, and 
in 1845 when the state bank and its branches 
were placed in liquidation he was selected with 
William Cooper and Clement C. Cl.ay as a com- 
missioner to adjust all claims, and after their re- 
port in 1847 he continued as sole commissioner 
until the final settlement in 1853. He was a rep- 
resentative in the Alabama legislature in 1861 ; 
declined to serve as a representative in the pro- 
visional Confederate congress, but was a member 
of the 1st congress under the Confederate consti- 
tution, 1862-64. He was re-elected to the 2d 
Confederate congress in 1864, and served until 
the close of the war. He was a delegate to the 
state constitutional convention of 1875 and made 
the draft of the constitution adopted by the con- 
vention, and was a state senator in 1876. He was 
married, March 4, 1824, to Sarah Serena, daughter 
of Allen Glover of Marengo county, Ala. He 
died in Demopolis, Ala., Dec. 81, 1882. 

LYON, LuciuSy senator, was born in Shelbume, 
Vt., Feb. 26, 1800. In 1822 he removed to Bron- 
son, Michigan Territory, where he engaged as 
surveyor-general of the Northwest Territory. He 
was territorial delegate to congress, 1833-35 ; a 
delegate from the eleventh district to the state 
constitutional convention of 1835 ; U.S. senator 
from Michigan for the short term, 1885-39 ; re- 
moved to Grand Rapids, and was a Democratic 
representative from the 5th congressional district 
in the 28th congress, 1843-45. He was a regent 
of the University of Michigan by appointment, 
1837-39, and by re-appointment, Feb. 27, 1839, 
for a term of four years, but resigned in 1839. He 
died in Grand Rapids, Mich., Sept. 24, 1851. 

LYON, Mary, educator, was bom at Buckland, 
Mass., Feb. 28, 1797; daughter of Aaron and 
Jemima (Shepard) Lyon ; granddaughter of Isaac 



LYON 

andJeniima(Smith)ijhepard,anda descendant of 
Lieut. Samuel Smith who came fruni England in 
the Elizabelh, 1634. She tauglit a district school 
in 1814 and in the winters of 1817 and 1818 ; was 
a student at Sanderson acadeiny, Ashfleld, 1817- 
31 ; at Jueeph Emerson's school, ByBeld, 1821-23, 
and in 1823 attended Professor Eaton's lectures 
on chemistry at Amherst. Slie was assistant- 
principal in the Ashfield academy, 1832-23, and 
assisted Klisa Grant in an academy for ^irls at 
Derry, N.H,, 1834-27, also teaohingin the winters 
in Aslifleld and a school of lier own in Buckland. 
She taught in Miss Grant's scliool at Ipswich, 
' Mass., 1628-34. In 1834 she laid before a dele- 
gation of gentlemen from Ipswich plans for the 
endowment of a Eeininary for young women. 
This committee appointed the Rev. Roswell 
Hawks to solicit funds. Miss Lyon's views were 
pronounced impracticable and visionary by lead- 
ing educators, but notwitlistanding public ridi- 
cule she accompanied Mr. Hawks from town to 
town and within two months had collected from 
the women of Ipewich and vicinity the sum of 
tlUOO. He obtained additional aid, and on Feb. 
11, 1630, Ooyemor Everett, signed the charter 
incorporating Mount Holyoke seminary at South 



Hadley, Mass. On Oct. 3, 1836, the corner-stone 
was laid, and on Nov. 8, 1837, the seminary was 
opened. The feature of Miss Lyon's plan most 
ridiculed was tliat every student should give an 
hour a day to domestic labor, thus providing 
for all the household work of the institution 
without infringing on school duties. This plan 
not only reduced the outlay, but created a home 
atmosphere and developed a spirit of self-lielp. 
Miss Lyon continued as principal of tliis siimi- 
nary until her death. Nearlytwo hundred pupils 
were refused admittance the flrat year and four 
hundred the second for want of room, and in the 
fourth year, although the capacity of the build- 
ing has been doubled, the applicants greatly ex- 
ceeded the increased accommodations. She pub- 
lished pamphlets on Tendencies of the Princi- 
ptet Embraced and (fia System adopted in tlie 
Mount Holyoke Seminary (1640), and the Mimion- 
ary Offering (1843). Edward Hitchcock wrote: 
" Power of Christian Benevolence Illustrated in 



LYON 

theLifeand lAbors of Maiy Lyon "(1851), and Fi- 
delia Fiske, '• Kecolleotionsof Mary Lyon "(1866). 
A sentence from one of Iter last talks with the 
school forms the epitaph over the grave, " There is 
nothing in the universe that 1 fear but that I shall 
not know all my duty or shall fail to do it." In 
the selection of names for a place in the Hall of 
Fame for Great Americans, New York university, 
made in October, 1900, Mary Lyon was one of 
the fifteen names in " Class C, Educators." and 
received twenty-one votes, Horace Mann receiv- 
ing sixty-seven and alone securing a place. She 
died in Soutli Hadley, Mass., March 13, 1649. 

LYON, riatthewt representative, was born in 
county Wicklow, Ireland, July 14, 1750. He was 
sent to school in Dublin, and instructed in Eng- 
lish, Latin and Greek. His father engaged with 
the " White Boys " in a conspiracy against the 
British crown for 
which he was put to 
death while Matthew 
was at school. In 
1763 tlie property of 
hia father having 
been conflscated, Mat- 
thew entered a print- 
ing and bookbinding 
office in Dublin, 
where he learned the 
trade. His mother 
married a second 
time and the cruelty 
of his stepfather is /■yyy fi^C" 
said to have induced ^^^ C^*^^ 
him to immigrate 

to New York in 1766, where he was landed 
as a redemption ist, forced to that extremity by 
the bad faith of the captain of the vessel. He 
was bound to Jabez Bacon of Woodbury, Conn., 
the wealthiest merchant in Connecticut, and he 
resided in that state until 1774. Here he contin- 
ued the studies so well begun in Dublin and be- 
fore reaching his majority had acquired a supe- 
rior education. He became a freeman in 1766 
and was married in 1771 to Miss Hosford, a niece 
of Ethan Allen. With Thomas Chittenden and 
other pioneers he removed to Vermont, known 
then as the New Hampshire Qrants, in 1774. and 
settled in Wallingford while Chittenden went 
to Williston. Immediately on reaching Vermont 
he called together the younger men of the neigh- 
borhood and they formed an armed association, 
hired an old man to teach them discipline, each 
took command of the company in turn and when 
the news of the battle at Lexington reached the 
settlement Lyon took part of the command and 
joined Ethan Allen in the capture of Fort Ticon- 
deroga with its immense military stores. He 
served as adjutant of Colonel Warner's regiment 



LYON 



LYON 



under Oeneral Montgomery in Canada in the fall 
of 1775. Warner was commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel in command of the Green Mountain Boys 
in July, 1776, and Lyon a second lieutenant in 
the regiment. He was cashiered hy General 
Gates, Oct. 16, 1776, because his company, ordered 
to remain at Jericho, deserted their post and forced 
the officers, two captains and one lieutenant be- 
sides Lyon, to accompany them. General St. 
Clair who presided at the court-martial recom- 
mended Lyon to Greneral Schuyler and obtained 
for him a commission as paymaster with the rank 
of captain in the Continental regiment com- 
manded by Seth Warner. He led a detachment 
in the fight at Hubbardton, July 7, 1777, and 
acted as guide to General St. Clair in liis masterly 
march to join General Schuyler at Fort Edward, 
July 13, 1777. He served in the battles of Ben- 
nington and Saratoga and resigned from the 
army in the spring of 1778. He served the state as 
a member of the council of safety, captain in the 
militia, paymaster-general, deputy secretary to 
Gt)vemor Chittenden and his council, assistant 
to the treasurer, and colonel of militia. l(e rep- 
resented Arlington (to which, place he had re- 
moved from Wallingford in 1777 and where his 
wife died in 1782), in the state legislature, 1779- 
83, and Fair Haven for ten years between 1783 
and 1797. He was the founder of Fairhaven in 
1783, where he built saw and grist mills, estab- 
lished an iron foundry, manufactured paper 
from basswood pulp, established a printing 
office in 1793 and published The Farmer^ s Library^ 
a newspaper which became the Fairhaven Ckizette, 
and in 1793, while a candidate for representative 
in congress, commenced the publication of The 
Scourge of Aristocracy , a semi-monthly magazine. 
In October, 1798, he was indicted for writing a 
letter criticising the President for his part in pro- 
curing the passage of the alien and sedition acts, 
which letter was printed in the Windsor, Vt., 
Journal. He was imprisoned in Vergennes, Vt., 
for four months and paid a fine of $1000 and while 
in prison his constituents re-elected him to con- 
gress. He was married secondly in 1788 to Beu- 
lah, daughter of Gov. Thomas Chittenden and 
widow of George Galusha, and of their nine chil- 
dren, four were sons ; Chittenden, Matthew, 
Noah C, and Giles. He was the unsuccessful 
anti-Federalist candidate for representative in 
the 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th congresses, 1701-99, and 
was elected by his party in 1798 and 1800, serving 
in the 6th and 7th congresses, 1799-1 801. His first 
speech in congress was in support of his motion 
''that such members as do not choose to attend 
upon the President, to present the answer to his 
speech shall be excused." His words served to 
excite the Federalists and atreng:then the deter- 
mination of the Anti-Federalists who were op- 



posed to aristocratic usage. On Jan. 80, 1798, an 
altercation on the fioor of the house led to the 
following resolution ofifered by Representative 
Samuel Sewall of Massachusetts: ''Resolved, 
that Matthew Lyon, a member of the House, for 
a violent attack, and gross indecency committed 
upon the person of Roger Griswold, another 
member, in the presence of this House, whilst 
sitting, be, for this disorderly behavior, expelled 
therefrom." The matter was caricatured and 
made ridiculous by the public press, but caused a 
clash of factions and the leaders on both sides 
have left record of their views in their published 
papers. He was not expelled as foi-ty-four repre- 
sentatives voted against the resolution. When 
he cast the vote of Vermont in the 6t)i congress 
which elected Jefferson to the Presidency in 1801 
he considered himself avenged. He removed 
from Vermont to Kentucky the same year, largely 
through the advice of Andrew Jackson, and he 
there founded the town of Eddyville. He declined 
the position of commissary -general of the western 
army offered him by President Jefferson ; was a 
representative in the Kentucky legislature from 
Livingston county, 1802, and a representative in 
the 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th congresses, 1808-11. 
He made a notable speech in reply to John Ran- 
dolph of Roanoke, who had attacked Gideon 
Granger, postmaster-general, w^hich is given in 
the annals of the 8th congress. He warned Jack- 
son against the secret operations of Burr and 
Wilkinson in the southwest. He opposed the 
second war with England and this cost him his 
seat in the 12th congress, but he engaged in 
building gunboats for the navy at his ship-yards 
in Eddyville. He became bankrupt about this 
time through the embargo act, and the loss of a 
valuable vessel, and in 1818 applied to his polit- 
ical friends in Washington for office. He was 
appointed U.S. factor to the Cherokee nation in 
Arkansas Territory by President Monroe in 1820, 
and settled at Spadra Bluff. He was elected the 
second delegate to congress from Arkansas, but 
did not live to take his seat. See * ' Matthew Lyon, 
the Hampden of Congress, a Biography," by J. 
Fairfax McLaughlin, LL.D. (1900). He died at 
Spadra Bluff, Ark., Aug. 1, 1822. 

LYON, Nathaniel, soldier, was born in Ash- 
ford, Conn., July 14, 1818 ; son of Aniasa and 
Kezia (Knowlton) Lyon, and grandson of Ephraim 
Lyon, a farmer and lawyer of Ash ford, and of 
Lieut. Daniel Knowlton, an officer in the French 
and Indian and Revolutionary wai*s. Natlianiel 
was graduated from the U.S. Military academy 
in 1841 and was 2d lieutenant of the 2d in- 
fantry. He served in the Seminole war, 1841-42 ; 
was in garrison at Sacket Harbor, N.Y., 1842-46, 
and at Fort Columbus, N.Y., in 1846. He was 
promoted first lieutenant, Feb. 16, 1847, and took 



LYONS 

part in the siege of Vera Crnz, March 9, 1847, 
the battle of Cerro Oordo, where his company 
alone reached the crest of the hill in time to 
hasten t]ie enemy's retreat ; at Oka Lake, Au- 
gust IS, at CoDtreraa, August 19, and at 
Churubusco, Aug. SO, 
1647. He was bre- 
vetted captain, Aug- 
ust 20, for CoDtreras 
and Churubusco. He 
also engaged at Mo- 
lino del Rej, Septem- 
ber 8, and in the 
assault and capture 
of the Citj of Mex- 
ico, Sept. 13-14, 1847, 
where he was wound- 
ed while fighting in 
the streets near the 
Belen Gate. He was 
Id garrison at Fort 
' Hamilton, N.Y., in 

1848 ; on frontier duty, and on quartermaster duty 
at San Diego, 1850-SI ; was promoted cap- 
tain, June 11. lesi, and was In Kansas, Da- 
kota, Minnesota and Nebraska, 1853-61. He 
was commissioned brigadier-general of U.S. 
volunteera. May 17, 1861, and succeeded Major 
Hagner In the command of the St. Louis 
arsenal. On May i, 1801, the demand was made 
by the governor of Missouri that the troops should 
be removed from all stations outside the U.S. 
arsenal which contained 60,000 stand of arms, but 
the demand was refused by Captain Lyon and the 
governor organized Camp Jackson as a rendez- 
vous for state troops. On May 10, 1861, Captain 
Lyon with about 5000 troops surrounded this 
oamp and caused its surrender. Later in the 
day an encounter between the U.S. soldiers and 
the citizens resulted in the death of several un- 
armed citizens and the inoident caused great 
excitement in St. Louis. On May 11, General 
Harney arrived at St. Louis and assumed com- 
mand, but was recalled May 21, 1861, and Lyon 
led in the pursuit of Jackson's state troops and 
overtook and scattered them at Boonevilte, June 
13, 1861. He left Booneville July 3 for Spring- 
field, Mo., arriving there July 15. Tlien followed 
the action at Dug Spring August 3, and on August 7 
he led the attack on the state forces at Wilson's 
Creek, where he was mortally wounded wbile 
leading a charge. He bequeathed his entire 
property, nearly $80,000, to the U.S. government. 
He is the author of : Politicai Writings (published 
posthumously, 1862). He died near Wilson's 
Creek, Mo., Aug. 10. 1861. 

LYONS, Albert Browa, chemist, was bom in 
Waimea, Hawaii, April, 1, 1841 ; son of the Rev. 
Lorenzo and Luoia Oarratt (Smith) Lyons and a 



LYONS 

descendant of William Lyon, of Middlesex county, 
England, who came to Roibury, Maes., in 1635. 
His parents were missionaries on a station remote 
from any town and he received his primary 
education at home. He attended Oabu college, 
1837-63, and was graduated at Williams college, 
Massachusetts, A.B., 1865, A.M., 1868; Univer- 
sity of Michigan, M.D., 1868. He was professor 
of chemistry, Detroit Medical college, 1868-80; , 

consulting chemist for Parke, Davis & Co., Dft- \ 

troit, 1861-86 ; and edited the Pharmaeeutical Era, 
1887. He returned in 1886 to the Hawaiian 
Islands where he was employed by the govern- { 

ment as expert chemist and by the trustees of 
Oahu college as professor of clicmistry. In 16S7 j 

he returned to the United Stales to accept the | 

position of consulting chemist and secretary of 
the firm of Nelson, Baker & Co., Detroit, manu- 
facturing phtLrmacists. He was made a member 
of thecommitteeof revision of U.S. Pharmaceepia 
in 1900. He is the author of : Manual of Phar- 
maceutical Aaeaying (1887); Praetieal Agaa^ng 
of DrugH and GalenicaU (1899); Plant Namt», 
Scientijic and Popular (1900). 

LYONS, Judson Whltlock, treasury official, 
was born in Burke county, Ga., Aug. 15, 1858 ; son 
of slave parents. He attended a night school in 
Augusta, Ga., 1871-73, and the Augusta institute 
conducted by the Rev. Dr. Joseph T. Robert, 
1673-76. He taught summer schools, 1874-80 ; 
was a delegate to the Republican national con- 
vention at Chio^;o, June 2, 1880 ; internal-re- 
venue ganger, 1860-83 ; and deputy collector, 1683. 
In 1888 he studied law with Gibson & Brandt, 
Augusta, Oa., and he was graduated from How- 
ard university LL.B. in 1864. He was admitted to 
practice in all the courte of Georgia in November, 
1884 ; and was a lawyer in Augusta, 1884-98, 
being the first colored man to practice in the 
state. He was a delegate to the Republican 
national convention at Minneapolis, June?. 1892 ; 
head of the Republican national electoral ticket 
in Georgia in 1692 and was instrumental in 1896 
in increasingthenumberof judges of the supreme 
court of Georgia through an amendment to the 
state constitution. He was a delegate to the 
Republican national convention at St. Louis, 
June 16, 1896, where be was elected a member 
of the Republican national committee to repre- 
sent Georgia. He was the candidate of the 
colored Republicans of Aug^usta for postmaster of 
the city, 1897-98; and in March, 1896, he was 
appointed by President McKinley register of the 
U.S. treasury and took office early in April. He 
was elected trustee and president of the board of 
trustees of Haines college, Augusta. Ga., and in 
1900 received the honorary degree of A.M. trom 
the Baptist college, Atlanta, Ga., and that of 
D.C.L. from Shaw university, Raleigb, N.C. 



LYONS 

LYONSt Samuri Rom, eduoator, was born In 
Winnaboro, B.C., April 26, 1849 ; aou of George 
•nd Priaoilla (Gil«(m} Lyons, grandaon of James 

and (Elliott) L^ons. He served in the IMth 

nUnois Tolnnteers in 18AS ; eubeequently entered 
Honmontli oollege. 111., and was graduated from 
there A.B. in 1877. He studied tbeologj at 
Zenia, Ohio ; was ordained to the TTnited PresbT'- 
terian tniniatry in 1880 ; was pastor at Uarissa, 
IlL, 1880-85 ; and at Bloomington, Ind., 1885-98. 
la lesa he was elected a trustee of Indiana 
Dniveraitf and in 1898 became president of Mon- 
mouth college. He was married in 1891 to Ale- 
thia, daughter of Andrew S. Cooper ; she died in 
Honmouth, 111., April 10, 1901. Erakine and 
Westminster colleges conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of D.D. in 1808. 

LYTE, Ellpholot Oram, educator, was bom at 
Bird-in-Hand, Pa., June 29, 1842; son of Louis 
Ctarkaon and Rebecca (Martin) Lyte ; grandson 
of Martin Lyte and of Robert Martin, and a de- 
scendant of Joshua Peeling, a prominent Revolu- 
tionary soldier. He served in the civil war, 1861- 
45, being wounded at Chancellorsville, May 1, 
1863. He tau^t school, 1867, was graduated 
from the State Normal eobool, MiUersville, Pa., 
in 1868, and remained there as professor of lan- 
guage and pedagogy until 1387, when he was ad- 
vanced to the principalship. He became prom- 
inent in educational matters throughout the 
Btnte. He was president of the Pennsylvania 
■State Teachers' Association in 1891, and of the 
National EMucatioual Association, of which he 
vras a life-dlrector, in 1809. Franklin and Mar- 
Hlmll college conferred upon him the degree of 
A.M. in 1878, and that of Ph.D. in 1887. His 
published works include : Forma of Parsing and 
Anaiyati (1870); Practicai Bookkeeping (1880); 
The School Song-Book (1883); Oramnutr and 
Composition (1880); The School Bell (1892); Ele- 
nientary EnglUh (1808); Elementa of Oramnar 
and ComjM«ttton(1808): Advanced Orammar and 
Compontion (1809). 

LVTLE, Robert Todd, representative, was 
born in Williamsborg, Ohio, in 1804 ; son of 
William and Eliza Nowell (Stahl) Lytle ; grand- 
son of William and Mary (Steel) Lytle, and a 
descendant of Christopher and Mary Lytle. His 
father (born at Carlisle. Pa.. 1772; died, 1831) 
was major-general of state militia for the south- 
ern district of Ohio ; served in the Indian wars, 
was also surveyor-general of Ohio, Indiana and 
Hicbigao ; and founded Williamsburg, Clermont 
county, Ohio. Hia grandfather, William Lytle, 
was a oommissioned officer in the French and 
Indian war, 1754-68, who removed to Kentucky 
from Pennsylvania in 1779. Robert T. Lytle was 
a representative in the Ohio legislature, 1828-29 ; 
a major-general in the Ohio militia ; a represent- 
vn.— 6 



LYTLE 

ative from the first district of Ohio in the 23d 
oongreas, 1833-35, and U.S. surveyor-general of 
public lands in Ohio, 1885-88. He married Eliz- 
abeth Haines of Cincinnati, Ohio. He died in 
New Orleans, La., Deo. 21, 1839. 

LVTLE, WltliuD HainM, soldier, was born in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Nov. 2, 1826; son of Gen. 
Robert Todd and Elizabeth (Hames) Lytle. He 
was graduated from Cincinnati college, studied 
law with bis uncle, E. S. Haines, and in 184Q 
became lieutenant in the Sd Ohio infantry, and 
captain, Deo. 31, 1847. After the Mexican war 
he practised law in Cincinnati; was a Dem- 
ooratio representative in the state legislature, 
1862-54, and in 1857 was the Democratic can- 
didate for lieutenant-governor of Ohio on the 
ticket with H. B. Payne for governor. At the 
outbreak of the civil war he was major-general, 
commanding the 1st division, Ohio militia, and 
mustered the Gth, eth, 9th and 10th regiments 
for three months' service. He also proposed to 
furnish an artillery regiment, but hia offer was 
declined by the seoretary of war. He was com- 
missioned colonel of the 10th Ohio infantry, and 
commanded a brigade in the engagement at Car- 
nifex Ferry, Sept. 10, 1861, where he was se- 
verely wounded. On his recovery he commanded 
the camp of rendezvous and instruction at Bards- 
town, Ey. : was assigned to the command of the 
17th brigade, 8d division, Ist army corps, Army 
of the Ohio, and serv- 
ed in the Alabama 
campaign and dur- 
ing General Buell's 
march into Ken- 
tucky, where he cov- 
ered the rear of the 
army. He was con- 
spicuous for bis bra- 
very at the battle of 
Perryville, Oct. 8, 
1862, where he led 
a charge in person, 
and in carrying out a 
flank movement a 
fragment of shell 
struck him and he was 

left on the field for dead. He was taken prisoner, 
andwasexchanged, Feb. 4. 1868. He was promoted 
brigadier-general, Nov. 20, 1862, during his im- 
prisonment ; commanded the 1st brigade. 3d 
division, 2d army corps. Army of the Cumberland, 
in the Chiokamauga campaign, and at Chicka- 
mauga, Sept. 20, 1863, during a charge which he 
led in person, he was pierced by several bullets 
and survived but a few moments. He is the 
author of the poem beginning ; " I am dying, 
Egypt, dying I" flrst published, July 29, 1858. 
He died near Chickamauga, Oa., Sept. 20, 1863. 



MacALISTEE 



HABIE, Hamltton Wrigbt, editor and author, 
was born at Cold Spring. N.Y., Deo. 18, 1846. 
He was graduated from Williams college in 18ST 
and from Columbia, LL.B., in 1869. He prao- 
tieed law in New York cit^, 1869-79 ; became 
connected with the 
ChrUtian Union in 
1879 and formally an 
editor in 1864, con- 
tinuing as euch after 
that paper became 
The Outlook, in June, 
1898. He became 
. well known as a leo- 
I turer on literary and 
educational topics, 
and as a contributor 
of essays to the lead- 
ing periodicals. He 
was elected a trustee 
fi^-rrt-M^ifJ: /Ttojfci^ and eecretary of the 
-■ board of trustees of 

Barnard college, a trustee of Williams col- 
lege, and president of the New York Kin- 
dergarten association. He received the de- 
grees of A.M. and L.H.D. from Williams, and 
LL.D. from Union in 1899. His published books 
include: JVopm Storiea (1884); JIfy Study Fvrt 
(1st ser., 1890; 2d eer., 1894; 8d ser.. 1899); 
[Tnder tin Trte» a-ad EUewhere (1891) ; Short Sittd- 
ieM in Literature (1891); Essays on Literary In- 
terpretation (1893); JVafure and CvZlure (1897); 
Bookt and Culture (1897); Work aTtd Culture 
(1898); Intke Foreit of Arden (1898); The Ufe 
of the Spirit (1899); Shakespeare: Poet, Drama- 
«•( and Man (1900) ; A ChUd of Natare (1901) ; 
and a selection of Old English Ballads and Love- 
Songt. 

McADOO, William, representative, was bom 
in Ireland, Oct. 2S, 16SS. He was brought to 
America at an early age by his parents, who 
settled in Jersey City, N.J. After attending the 
public schools he studied law, and In 1874 he was 
admitted to the bar. He was a member of the 
state assembly and a Democratic representative 
from the seventh district of New Jersey in the 
48th, 49tfa, 50th and Slst oongreases, 1883-91. 
He was assistant secretary of the navy during 
President Cleveland's second administration, 
189S-9T, and at the close of his term resumed the 
practice of law in Jersey City. 

ncAFEE, Robert Brecklnridgv, lawyer, was 
bom in Mercer county, Ky., in February, 1784 ; 
son of Robert and Anna (McCToun) McAfee, and 
grandson of James McCoun, who came from 
Ireland in 1743 and married Mai^aret Walker in 



1744. Robert HoAfee was one of three brotbera 
who went to Kentucky from Botetourt county, 
Va., in 1773, and were the first pioneers after 
Boone. He attended Transylvania oniveisity and 
conducted a farm and practised law in Heroer 
county, Ky,, 1805-13. He was successively pri- 
vate, sergeant, ensign, and captain in the north- 
western army, 1812-14 ; served in Col. Bichard M. 
Johnson's regiment, first as quartermaster in the 
relief of Fort Wayne, and as captain at the battle 
of the Thames, Oct. S, 1818. He was a represent- 
ative in the Kentucky legislature, 181(^lfi and 
1619 ; a senator, 1821-24. and lieutenant-governor 
of Kentucky, 1834-28, He was again a represen- 
tative in the state legislature, 1881-82, and was a 
delegate to the Democratic national convention 
at Baltimore, Hd., May 21, 1832. He was oharg6 
d'affaires at Bogota. Colombia, South America, 
1833-.37, and senator in the Kentucky legislature. 
1841-4S. He was married to Mary, daughter of 
James Cardwell. He was a member of the Royal 
Antiquarian society of Denmark, and an honor- 
ary member of the Kentucky Historical society. 
His private journal contained data of the early 
history of Kentucky and he is the author of a 
History of the War of 181S (1816). He died \i 
Mercer county. Ky., March 12, 1849. 

ricALEER, William, representative, was bom 
in county Tyrone, Ireland, Jan, 6, 1838. He im- 
migrated with his parents to the United States 
in 1891 and settled in Philadelphia, where he 
later engaged with his father and brothers in the 
flour and grain business. He was a member of 
the city council, 1871-78 ; was elected a member 
of the Boai'd of Guardians of the Poor in 1873, 
was vice-president and president of the board, 
and was connected with other charitable and 
benevolent associations. He was state senator. 
1689-90. and was nominated president jfro tempore 
by the Democratic members in 1889, He was a 
Democratic representative from the third district 
of Pennsylvania in the 03d, SSd, GSth and 06th 
congresses, 1891-95 and 1897-1901. 

riacALlSTER. Jamea, educator, was bom in 
Olasgow, Scotland, April 36. 1840. He was a 
student at Glasgow university and at Brown uni- 
versity in the class of 1856, and was graduated 
from the Albany Law school, LL.B., 1864. He 
was superintendent of public schools in Milwau- 
kee, Wis., 1873-83; regent of the Wisconsin 
Normal schools, 1678-83 ; and was the first super- 
intendent of public schools in Philadelphia, Pa., 
1883-91. In 1891 he was elected president of the 
Drexel Institut«, Philadelphia, Pa., and he waa 
lecturer on pedagogy in Johns Hopkins univereity 
in 1898, and at the University of the City of New 



McAllister 

York in 18fi4. He was elected a member of the 
American Philosopbioal society in 1886 ; an officier 
tPAeademie F^ri* in 188S, and served as trustee of 
the University of Pennsylvania, 1886-97. In 1890 
he received from Brown university the degree of 
A.M., bj special vote, and the honorary degree 
of LL.D. He is the author of: Manual of Pri- 
mary Instruction (1884); Manual of Iiutrwtion in 
United Statea Hiatory and Civil Oovemment 
(1887); Catalogue of Pedagogical Library urith 
Biographical Note* (1887); MaMUtl Training in 
the Public Schools of Philadelphia (1890); Art 
Edveation in Public Scftoole {18B3); beeidesad- 
dressea, reports and contributions to periodicals. 
McALLISTBR, Matthew Hall, jurist, was 
bom in Savannah, Ga., Nov, SO, 1600; son of 
Matthew and Hannah (Qibbons) McAllister ; 
grandson of Col. Richard and Mary (Dill) UoAI- 
lister ; graud-nephew of William Gibbons, dele- 
gate (q. v.), and great grandson of Archibald 
McAllister. His father, born May 4, 1758, was a 
graduate of the College of New Jersey, 1779 ; 
U.S. district attorney for Georgia during Wash- 
ington's administration, judge of the superior 
court, mayor of the city of Savannah during the 
war of 1812, and died. May 9, 1828. Matthew 
Hall McAllister matriculated at the College of 
Kew Jersey, but waa not graduated. He was 
admitted to the Georgia bar in 1821, and prac- 
tised in Savannah, Ga. In 1837 he was appointed 
U.S. district attorney for Georgia by President 
J. Q. Adams. He opposed nullification in 1833 ; 
'was a representative in the Georgia legislature 
in 1835, and subsequently state senator for seven- 
teen years and president of the senate most of 
the time of bia service. He established the oourt 
of errors of Georgia and declined the U.S. sena- 
torship. He was defeated for governor of 
Oeorgia on the Democratic ticket in 184S, and 
ivas a delegate to the Democratic national con- 
vention at Baltimore, Md., May 23, 1848. He m- 
moved toSan Francisco, Cal., with his family in 
1650 ; was U.S. circuit judge for California, lS5!t- 
62 ; and rendered valuable services by adjusting 
disputed land titles and by maintaining the 
rights of the government to administer the law, 
when that prerogative was usurped by the vigil- 
ance committee. In 186S, being in ill health, he 
reeigned. He received the degree of LL.D. from 
Columbia college in 1860. His Opinions were 
edited by bis son, Matthew Hall HoAllist«r. He 
married Louisa Charlotte, daughter of Benjamin 
Clark and Sarah Charlotte (Mitchell) Cutler and 
had sons : Julian, colonel, U.S.A.; Hall, lawyer ; 
"Ward, lawyer, and author of : Society at I Have 
Jhund It ; Cutler, lawyer ; and Francis Marion, 
clergyman. Dr. McAllister is the author of a 
Eulogy on Pretident Jackson. He died in San 
Franoiaoo, CoL, Deo. 19, 184S. 



MCALLISTER 

McAllister, Robert, soldler, was bom in 
Lost Creek Valley, Juniata county. Pa., June 1, 
1818 ; son of William, grandson of Hugh, and 
great-grandson of Archibald McAllister. Archi- 
bald McAllister came from Scotland in 1732, and 
settled in Cumberland county. Pa. WUliam 
McAllister was a 
farmer, who held 
various public ofSoes, 
and Robert was 
brought up on the 
farm and attended 
the neighborhood 
school. He was a 
member of the state 
militia, and reached 
the rank of brigadier- 
general. In 1861 he 
recruited a company 
of volunteers at Ox- 

fori, N. J where h, /^,^Jjptr4'M'tV. 
was engaged m build- ■ i -^ 

ing a railroad, and re- 
ported with the company at Trenton, where he 
was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 1st 
New Jersey regiment by Governor Olden. He 
served in General Runyon's 4th (reserve) divi- 
sion at Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1801, the division 
being stationed about six miles in the rear, guard- 
ing the road to Alexandria. His regiment le- 
tumed to New Jersey at the end of three months' 
service and he recruited the 11th New Jersey 
volunteers for the war and was elected colonel. 
He served in Carr's (let) brigade, Sickles's (2d> 
division, Stoneman's (3d) corps at Fredericks- 
burg, Deo. 13, 1863 ; in Carr's brigade, Berry's 
division, Sickles's corps at Chancel lorsville, May 
2-8, 1863 and in Carr's brigade, Humphrey's 
division, Sickles's oorpa at Gettysburg, July 1-4, 

1803, where he was wounded and invalided 
home. He returned to the army after three 
months' absence and was assigned to the com- 
mand of the 1st brigade, 4th division of Han- 
cock's 2d corps and at Spottsylvania, May 12, 

1804, he led the brigade at the " bloody angle " 
forming the second line of battle In the assault at 
the salient. On May 18, 18S4, on the consolida- 
tion of the corps, the 4tb division was absorbed 
and Colonel McAllister resumed command of the 
11th New Jersey in the 8d brigade as recon- 
structed, taking part in the battle of Cold Harbor, 
June 1, 1804, and in the further campaign of 
Grant against Petersburg and Richmond, gaining 
for his conduct at the battle of Boydton plank 
road. Hatcher's Run, Ya., Oct. 27, 1864, the 
brevet of brigadier-general. In the Appomattox 
campaign be commanded the 3d brigade, Sd divi- 
sion, 3d army corps, and on March IS, 1865. was 
brevett«d major-general of volunteers for gallant 



HOALPINE 

and meritoriouB oonduo-t throughout the wu. 
He engaged in railroad business and in mining 
and smelting iron ore in the Lehigh valtej, resid- 
ing at Allentown, Pa., 1665-93, and in 1883 he re- 
moved to Belvidere, N.J. He was married, Nov. 
0, 1341, to Ellen Jane Wilson of Merceraburg, Fa. 
He is the author of ; AtcAlIister'M Brigade at tlie 
Bloody Angle in " Battles and Leaders of tfae 
Civil War," Vol. IV. p. 176. Gen. J. Watta de 
Pefster wrote a sketch of his life. He died at 
Belvidere, N.J., Feb. 33, 1891. 

McALPINB, William Jarvla, civil engineer, 
was born in New York city, April SO, 1812 ; son 
of John and Elizabeth ( Jarvis) McAlpine ; grand- 
son of Capt. Donald and Elizabeth (Storer) 
HoAlpine, and a descendant of Bishop Jarvis, of 
Conneotiout, and of the Scottish Kings of Clan 
Alpine. He attended school at Newbnrgh, N.Y., 
and at Rome, N.Y., and studied civil engineering 
with John B. Jarvis on the Carbondale railwajr 
in Pennsylvania, 163T-S0. He was ansistant to 
Hr. Jarvis on the Mohawk and Hudson River 
railroad and on the Schenectady and Saratoga 
railroad, 1830-31 ; resident engineer on the Che- 
nango canal, 1833-34 ; in charge of surveys for 
the enlargement of the Erie canal from Little 
Falls to Albany, 1835-86 ; and chief engineer of 
the eastern division, 1836-44. In June, 1845, he left 
the employ of the state to accept the position of 
chief engineer in the construction of a dry dock 
at the U.S. navy yard, Brooklyn, N.Y., a work of 
great magnitude and extraordinary difficulty 
which he suocessfully accomplished. He de- 
signed and superintended the construction of 
the original water works at Alltany, N.Y., and at 
Chicago, III., 1850-54. He was state engineer 
and surveyor, 1853-54 ; state railroad commis- 
sioner, 1855-57 ; acting president and ohief engi- 
neer of the Erie railway, 1856-57, and chief en- 
gineer and vice-president of tlie Galena and Chi- 
cago railroad, 1857. He was chief engineer of 
the Third Avenue bridge across the Harlem river, 
1860-61 ; general superintendent of tlie eastern 
division, Ohio and Mississippi railroad, 1861-64 ; 
and chief engineer of the Pacific railway, 1864- 
65. He visited Europe, 1866-67 ; wan consulting 
engineer for the Clifton suspension bridge, Nia- 
gara E^Us, 1868, and of the water works of vari- 
ous cities, including New Bedford, Mass., 1868-75. 
He superintended the construction of the capitol 
at Albany, 1873, and constructed its founda- 
tion. The Danube Navigation company adopted 
his plans for the improvement of the rapids of 
the Danube river, Austria, at and about the 
" Iron Oate." He was engineer of the depart- 
ment of parks, New York city, 1879-80; chief 
and consulting engineer of the Washington 
Bridge, New York, 1885-88 ; and prominently 
connected with the water supply and rapid tran- 



HacARTHDR 

Bit improvements in New York city, 1888-90. 
He was elected a member of the American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers, Feb. 8. 1853, being the 
seventeenth on ite list of membership ; was its 
president, 1868-66, and anhonorary member, 188^ 






"^-■i' 



Jp-'~ 



90. He was the first American citizen to receive 
honorary membership in the Institution of Civil 
Engineers (London) in 1867, and he received 
from that institution the Telford medal in 1868. 
He was a member of the Australian Society of 
Engineers and Architects, and of the prominent 
scientific societiee of tlie United States ; and of 
the New York chamber of commerce. Among 
his forty-three printed papers are reports of his 
various works as mentioned above, and of : 
Qaivetton Harbor, Tfie Foundationa of Wtuhing- 
ton Monument, and The Purifiealion of the Basin 
of the Harbor of Baltimore. His last book was a 
treatise on Modem Engineering. He died at New 
Brighton. Staten Island, N.Y., Feb. 16, 1890. 

rUcARTHUR, Artfaur, jurist, was born in 
Glasgow, Scotland, Jan. 26, 1815. He came to 
America with his parents, wlio settled in Spring- 
field, Mass. He was prepared for college at Uz- 
b ridge and Amiierst academies, mat ri cut n ted at 
Wesleyan university in the class of 1840, but left 
during his freshman year. He studied law in 
New York city, 1837-41, and practised in Spring- 
field, Mass., 1841-43, where he was pubUc admin- 
istrator for Hampden county and judge advocate 
for the western division of the state militia. He 
practised law in New York city, 1845-49, and in 
Milwaukee, Wis., I8i50-67. He was corporation 
counsel, 1851-53 : lieutenant-governor of the state, 
1856-58 ; and upon the resignation of Gov. W. A. 
Barstow, March 31, 1856, he served as governor 
until the inauguration of Coles Bashford, March 
25, 1866. He was judge of tlie 3d judicial cir- 
cuit. 1856-69 ; was U.S. commissioner to the Paris 
exposition of 1867, and «as associate justice of 
the supreme court of the district of Columbia, 
1870-87. He was president of the Washington 
Humane society ; president of the Associated 
Charities for the District of Columbia, and presi- 
dent of the board of regents of the National uni- 
versity. He delivered lectures on historical and 
literary subjects and published three volumes 
of reports containing the important deoisiooa 



MacARTHUR 



MacARTHUR 




of the supreme court of the District of Ck>lumbia 
(1875, 1877 aud 1881). He was twice married, 
his second wife being the widow of Benjamin 
F. Hawkins, representative in congress from 
l^isconsin. He is the author of : Education in 
its Relation to Manual Industry (1884), and 
Biography of the English Language (1889). He 
died in Atlantic City, N.J., Aug. 24, 1896. 

MacARTHURt ArthuTt soldier, was bom in 
Springfield, Mass., June 1, 1845; son of Judge 
Arthur Mac Arthur (q.v.). In 1849 he went with 
his father to Milwaukee, Wis., and there attended 
Bchool until Aug. 4, 1862, when he was appointed 
by Governor Salomon 1st lieutenant and adjutant 

of the 24th Wisconsin 
volunteers. Hib first 
battle was Perry ville, 
Ky., Oct. 8, 1862. in 
the 37th brigade, 11th 
division, 8d army 
corps. At Stone's 
river, Tenn., Dec. 30- 
81, 1862, his regiment 
was part of the 1st 
brigade, Sheridan's 
8d division, McCook*s 
right wing. Army of 
the Cumberland. He 
was second in com- 
mand during the en- 
gagement, the regi- 
ment being commanded by Major Hibbard, and 
he was commended for bravery in the official re- 
port of the commander of the brigade. At Chicka- 
mauga he was again second in command, and at 
Chattanooga he gained a medal of honor for con- 
spicuous bravery in action Nov. 25, 1863, while 
serving as Ist lieutenant and adjutant of the 24th 
Wisconsin infantry. He was promoted major 
Jan. 25, 1864, and commanded the regiment at 
Kenesaw Mountain, June 27, 1864. At the bat- 
tle of Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864, he com- 
manded his regiment in Opdyke's brigade, Stan- 
ley's division, and (General Stanley gave the 24th 
Wisconsin credit for doing '* a large part " in 
saving the day. He was severely wounded and 
could not take part in the battle of Nashville. 
He was promoted lieutenant-colonel May 18, 1865, 
and was mustered out June 10, 1865. He was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel of volunteers for 
PenyviUe, Stone's river, Missionary Ridge and 
Dandridge, Tenn., and colonel of volunteers for 
services at the battle of Franklin, Tenn., and in 
the Atlanta campaign, March 13, 1865. On Feb. 
28, 1866, he was commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 
17th infantry and the same day was promoted 1st 
lieutenant. He accepted the commission April 30, 
1866, was promoted captain of the 36th infantry 
July 28, 1866 ; major and assistant ad jutant-gen- 






era! July 1, 1889 ; lieutenant-colonel May 26, 
1896 ; brigadier-general Jan. 2, 1900, and major- 
general Feb. 5, 1901. He re-entered the volunteer 
army as brigadier-general May 27, 1898, and was 
promoted major-general of volunteers Aug. 13, 
1898. He succeeded Gen. El well S. Otis lu c^a..- 
mand of the Division of the Philippines, Feb. 5, 
1901, and on June 15. 1901, issued a proclamation 
of amnesty to the natives. He assumed com- 
mand of the Department of the Lakes, March 
25, 1902. 

MacARTHURt Charles Lafayette, journal- 
ist, was bom in Claremont, N.H., Jan. 7, 1824 ; 
son of Charles G. and Philena (Stearns) Mac Ar- 
thur and a descendant of Daniel MacArthur. He 
was graduated from the Black River institute, 
Watertown, N.Y.; learned the printer's trade, and 
removed to Carthage, N.Y., in 1840, where he 
established the Carthaginian, He was a reporter 
on the Detroit Free Press, 1841 ; went to Milwau- 
kee, Wis., in 1842, and accompanied an expedition 
to the head waters of the Platte river to treat 
with the Sioux Indians, and the same year be- 
came senior editor of the Sentinel, the first daily 
newspaper published in Wisconsin. He was city 
editor of the New York Sun, 1846-47, and editor 
and proprietor of the Troy Daily Budget, 1847- 
59, and of the Troy Daily Arena, 1859-61. He 
was 1st lieutenant and quartermaster, 2d N.Y. 
volunteers, 1861-62, being present at the battle of 
Great Bethel, and in the capture of Norfolk, Va. 
He was transferred to the regular army as assist- 
ant quartermaster with the rank of captain in 
1862; served as brigade and division quarter- 
master, and participated in all the battles from 
Fair Oaks, May 11-15, 1862, to Malvern Hill, July 
1, 1862, and in the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 
11-15, 1862. He was twice brevetted by Governor 
Fenton for gallant and meritorious services. 
When the slavery issue divided the Democratic 
I)arty he affiliated with the Free Soil wing until 
the formation of the Republican party w*hich he 
assisted in organizing. He founded and edited 
the Troy News, the pioneer Sunday newspaper in 
the state outside of New York city, in 1864, and 
sold it in 1866 to bec-ome an editor and proprietor 
of the Troy Daily Whig. The Troy Northern 
Budget, an extreme Democratic paper, was sus- 
pended in 1863, and Mr. MacArthur republished 
it as a Sunday paper in 1867, making it a Repub- 
lican organ and a leader of the political senti- 
ment of the party in that section of the state. 
Mr. MacArthur was a member of the Democratic 
state central committee ; a delegate to the Dem- 
ocratic national convention of 1856; city alder- 
man, 1852-56 ; collector of the port of Troy for a 
number of years under Republican administra- 
tion ; was a Republican state senator, 1882-83, 
and as a member of the committees on commerce 



McARTHUR 

and navigation and oanals iDtroduced measures 
that resulted in the enULrgeinent of the Erie 
canat and looked t« the building of a ship water- 
way to complete the navigation of the great lakes 
in connection with the Erie uanal. Duiing hia 
travels abroad he gave to the Budget a suoi^ssion 
of letters. He was a prominent niemtier of the 
Qrand Army of the Republic ; served as president 
of the Rensselaer County Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument association, and principally through 
hiseffiirts the$30,00(l for the Troy monument was 
procured. He died in Troy, NY.. Oct. 12, 1898. 

McARTHUR, Duncan, soldier, was bom in 
Dutchess county, N.Y., June 14, 1772. His pa- 
rents removed to the Pennsylvanian frontier 
in 17tiO, and in 1790 Duncan enlisted as a volun- 
teer in Oen. Josiah Harmar's expedition against 
the Uiami Indians. He was engaged in Indian 
warfare in Kentucky 
and Ohio, 1790-04, 
and subsequently set- 
tled near Chillicothe, 
Ohio, and engaged as 
a surveyor. He pur- 
chased a large tract 
of land near Chilli- 
cothe ; was a repre- 
sentative in the state 
legislature, 1B04-05, 
1815-16, 1817-18 and 
1826-37, and speaker, 
1617-18. He was 

r. A/ ^&fttaC9 ^^^^^ major-gen- 
Jt), ^'WW'*'^ enil of the state 
militia in 1808, and 
was oommissinned colonel of the 1st Ohio volun- 
teer legiment, May 7, 1812. He was second in 
command at the time General Hull surrendered 
Detroit, and led the foraging party that obtained 
provisions from the British settlements on the 
Thames river. Although absent at the time of 
Hull's surrender, he was included in the terms 
and was released by exchange and commissioned 
brigailier-general, March 13, 1813. Upontbe res- 
ignation of Oeneral Harrison, Hay 81, 1814, Mc- 
ArtUur succeeded to the command of the North' 
western army. He formulated a plan for the 
conquest of Canada, and on Oct. 26, 1814, crossed 
tlie St. Clair river with 760 men and five field 
pieces, drove the miUtia from Oxford, Nov. 4, 
1814, and reached Brantford, where he was con- 
fronted by a large force of British regulni-s and 
Indiana. He turned southward, and upon reach- 
ing Dover learned that Oen. George Izard, whom 
he had counted upon for support, had withdrawn 
his troops from Canada, and he retreated to De- 
troit by way of St. Thomas, discharged his troops 
at Sandwich, Nov. 17. 1614, and wa-s mustered 
out, June 15, 1813. He was a Democratic repre- 



McARTHUB 

sentative in the 13th and 18th congresses, 1813-15 
and 1823-25 ; governor of Ohio, 1830-32, and a, 
candidate for representative in congress in 1833. 
He died near Chillicothe, Ohio, April 28. 1839. 

McARTHUR, John, architect, was born in 
Biadenoch, Wigtownshire, Scotland, May 13, 1823. 
His parents immigrated to the United States in 
1833, and settled in Philadelphia. Fa., wher« he 
studied architectural drawing. He served as 
foreman under his uncle in the construction of 
the Pennsylvania hospital ; as architect and 
superintendent of the House of Refuge, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., in 1848. and as architect in charge 
of hospitals and government buildings in Phila- 
delphia, 1861-65. He secured the contract to 
design and construct the city hall in Philadelphia 
in 1860, and was arcliitect of the post-offlce build- 
ing erected in Philadelphia in 1871. He declined 
the supervision of the architecture of the U.S. 
treasury building, Washington, D.C., 1874 ; ex- 
amined and reported on the construction of the 
custom-house building at Chicago, III., in 1875, 
and selected the plan for the new court-house at 
Boston, Mass., in 1885. Buildings of his design 
and supervision not enumerated, include the 
naval hospitals at Philadelphia, Pa., Annapolis, 
Md. , and Mare Island, Cal. ; the state hospitals for 
the insane at Danville and Warren, Pa. ; Lafay- 
ette college at Easton, Pa. ; the Continental. Gir- 
ard and Lafayette hotels, and the Public Ledger 
building, Philadelphia, Pa., and the town and 
country residences of George W. Childs. He 
died in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 8, 1890. 

McARTHUR, John, soldier, was bom in Er- 
skine. Scotland, Nov. 17, 1826 ; son of John and 
Isabella (Neihfon) McArthur. He attended the 
public schools and worked in his father's black- 
smith shop until 1840. He was married in 1848 
to Cliristina Cuth- 
berlson, of Erskine, 
Scotland ; immigrat- 
ed to the United 
Slates in 1849 and 
obtained employment 
in Chicago, 111., in 
1640 Bsa boiler-maker 
and subsequently es- 
tablished a business 
of his own. He was 
captain of the " High- 
land Guards" at- 
tached to the state 
militia, and in 186! ^jj ^ _^_ 
they volunteered and gfvij^ /I* I-UIma^ 
reported at Spring- 
field, where he was elected and oommisaioned 
colonel of the 12th Illinois volunteers. He com- 
manded the Ist brigade, 3d division of the army 
under Gen. U. S. Grant, at the assault on Fort 



MicARTHUE 

DonelsoD, Feb. 14, 186S, and he waa promoted brig- 
adier-general, M&rch 21, 1863. He commanded 
the 3d brigade, 3d division, Army of the Ten- 
nessee at the battle of Sbiluh, April 6-7, 1803, 
vrhere he was wounded. He commanded the 1st 
brigade, 6th division. Army of the TenneBsee, at 
Corinth, Oct. 3-4, 1S63, and the 6th division, 17th 
<WTpa, Army of the Tennessee, during the Vicks- 
burg campaign, May 1 to July 4. 1B63. He was 
in command of the 1st division of A. J. Smith's 
detachment of the Army of the Tennessee in the 
battle of Nashville, Dec. 15-lB, 1S64,, and on Dec. 
16, impatient at the delay in the attack, HcArthur 
rei^ived Smith's silent approval to charge the 
hill in front of General Couch's command, which 
that cotntuander had been refused the privilega 
ofoliarging, and withdrawing McMillen's brigade 
from the trenches, he marched it by flank in 
front of Couch's position and charged the hill 
ivith fixed bayonets. The hill was capped by a 
redoubt manned by Bate's division and mounted 
-with Whitworth's guns, and in the face of a tre. 
mendoua fire McArthur, without firing a shot, 
gained the summit and planted the flag. His 
gallantry won for hjm the brevet of major-gen- 
eral. He was president of the board of commis' 
sioners of public works of Chicago during the flre 
of 1871 i postmaster of the city, 1673-77, and in 
in 1401 he was a retired manufacturer. 

rUcARTHUR, Robert Stiuut, clergyman, was 
bom in Daleaville, Quebec, Canada, July 31, 
1841, of Highland Scotch parents. He attended 
the Canadian Literary Institute, Woodstock, 
Ont. ; and was graduated from the University of 
Rochester in 1667, and from the Rochester Theo- 
logical seminary in 1870. He was chosen pastor 
of the Calvary Baptist church at New York city 
in 1870. Under his pastorate the church grew 
rapidly and in 1683-88 a new and spacious edifice 
was erected on Fifty-Seventh street. The honor- 
ary degree of D.D. was conferred on him by the 
University of Rochester in 1880 ; and that of 
LL.D. by Colimibian university in 1696. He was 
for a number of years the New York correspond- 
ent of the Chicago Standard, and editor of the 
Christian Inquirer, and of the Baptiit Quarterly 
RevieiD, and contributed largely to magazines 
and other publications. His popular lectures, 
7^ Land of the Midnight Sun, The Story of the 
Huguenot, Olimpges of Sunny Spain, The Empire 
of the Czar— the Great Bear of the North, and 
Elements of Siuxeas in Life, were repeated in the 
principal cities of the United States. He suc- 
ceeded the Rev. Charles Haddon Spurgeon in 
famishing sermons for the Christian Herald. 
He is the author of volumes of sermons, essays, 
■od travels in many lands, published annually, 
and he compiled the Caiialry Selection, the In 
ExcdtU and other popular Baptist hymn books. 



MACBRIDE 

McAULEV, TbomaSf educator, was bom in 
Ireland in 1780. His parents immigrated to 
America and settled in Salem, N.Y., where he 
prepared for college. He was graduated at 
Union college, N.Y., A.B., 1804, and remained 
there as a tutor, 1805-06; lecturer on mathemOitics 
and natural philosophy, 1811-14. and professor of 
mathematics and natural philosophy, 1814-32. 
He was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry 
in 1822, and was pastor of the Rutgers Street 
church. New York city, 1832-37, of the Tenth 
ohurch, Philadelphia, Pa., 1827-3H, president of 
the Philadelphia board of education, 1830; and 
pastor of the Murray Street clmrch, New York 
city, 1883-40. He was a founder of Union Tlieo- 
lo^oal seminary. New York city, in 1836 ; a 



UHIOH THEOLOSrCAl. OEM.rtABr,/(.V. 

member of its original board of directors, 1886- 
40 ; and president of the seminary and professor 
of pastoral theology, 1886-40. As a prominent 
member of the general assembly of the Presby- 
terian church in 1837, which resulted in the divi- 
sion of the ohurch into the new and old schools, 
be advocated reconciliation. He retired from 
active educational work in 1840, He received the 
honorary degree of D.D. from Union college in 
1823 and that of LL.D. elsewhere. He died in 
New York city. May II, 1842. 

McBRlDE, Qeoifw WIckllffe, senator, was bom 
in Yamhill county, Oregon, March 18, 1654 ; son 
of James and Mahala McBride and grandson of 
Thomas McBride. He attended public schools, 
was a student at Christian college, Monmouth, 
Ore., for two years, studied law and was admitted 
to the bar, but did not practice. He eng^ed in the 
mercantile business at Saint Helen, Ore., 1873-83, 
and in June, 1882, was elected Republican 
representative in the state legislature and 
speaker, 1863 ; secretary of state, 1886-05; U.S. 
senator and chairman of the committee on coast 
defences, 1895-1901, and U.S. commissioner to 
the Louisiana Purchase exposition at St. Louis, 
1904. 

MACBRIDE, Thomas Huston, educator, was 
bom in Rogeraville. Tenn.. July 31, 1848; son of 
James Bovard and Sarah (Huston) Macbride. He 
was graduated from Monmouth college, III.. A.B., 



McBRYDE 



McCABE 



1869, A.M., 1872. He was appointed professor of 
botany at the State university of Iowa in 1884 and 
spent a part of the year 1891 in study in Germany. 
He was married, Dec. 81, 1874, to Harriet Dif- 
fenderfer of Hopkinton, Iowa. The honorary 
degree of Ph.D. was conferred on him by Mon- 
mouth college. He was elected a fellow of the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science and of the American Society of Qeolo- 
gists. He made a special study of fungi and con- 
tributed botanical articles to various scientific 
magazines. He is the author of text books on 
Botany and The North American Slime Moulds, 
and became editor of the lotpa Bulletin of the 
Laboratories of Natural History, 

ricBRYDE, John McLaren* educator and sci- 
entist, was born in Abbeville, S.C., Jan. 1, 1841 ; 
son of John and Susan (McLaren) McBryde ; 
grandson of John and Margaret (Donnan) Mc- 
Bryde and of Adam and Agnes (McKillop) Mc- 
Laren, and a descendant of the distinguished 
Presbyterian divines John and Robert McBryde 
of Belfast, Ireland. His parents came to Amer- 
ica from Scotland between 1820 and 1880, and 
settled in South Carolina. He was educated at 
the South Carolina college, and the University of 
Virginia. He obtained a commission in the Con- 
federate army, serving, 1861-63, when his health 
obliged him to retire. He was married, Nov. 18, 
1863, to Cora, daughter of Dr. James and Anna 
Maria (Harrison) Bolton of Richmond, Va. He 
was employed by the Confederate States treasury 
department, 1 86^-65, and at the close of the war 
he removed to Buckingham, Va., and engaged in 
farming. He removed to Albemarle county in 
1867, where he pursued scientific studies. He 
was president of the Belmont Farmers* club, and 
was active in the organization of other farmers' 
societies. He was professor of agriculture and 
botany at the University of Tennessee, 1879-82 ; 
was elected professor of agriculture and botany 
at the South Carolina college in 1882, and upon 
the resignation of President William P. Miles in 
1882, he served as president, 1882-88. He was 
regularly elected to the office in May, 1883, and 
served in that capacity until 1888. He was 
elected president of the University of Tennessee 
in 1887, but declined the honor. In 1888 he be- 
came president of the University of South 
Carolina and director of the experiment stations 
of South Carolina. In 1891 he accepted the 
presidency of the Virginia Polytechnic institute 
and the directorship of its experiment station. 
He declined the position of U.S. assistant secre- 
tary of agriculture in 1893. He was a member of 
the Miller board of trustees of the University of 
Virginia; corresponding member of the Elisha 
Mitchell Scientific society of North Carolina ; 
fellow of the American Geographical society and 




of the American Statistical association and a 
member of several other scientific societies. He 
received the degree of LL.D. from Southwestem 
Presbyterian university in 1884 and that of Ph.D. 
from the University of Tennessee in 1887. 

McCABBt Charles Cardwell* M.E. bishop, was 
born in Athens, Ohio, Oct. 11, 1836 ; son of Robert 
and Sarah Card well (Robinson) McCabe and 
grandson of Robert McCabe, who emigrated from 
Ireland and settled in Tyrone county. Pa., and of 
Richard and A. (Card well) Robinson of Elngland. 
He attended the pub- 
lic schools of Athens, 
and the Ohio Wes- 
leyan university, Del- 
aware, Ohio, but left 
before completing 
the course on account 
of ill health. He 
was married, July 5, 
1860, to Rebecca 
Peters of Ironton, 
Ohio. He was a 
teacher of the High 
school at Ironton, 
1860-61 ; pastor of 
the Methodist Epis- 
copal church at Put- 
nam, Ohio, 1861-62 ; chaplain of the 122d Ohio 
volunteers, 1862-63 ; pastor at Portsmouth, Ohio, 
1865-68; secretary of the Church Extension so- 
ciety of the M.E. church, 1868-84 ; secretary of 
the missionary society of the M.E. church, 1884- 
96, and was chosen a bishop in the Methodist 
Episcopal church in 1896. 

McCABB, James Dabney, author, was bom 
in Richmond, Va., July 30, 1842 ; son of the Rev. 
James Dabney McCabe (born 1808, died 1875), who 
was a Methodist clergyman, received orders in 
the Protestant Episcopal church in 1856, was as- 
sociate rector of St. Paul's, Baltimore, Md.. and 
rector of various other churches in Maryland ^ 
twice declining election as bishop. James at- 
tended the Virginia Military institute and joined 
the Onfederate army in 1861. He was a con- 
tributor to and in 1863-64, editor of the Magnolia 
Weekly, He is the author of: Fanaticism and 
its Results (1860); The Aide-de-camp (1863); The 
Bohemian (1863) ; Life of Cfen, Thomas J. Jackson 
(1863) ; Memoir of Oen, Albert S, Johnston (1866) ; 
Life and Campaigns of Oen. Robert E, Lee 
(1867); The Grey Jackets (1867); Planting the 
Wilderness (1869); History of the late War be- 
tween Oermany and France (1871); Lights and 
Shadows of New York Life (1872); The Great 
Republic (1872); A History of the Orange Move- 
ment (1874); Paris by Sunlight and QasUght 
(1876); Centennial History of the United States 
(1875); Pathways of the Holy Land (1877); His- 



McCABE 



McCALEB 



tory of the Turko-Russian War (1879); Our 
Young Folks Abroad (1881); Our Young Folks in 
Africa (^1882). He also wrote Sword of Harry 
JLee, and other war poems ; and three war plays, 
produced at the Richmond theatre, 1862-68. He 
died in Qermantown, Pa., Jan. 27, 1888. 

ilcCABE, John Collins, clergyman, was bom 
in Richmond, Va., Nov. 12, 1810. He left school 
to take a position in a Richmond bank. He was 
prepared for the priesthood by Bishop Meade ; 
was ordained in 1845, and was rector of Christ 
church, Smithfield, Va., 1845-50; and of St. 
Johns, parish of Elizabeth City, ELampton, Va., 
1850-^5. He made abstracts from the parish 
registers for an ** Early History of the Church 
in Virginia ** and transferred his manuscript to 
Bishop Meade for use in compiling his *' Churches, 
Ministers and Families of Virginia '* (1857). Dr. 
McCabe was chairman of the state yellow fever 
committee in 1855. He removed to Maryland in 
1856, was rector in Baltimore, 1856-59; and in 
Anne Arundel county, 1850-61. He was chaplain 
of a Virginia regiment in the Confederate army, 
1861-63, and chaplain of Libby prison, Richmond, 
Va., 1862-65. He returned to Maryland at the 
close of the war ; was pastor of St. Matthew's, 
Bladensburg, 1865-67; of St. Anne's, Middle- 
town, Del., 1867-72 and of Trinity, Chambers- 
burg, Pa., 187^-75. The degree of D.D. was 
conferred on him by the College of William and 
Mary in 1855. He is the author of several poems, 
collected under the title of Scraps (1885); and 
contributed papers on colonial history to period- 
icals. He died in Chambersburg, Pa., Feb. 26, 1875. 

McCABE, Lorenzo Dow, educator, was bom 
in Marietta, Ohio, Jan. 7, 1817 ; son of Robert 
and Mary (McCracken) McCabe, and grandson of 
Alexander McCracken. He was graduated from 
Ohio university, A.B., 1843, A.M., 1846. He 
joined the Ohio conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church in 1843 ; preached, 1843-44 ; was 
professor of mathematics and mechanical philo- 
sophy in Ohio university, 1844-45 ; professor of 
mathematics and mechanical philosophy in Ohio 
Wesleyan university, 1845-60 ; professor of bibli- 
cal literature and moral philosophy, 1860-64; 
professor of philosophy, 1864-71 ; vice-president 
of the university, 1871-78; acting president, 
1878-76, and again 1888-89, and emeritus profes- 
sor of philosophy and vice-president, 1889-97. 
The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on 
him by Allegheny college in 1855 and that of 
LL.D. by Syracuse university in 1875. He is the 
author of : Philosophy of Holiness (1875) ; Fore- 
knowledge of Ood and Cognate Themes (1879); 
Divine Nescience of Future Contingencies a Ne- 
cessity (1882); Light on the Pathway of Holiness 
(1892); St. Peter the Pock; and magazine arti- 
cles. He died in Delaware, Ohio, June 18, 1897. 



McCABE» William Gordon, educator, was 
bom near Richmond, Va., Aug. 4, 1841 ; son of 
the Rev. John Collins and Sophie Gordon (Taylor) 
McCabe ; grandson of Col. James Taylor, of Vir- 
ginia, and great-grandson of George Taylor, the 
signer. He attended the preparatory academy at 
Hampton, Va., and was graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Virginia in 1861. He enlisted in the 
Confederate army and served as a private, 1861- 
62, and as captain of artillery, 8d army corps. 
Army of Northern Virginia, 1862-65. Shortly after 
the close of the war he established at Petersburg, 
Va., the University School, of which he was 
elected head master, and subsequently removed it 
to Richmond, Va. He was married, April 9, 1867, 
to Jenny Pleasants Harrison Osborne, of Rich- 
mond, Va. The honorary degree of A.M. was 
conferred on him by the College of William and 
Mary in 1868 and by Williams college, Mass., in 
1889, and that of Litt.D. by Yale in 1897. He 
translated Wilhelm Brambach's Latin Orthog- 
raphy (1872); compiled and edited a volume of 
verses under the title of Ballads of Battle and 
Bravery (1873), and is the author of: The De- 
fense of Petersburg, Campaign of 1864S5 (1876); 
Latin Orammar (1883); Latin Reader (1886); Vir- 
ginia Schools (1900) ; and edited a volume of 
CcBsar^s Ckdlic War (1886) and Horace^s Works, 

ricCAPFRBYy John, educator, was born in 
Emmitsburg, Md., Sept. 6, 1806. He attended 
the Theological Seminary of St. Sulpice and St. 
Mary's university in Baltimore, Md., and was or- 
dained priest in 1838. He was elected president 
of Mount St. Maiy's college in 1838 and began 
the erection of a church there, besides intro- 
ducing many improvements to the college build- 
ings and grounds. He was twice offered a 
bishopric, but declined. He delivered a course 
of literary and philosophical lectures before the 
Philomathean society of the college and subse- 
quently before the Catholic association of Balti- 
more, which attracted much attention and were 
published. He prepared a series of catechisms. 
He died in Emmitsburg, Md., Sept. 25, 1882. 

ilcCALEB, Theodore Howard* educator, was 
born in Pendleton District, S.C., Feb. 10, 1810; 
son of David and Matilda (Farrar) McCaleb; 
grandson of Capt. William (1747-1813) and Anne 
(McKey) McCaleb and of Col. Thomas and Mar- 
garet (Prince) Farrar, of South Carolina ; and 
great-grandson of William McCaleb, who fought 
at Chilloden in 1746 ; in 1747 immigrated with his 
family to Pendleton District, S.C, where his son 
William was bom the same year, and served in the 
American Revolution as captain of horse in the 
battles of Charleston, Ninety-six, Guilford C.H., 
and in the siege of Savannah, where he was 
wounded. He was afterward a delegate tr the 
South Carolina convention which ratified the 



•AM A'rTU^ 



HcCALEB 

oonstitution of the United States, representing 
the south side of Saluda rivpr district and voting 
for the ratificfttion. Col. Thomas Farrar served 
under Oeneral Pickens, and at the close of the 
war was in command of Fort Ninety-sii. Theo- 
dore Howard MoCaleb was prepared for college 
at Exeter academj 
and was matriculated 
at Yale, but left be- 
fore graduation to 
take up the study of 
law in New Orleans, 
where he succeeded 
big brother Thomas 
Farrar McCaleb 

(q.v.). 1833-41. He 
was appointed in 1841 
by President Tyler 
U.S. district judge 
forLoutsiana,butcon- 
1 184S passed 
an act waUng bis 
court the U.S. district 
court for tbe eastern district of Louisiana, and 
be was reappointed by President Polk in 1646and 
held the office until the secession of the state in 
18S1. In addition to his judicial duties he served 
as president of the University of Louisiana, 1850- 
64, and dean and professor of admiralty and in- 
ternational law in its law department. He de- 
livered orations at the dedication of Lyceum 
hall ; at the obsequies of Henry Clay, and at tbe 
unveiling of the Clay statue on Canal street. New 
Orleans, and a eulogy on Sargeant S. Prentiss. 
He entertained notable visitors at New Or- 
leans, including Thackeray, Macready, Cha- 
teaubriand and De Tocqueville. He received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. from Centenary college, 
Louisiana. He died at his plantation " Hermit- 
age," Claiborne county, Miss., in 18ft4. 

McCALBB, Thomas Farrar, lawyer, was bom 
at Pendleton C.H., S.C, Nov. 29, 1798 ; eldest son 
of Capt. David and Matilda (Farrar) McCaleb. 
He was graduated at the College of New Jersey, 
Princeton, in 1818, and established himself in the 
practice of law in New Orleans, La., where he 
was counsel in nearly every important case before 
the supreme court of the state and was attorney 
for Donaldson, founder of Donaldson viUe, La., 
and for John McDonough, the eccentric philan- 
thropist. In 1830 he came witbin one vote of 
being elected U.S. senator, being defeated by 
Robert Carter Nicholas. He was eteoted secre- 
tary of state of Louisiana in 1831. He died of 
cholera in New Orleans, La., Nov. S, 18S3. 

McCALL. Edward R., naval officer, was born 
in Charleston, S.C, Aug. 5, 1790. He was war- 
ranted midshipman in the U.S. navy. Jan. 1, 1808, 
and served on the brig Eitterpnte, commanded 



McCALL 

by Lieut. Johnston Blakely, and subaequently by 
Lieut. William Burrows. He was second in com- 
mand in the engagement with the Boecer, Sept. 4, 
1813, having been promoted lieutenant, March 11, 
1813. When Lieutenant Burrows was mortally 
wounded early in that engagement the command 
fell on Lieutenant McCall, who received the sur- 
render of the British brig and was awarded a 
gold medal by congress. He was promoted mas- 
ter commandant, March 8, 1835, and captain, 
March 3, 1885. He died in Bordentown, N.J., 
July 81, 1853. 

McCALL, Qeorge Archibald, soldier, was bom 
in Philadelphia, Fa., March 16, 1802; son of 
Archibald and Elizabeth (Cadwalader) McCall ; 
grandson of Archibald and Judith (Kemble) 
McCall, and great-grandson of Oeorge and Ann 
(Yeates) McCall. who came to Philadelphia be- 
fore 1700. He was 
graduated from the 
U.S. Military acad- 
emy in 18S2 ; was 
promoted 1st lieu- 
tenant, Jan. 25, 1829, 
and was aide de-camp 
to Oen. E. P. Gaines 
in the Seminole war. 
1831-86. He was pro- 
moted captain, Sept. 
SI. 1830; was in com- 
mand of tbe 4th in- 
fantry on its march 

Ty., 1838-39, and ' 
served at Fort aibson, 1889-41. He partici- 
pated in tlie second war with the Seminole In- 
dians, 1841-42 ; was in garrison at Jefferson Bar- 
racks, Mo., 1842-43, and at Fort Scott, Kan.. 1843- 
45. He served in the military occupation of Texas, 
1845-46, and pari^icipated in the battleii of Palo 
Alto, Mexico, May 8, and Resaca de la Palraa, 
May 9, 1846, receiving the bievet of major and 
lieutenant-colonel for gallant conduct. Re served 
as chief of staff and assistant adjutant-general to 
Oeneral Patterson, 1846-47, participating in the 
siege of Vera Cmz, March 9-39. 1847. He was 
promoted major and assigned to the 3d infantry, 
Deo. 20, 1847 ; was made inspector-general wilh 
the rank of colonel, June 10, 1850 ; was on duty 
at Washington, D.C., 1850-51, and on a tour of 
inspection in California and Oregon in 1852. He 
resigned from the regular army, April 29, 1853, 
and engaged in farming at Belair, West Chester, 
Pa. He was commissioned major-general of 
Pennsylvania volunteers. May 15, 1861, and com- 
manded the Pennsylvania reserve corps, and his 
division formed the extreme right of the Federal 
line of defence before Washington, D.G. He was 



McCALL 

commUeioDed brigadier-general U.S. volunteers. 
May 17, 1861, and participated in the action at 
Drsnesville, Va., Dec. 30, 16B1. He oammanded 
the 3d division ot Fitz John Porter's Sth corps in 
tlie Seven Days' battlea, June 25-ilO, 1863, and ftt 
the battle of Mechanicsville, June 36, 1662, he 
eummsnded the entire force engaged. He led 
hia brigade in tlie battle of Oainea's Mill, June 
37, iB63, and at the battle of New tlarket Cross 
Roads, June 30. 1803, where he was taken pria- 
oneT. He was oon&ned in Libbj prison, Rich- 
mond. Va., June 37 to Aug. 18, 1863, and was on 
«ick leave of absence from Aug. 18, 1863, to 
March 31, 1863, when he resigned his commission 
and retired to his (arm at Belair, Pa. In August, 
1863, the citizens of Chester county presented 
him with a sTvord and in the autumn of 1864 he 
was the Democratio candidate for representative 
from his district in tlie 30th congress. He is the 
author of : Letters from the Frontier (published 
posthumously, 1868). He died in Belair, Pa., Feb. 
■Ha, 1868. 

McCALL, Pet«r, law instructor, was bom in 
Trenton, N.J., Aug. 31, 1809; eon of Peter and 
Sarah (Gibson) McCall, and grandson of Archi- 
bald and Judith (Kemble) MoCall. He wasgrad- 
uated from the College of New Jersey, A.B., 1836, 
A.M., 1839. He studied law under J. R. Tngersoll; 
»nd practised in Philadelphia, 1831-80. He was a 
member of the city council for several years and 
mayor ot Uie city, 1811-45. He was a vice-pro- 
Tost of the Law Academy of Philadelphia for 
thirty years ; professor ot pleading and practice 
in the law department ot the University of Penn- 
sylvania and a trustee of the university, 1861-80. 
He delivered many addresses, including Progi-esn 
<iitd Iitfiuenee of tlie Society of Friends in Phila- 
delphia (183-i): RUe and Progrea* of Civil Society 
<l«JOl ; Hiitorg of Pennsylvania Lam and Equity 
(18'iS). He died in Philadelphia, Oct. 30,1880. 

McCALL, Samuel Walker, representative, 
was born in East Providence, Pa., Feb. 38, 1851 ; 
son ot Henry and Mary Ann (Elliott) McCaU, 
and grandson of William McCall. He passed 
his early life in Illinois ; prepared for college 
at New Hampton, N.H., academy ; was grad- 
uated from Dartmouth college in 1874 ; was 
admitted to the bar in 1876, and began prac- 
tice in Boston. Ho was editor of the Boston 
DaUy Advertiser; was a representative in the 
state legislature. 1888, 1889 and 1893 ; was presi- 
dent of the Republican state convention of Massa- 
ohusetts in 1806 ; was a delegate to the Repuhli- 
<!aQ national conventions that met in Chicago, 
June 19, 1888. and in Philadelphia. 1900. and a 
representative from the eight district of Massa- 
chusetts in the 53d-58th congresses. 1893-1905. 
He is the author of naddeua Stevens (1S9») in 
the " American Slatesmiin Series.'' 



HoCALLA 

McCALLA, Bowman Hendry, naval officer, 
was bom in Camden, N.J., June 19, 1844 ; son ot 
Auley and Mary Duffield (Hendry) McCalla; 
grandson of Auley and Hannah (Qibbon) Mc- 
Calla and ot Dr. Bowman and Elizabeth (Duf- 
fleld) Hendry; great-giandaon of Thomas and 
(Bowman) Hen- 
dry, and a descend- 
ant of John and Jane 
McCalla, who came 
fi'om Scotland in 
17-50 with a giant of 
land in Pennsylvania 
and bettled in Mont- 
gomery county , af- 
terward removing to 
Roadstown, N.J. He 
was graduated at the 
U.S. Naval academy 
in November, 1884; 
and was promoted . 
master, Deo. i, 1868. /^^V^-f^*-^^-*—^ 
He served on the 

training ship Sabine on the Atlantic station, 
1867-66; was promoted lieutenant, March 12, 
1868; served on the Tutcarora of the South 
Pacific and North Atlantic squadrons, 1668-71, 
and was promoted lieutenant-commander, Mai'ch 
36, 186B. He was attached to the Wabosft. flag- 
ship of the European squadron, 1871-73; to the 
Wachueetl of the European fleet in 1873, and was 
on duty at the U.S. Naval academy, 1674-78. He 
was married, March 8, 1875, te Elizabeth Hazard, 
daughter of Oen. Horace Binney Sargent, of Bos- 
ton, Mass. He served on the Powhalan of the 
North Atlantic station, 1678-81 ; was assistant to 
the bureau of navigation, 1881-87 ; was promoted 
commander, November, 1884, and commanded 
the naval force on the Istlimus of Panama in 1685. 
He commanded the Enterprise on the Euroj)ean 
station, 1687-90, and in the latter year while ' 
holding this command hewaaconvictedby couit- 
martial of striking a mutinous sailor with the 
back of his sword and was sentenced to be sus- 
pended from rank and duty for three years. In 
1891 Secretary Tracy remitted the unexpired por- 
tion of his sentence. He was granted a full and 
unconditional pardon by President McKinley, 
March 13, 19O0. He was on duty at the Mare Island 
navy yard. 1898-97 ; was instructor at the war 
college. 1897 : commanded the protected cruiser 
ifarMehead. 1897-98, and seized the British steam- 
ship Adida in Cuban waters, June, 1806, on tlie 
claim that the vessel was violating tlie blockade, 
and served in the North Atlantic squadron dur- 
ing the war with Spain. He was promoted cap- 
tain and advanced seven numbers, Aug. 10. 1698, 
for heroic and distinguished services during the 
Spanish- American war, and this restored him to 



McCANDLESS 



McCARTEE 



the number and rank he had held in the navy 
prior to the court-martial. He was transferred 
from the Marblehead to the Norfolk navy yard 
in October, 1808, served as captain of the yard 
and made the unsuccessful effort to bring into 
that yard the Spanish cruiser Maria Teresa^ 
which had been abandoned off Cat Island by the 
wrecking company in November, 1898. While 
in command of the Newark he received the sur- 
render of the provinces of Cagayan and Isabella, 
with the Batan Isles at Aparri, P. I., Dec. 11, 
1899, from General Tirona, in command of the 
insurgent troops, and appointed the captured 
general civil governor of the province, subject to 
tlie approval of Oeneral Otis. He was ordered to 
China in 1900 and commanded the American sea- 
men and marines in Admiral Seymour's unsuc- 
cessful expedition for the relief of Pekin, and 
Admiral Seymour in writing to Admiral Kempff 
after the expedition spoke in high commendation 
of his gallant conduct. 

McCANDLESS, Wilson, jurist, was bom in 
Pittsburg, Pa., June 19, 1810 ; of Scotch-Irish de- 
scent. He was graduated at the Western Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in 1826 ; practised law in 
Pittsbmg, 1831-59 ; and was United States judge 
for the Western District of Pennsylvania, 1859-76. 
He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Union college, Schenectady, N.Y., in 1862. 
He was a presidential elector from the state at 
large on the Democratic ticket in 1844, 1852 and 
1856, and served twice as president of the elec- 
toral college of the state. He was also chairman 
of the Pennsylvania delegation to the Democratic 
national convention at Baltimore, Md., May 22, 
1848. He delivered the address of welcome to 
John Quincy Adams on his visit to Pittsburg in 
1833, and the oration on General Jackson's death, 
1848. He died in Pittsburg, Pa., June 30, 1882. 

McCANN, William Penn, naval officer, was 
born in Paris, Ky., May 4, 1880. He was ap- 
pointed a midshipman in the U.S. navy in 1848 ; 
was promoted passed midshipman, June 15, 1854 ; 
lieutenant, Sept. 16, 1855 ; and was lieutenant and 
navigator of the Sabine, flagship of the Brazil 
squadron on the Paraguay expedition, 1858-59, 
and also on a cruise in the West Indies and Gulf 
of Mexico, 1859-61. He was stationed at Vera 
Cruz at the outbreak of the civil war, and in 
April, 1861, re-enforced Fort Pickens with sailors 
and marines. He remained off the fort for one 
hundred and twenty-seven days, and in June, 
1861, assisted in landing reinforcements under 
Col. Harvey Brown. He remained with the Sa- 
bine on blockading duty on the South Carolina 
coast, 1861-62; commanded the gunboat Mara- 
tanza at the siege of Torktown in April, 1862, 
and was relieved by Commander Stevens in 1862. 
but remained on board as executive officer. On 



July 4, 1862, he captured the Confederate gun- 
boat Teazer, with plans of the batteries, torpe- 
does and defences of Richmond. He was pro- 
moted lieutenant-commander, July 16, 1862, and 
commanded the Hunchback and a fleet of five 
gunboats in the sounds of North Carolina, 1862- 
63. He commanded the Kennebec of the West 
Gulf blockading squadron in the Mobile blockade, 
1863-64, and the Tahoma in 1865, when she waa 
disabled by a gale and returned to Boston. He 
commanded the TaUapoosa, West Qulf squadron, 
1866-67 ; naval rendezvous and yard at Philadel- 
phia, 1867-70, and commanded the Nipsic of the 
North Atlantic squadron, 1871-72. He was pro- 
moted commander, July 2, 1872, to rank from 
July 25, 1866, and was advanced sixteen numbers* 
He was stationed at the navy yard, Norfolk, Va., 
in 1873 ; was lighthouse inspector, 1873-76 ; pro- 
moted captain, Sept. 21, 1876 ; commanded the 
Lackawanna on the Pacific station, 1877-78 ; the 
receiving ship Independence in California, 1879- 
81 ; and the flagship PenaacoUit Pacific station^ 
1881-82 ; was assigned to court-martial duty in 
1883, and served on the lighthouse board, 1883-87. 
He was president of the naval advisory boards 
1885-87 ; was promoted commodore, Jan. 26, 1887 ; 
commanded the Boston naval station, 1887-90,. 
and was president of the navy yard site commis- 
sion and president of the board on the policy for 
the increase of the navy. He commanded the 
South Pacific station, 1890-91, and in June, 1891,. 
having five U.S. cruisers under his command, he 
enforced the surrender of the steamer Rata, laden 
with arms and ammunition smuggled out of the 
port of San Diego, Cal., and transferred to the 
Itata, He sent the captured vessel back to San 
Diego, and for this act received the thanks and 
commendation of the navy department. He waa 
president of the retiring board, 1891-92, and was 
retired in May, 1892, with the rank of commo- 
dore. He served during the war with Spain,. 
1898, as president of the board of inquiry and 
court-martial and as prize commissioner of the 
southern district of New York. 

McCARTEE, Divie Bethune, pioneer • mis- 
sionary, educator, sinologue, and diplomatist, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 13, 1820 ; son 
of the Rev. Robert (q.v.) and Jessie Graham 
(Bethune) McCartee, and grandson of Peter and 
Mary (McDowell) McCartee, and of Divie and 
Joanna (Graham) Bethune. He read both law 
and theology in his father*a library; attended 
lectures on chemistry and physics given by Pro- 
fessor Steele, was a student at Columbia college 
three years, leaving for the purpose of studying 
medicine, and was graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania, M.D., with distinction in 1840, 
meantime practising at Port Carbon, Pa., with 
Dr. Z. Prall, who was also his medical preoeptor^ 



McCARTEE 



MoCAKTfiE 




1837-41. He visited Detroit, Mioh., 1841-4S, did 
a year's post graduate work at Blockley hospital, 
184S-48, and in October, 1843, was sent by the 
Presbyterian board as medical missionary to 
Ningpo, China, which place he reached June 20, 
1844. He was the first Protestant missionary to 

make a prolonged 
residence in that 
city, 1844-72, (includ- 
ing short periods in 
Chef DO, Shanghai and 
the United States), 
and in that time ac- 
quired a thorough 
knowledge of the life, 
language and litera- 
ture of China. He 
was married at Ning- 
po, in 1858, to Juana 
M. Knight, who sur- 
vived him. While 
engaged in his evan- 
gelical and medical 
work he was also acting U.S. consul at both 
Ningpo and Chefoo. In 1861 during the T'aiping 
rebellion he accompanied Flag-Officer Stribling, 
U.S.N. , with his small squadron to Nanking; 
and obtaining pei'sonal access to the ' * Heavenly 
King*' or rebel chieftain, secured his guarantee 
of protection from the rebels for all Americans 
in China, and for all Chinese in their employ or 
care. He also received from him a sealed docu- 
ment which when shown to the rebel force enter- 
ing Ningpo, released many native Christians, and 
prevented much threatened massacre. In 1865 
he effected the settlement of a difficult diplo- 
matic dispute reported in U.S. Foreign Relations 
for 1866, He resigned his connection with the 
Ningpo mission in 1872 to take charge of the 
Presbyterian mission press at Shanghai ; but 
soon became interpreter and U.S. assessor in the 
mixed court at Shanghai. At that time the 
Maria LuZy a Peruvian vessel en route from 
Macao to Peru with 800 Chinese coolies, was 
driven into the harbor of Yokohama by a ty- 
phoon, and the coolies appealed successfully to 
the Japanese government for rescue. But that 
they might not remain a charge to the Japanese, 
the Toatai of Shanghai, at Dr. McCartee's sug- 
gestion, memoralized the Viceroy, who appointed 
the Chinese judge of the mixed court with Dr. 
McCartee as advisor to proceed to Japan and re- 
ceive the coolies. This was the first time in 
some centuries that an envoy from China had 
been sent to Japan, and their mission was en- 
tirely successful. For this service he received 
from the Chinese government a gold medal and 
a complimentary letter. At the instance of Dr. 
Guido F. Verbeck, then advisor to the Japanese 



department of education, Dr. McCartee was ap- 
pointed professor of law and natural science in 
the incipient University of Tokio; there he 
served, 1872-77, resigned in 1877, and became 
vice U.S. consul-general, U.S. assessor of mixed 
court, and director of mails in the consulate at 
Shanghai, for the next six months, during a dif- 
ficult exigency of the consulate. In November, 
1877, he became foreign advisor of the first Chi- 
nese legation to Japan, with rank of secretary of 
legation ; and in 1879, at the request of Gen. 
U.S. Grant, then in Japan, he suggested the 
plan of settlement of the Loo Choo Islands dis- 
pute that was adopted. At this time he wrote 
the series of letters entitled Audi Alteram Par- 
tem, published first in the Japan Gazette, and 
afterward in pamphlet, and translated into Chi- 
nese. He also did all the translating into the 
Chinese character of the English, French and Jap- 
anese documents, which the legation handled. 
He was given the title of Honorary Consul-Gen - 
eral by the Chinese government. In May, 1880, 
he resigned his position and returned to the 
United States, where he acted as foreign advisor 
to the Japanese legation at Washington for 
some time. In May, 1887, he visited Japan, 
spending the summer there, and then a year in 
Amoy, where he was engaged in missionary work. 
He accepted an appointment to the East Japan 
mission by the Presbyterian board in April, 1889. 
In October, 1899, he left Japan for San Francisco, 
where he arrived, and celebrated his 80th birth- 
day, Jan. 18, 1900. He translated the Book of 
Jeremiah's Lamentations from the Original He- 
brew into Chinese, to complete the Bridgman- 
Culbertson Version of the Bible (1862); and 
wrote and translated noimerous brief tracts, and 
some more extended works, religious and educa^ 
tional, in Chinese and Japanese. He also contri- 
buted to the Transactions of the China Branch 
of the Royal Asiatic Society ; was a member of 
other learned societies including the American 
Oriental society and the Natural History society 
of Portland ; and corresponding member of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
and of the Department of Archaeology of the 
University of Pennsylvania. His tract, An Easy 
Introduction to Christianity, first written in 
Chinese in 1881, and translated into Japanese 
and Korean, is one of the most widely circulated 
and influential of Protestant tracts in those 
languages. This was remodelled and enlarged 
by him in Japanese, and called The Way of Truth 
(1890) . In this form 20,000 copies had been used up 
to 1901. He left two books in MS. : Personal Re- 
miniscences, and CriticcU and Exegetieal Notes on 
the New Testament with Especial Reference to the 
Chinese Characters Used in the Japanese Protes- 
tant Version, The Japan Evanffelist, Yokohama, 



McCARTEE 



McCAULEY 



November, 1898, has an extended account of Dr. 
McCartee*s life written by E. R. Miller of Tokyo. 
He died in San Francisco, Cal., July 17, 1900. 

McCARTBBf Robert* clergyman, was born in 
New York city, Sept. 30, 1790 ; son of Peter and 
Mary (McDowell) McCartee ; grandson of Finlay 
McEachan ; and a great-grandson of Angus Mc- 
Eachan, of Islay, Argyleshire, Scotland, who in 
1757 came to America as a political refugee, 
after taking a prominent part on the losing side 
in the battle of CuUoden. He soon settled in 
New York city, and changed his name to Mc- 
Cartee. Robert was graduated at Ck>lumbia, 
A.B., 1808, A.M., 1811 ; practised law in New 
York city for a short time and was graduated at the 
Theological Seminary of the Associate Reformed 
church, New York city, in April, 1816. He was 
pastor of the Old Scots church, Philadelphia, Pa., 
1816-21 ; of the Irish Presbyterian church. New 
York city, 1821-36 ; at Port Carbon, Pa., 1836-40; 
at Ooshen and Newburgh, N.Y., 1840-56, and 
of the Associate Reformed church. New York 
city, 1856-62. He was married to Jessie Graham 
Bethune (1796-1855), sister of the Rev. George 
W. Bethune (q.v.), and daughter of Divie and 
Joanna (Graham) Bethune ; the latter was a 
daughter of Isabella Graham, who, with her 
children was identified with the beginnings of 
organized charity in New York city. Robert 
McCartee received the honorary degree of S.T.D. 
from Columbia in 1831. He died in Yonkers, 
N.Y., March 12, 1865. 

McCARTERt Henryt illustrator, was bom in 
Norristown, Pa., July 5, 1865 ; son of Marshall 
J. and Anne (Bowden) McCarter. He was a 
student at the Philadelphia Academy of Fine 
Arts under Thomas Eakins, 1883-89 ; meanwhile 
illustrating occasionally for the Century and 
other magazines. In 1889 he went to France and 
studied under Bonnat, Rixens and Alexander 
Harrison. His illustrations for Zola's * * Lourdes " 
and Paul Verlaine's poems, which appeared in 
1894, at once established his reputation as an 
illustrator. He returned to America in 1891 and 
made numerous notable drawings for Scribner'8 
Magazitie. In 1895-96 he was again in Paris, 
studying under Merson. Among his more im- 
portant drawings may be mentioned the illustra- 
tions for An Easter Hymn (1895); a series of 
drawings of Coney Island (1895); The Sea is His, 
a series of colored drawings for Scribner's Maga- 
zine and a number of mural decorations. 

ricCARTHY, Dennis, representative, was born 
at Salina, N.Y., March 19, 1814; son of Thomas 
and Percy (Soule) McCarthy. His father, a na- 
tive of Cork, Ireland, born 1786, came to Salina, 
N.Y., in 1807; was a pioneer merchant and 
manufacturer of salt ; a member of the state 
assembly in 1843, and president of the village of 



Salina in 1845. Dennis attended the Onondaga 
Valley academy until 1834, and in 1843 joined 
his father in business. In 1844 he was elected 
by the Democratic party to the state assembly, 
and in 1846 became a leading merchant and 
banker in Syracuse, and was mayor of the city 
in 1853. He became a Republican in 1861 and 
was a representative in the 40th and 41st con- 
gresses, 1867-71. He was defeated as the Independ- 
ent Republican cadidate for representative in the 
42d congress in 1870 ; was state senator, 1875-85 ; 
president of the senate, 1881-85 ; and became 
lieutenant-governor of the state, Jan. 6, 1885. 
He died in Syracuse, N.Y., Feb. 15, 1886. 

MacCARTNEV, Washington, educator, was 
born in Westmoreland county. Pa., Aug. 24, 
1812. He was graduated from Jefferson college, 
Canonsburg, Pa., in 1834, and was professor of 
mathematics at Lafayette college, 1835-^6 and 
1837-38 ; and of mathematics and modem lan- 
guages at Jefferson college, 1836-37. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar of Northampton county, Pa. , 
Jan. 18, 1838. He was married, April 18, 1839. to 
Mary E., daughter of William Maxwell of New 
Jersey. He was professor of mathematics at 
Lafayette college, 1843-44 and in 1846, and was 
deputy attorney-general for Northampton county, 
1846-48. He established a law school in Easton, 
Pa., in 1846, which was incorporated as the 
Union Law school in 1854. He was a trustee of 
Lafayette college. 1847-52 ; professor of mental 
and moral philosophy, 1849-53, and was president 
judge of the 3d judicial district of Pennsylvania, 
1851-56. He also lectured before schools and in- 
stitutes. He received the degree of LL.D. from 
Marshall college in 1852. He is the author of 
Differential and Integral Calculus (1844); The 
Origin and Progress of the United States (1846). 
He died in Philadelphia, Pa., July 15, 1856. 

McCARTVf Jonathan, representative, was 
born in Tennessee about 1800 ; son of Judge Ben- 
jamin McCarty, who removed to Indiana with 
his family, settled in Franklin county and was 
one of the judges of the circuit court under the 
territorial government. Jonathan attended tlie 
public school, engaged in mercantile pursuits and 
served as a representative in t)ie state legislature, 
where he procured the passage of the law laying 
off Fayette county, Ind. He settled at Connors- 
ville, its county seat, where he served for a 
time as clerk of its courts. He was a Whig re- 
presentative from Fayette county in the 22d, 
23d and 24th congresses, 1831-37 ; a presidential 
elector on the Harrison ticket in 1840, and for a 
short time was receiver of public moneys at Fort 
Wayne, Ind. He died in Keokuk, Iowa, in 1856. 

ricCAULEY, Charles Adams Hoke, soldier 
and author, was born in Middletown, Md., July 13, 
1847. He was graduated from the U.S. Military 



McCAULEY 



McCAULEY 



aoademy in 1870 ; was promoted 2d lieutenant, 
and assigned to the 3d artillery. He served on 
garrison duty, 1870-75 ; accompanied the Red 
River expedition into the Indian territory and 
Texas as ornithologist, 1876 ; was assistant to 
the chief engineer of the department of the Mis- 
souri, 1877-79 ; was promoted 1st lieutenant, 3d 
cavalry. May 5, 1879 ; captain, Feb. 18, 1881 ; 
was assistant quartermaster, Ogden, Utah, 188^ 
83 ; and quartermaster of the department of the 
Platte, 1883-87. He was promoted major, Aug. 
8, 1894, and lieutenant-colonel and deputy quar- 
termaster-general, Nov. 13, 1898. He invented a 
system of signalling by means of mirrors, 1871. 
He is the author of : The Ornithology of the Red 
River Region of Texas (1877) ; The San Juan 
Reconnoissance in Colorado and New Mexico 
(1877) ; Reports on the White River Indian 
Agency y Colorado^ and the Uintah Indian Agency 
(1879) ; Pagasa Springs , Colorado; its Geology 
and Botany {\S79). 

McCAULEY, Charles Stewart, naval officer, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pa. , Feb. 3, 1793 ; son 
of John and Sarah (Stewart) McCauley ; grandson 
of Colonel Stewart of the British army and 
nephew of Rear- Admiral Charles Stewart, U.S.N. 
He was warranted midshipman U.S.N. , Jan. 16, 

1809 ; was promoted 
lieutenant Dec. 9, 
1814 ; commander 
March 8, 1831 ; cap- 
tain Dec. 9, 1839, and 
commodore April 4, 
1867. He served as 
midshipman and act- 
ing lieutenant in the 
war of 1812 on the 
Constellation in Vir- 
ginia waters and on 
the Jefferson in 1814 
on Lake Ontario. He 
was on the Consti- 
tution, Erie, Constel- 
lation and United 
States in the Mediterranean fleet, 1815-20 ; 
on the Constellation in the Paciflc, 1820-22 ; on 
furlough in the merchant marine service, 1823-25 ; 
lieutenant on board the Boston in the South 
Atlantic squadron, 1825-29 ; on the receiving ship 
Fox, Baltimore, 1830 ; commanded the naval 
rendezvous at Boston. 1831, and Baltimore, 183*3 ; 
and commanded the Fairfield, bound to the Pacific 
in 1833, but was relieved on account of domestic 
affliction after two months* service. He com- 
manded the St.TjOuh. West Indian station 1834 ; 
the Faimouth, 1835 ; was commander and ex- 
ecutive officer at the Philadelphia navy yard, 
1837-41 ; commanded the Delaware on the Brazil 
and Mediterranean stations, 1841-44 ; was com- 





mandant of the Washington navy -yard, 1846-49 ; 
in command of the Pacific station, 1850-53 ; and 
in command of the Home squadron and sent to 
the West Indies on particular service, 1855, for 
which service he was tendered a dinner at the 
White House by President Pierce. He was a mem- 
ber of the retiring board, 1855 ; and president of 
the board to recommend a code of signals subse- 
quently adopted by the navy department, 1856. 
While commandant of the Norfolk navy-yard, 
1860-61, when all hope of relief from the depart- 
ment was abandoned early in 1861, he scuttled 
the vessels at the docks to prevent their imme- 
diate use by the Confederates, and placed the 
Cumberland, the only manned vessel, in an atti- 
tude of defence, when he received peremptory 
instructions to bring out the vessels and destroy 
and abandon the place. As the vessels were 
already scuttled and rapidly sinking Commodore 
Paulding, who brought the instructions, did not 
deem it advisable to wait to undertake to raise 
the vessels and departed with the Pavmee and the 
chartered vessel on which he entered the Eliza- 
beth river on his mission. Captain McCauley 
followed on the Cumberland after firing the 
ship-houses together with the combustible por- 
tions of the yard and the unmanned frigate Mer- 
rimac, which was afterward raised by the Con- 
federate navy department and remodeled into the 
ironclad Virginia. He was retired Dec. 21, 1861, 
and died in Washington, D.C., May 21, 1869. 

McCAULEY, Edward Yorke» naval officer, 
was bom in Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 2, 1827. He 
was a nephew of Capt. C. S. McCauley, U.S.N. 
He was graduated from the U.S. Naval academy 
in 1841 ; was warranted a midshipman in the 
U.S. navy and was promoted passed midshipman 
Aug. 10, 1847 ; lieutenant, Sept. 14, 1855 ; lieut- 
tenant-commander, July 16, 1862 ; commander, 
Sept. 27, 1866 ; captain, Sept. 3, 1872 ; commo- 
dore, Aug. 7, 1871 and rear-admiral, March 2, 
1885. He served on the Mediterranean squadron, 
1841-45, and on the United States on the coast of 
Africa, 1846-48 ; was attached to the Constitu- 
tion, Mediterranean squadron, 1849-52, and the 
Powhatan, East India squadron, 1852-56, being 
present at the attack on the pirates in the China 
sea in 1855 ; was on the receiving ship Philadel- 
phia, 1856-57 ; tlie steamer Niagara on the cable 
expedition, 1857-58 ; was stationed at the naval 
observatory, 1858-59, and resigned from the 
navy, Aug. 19, 1859. lie served on the steamer 
Flag of the South Atlantic blockading squadron 
as acting lieutenant, 1861-62 ; commanded the 
ste.iinei-s Fort Henry. 1862-63. and Tioga, 1863- 
64, both of the East Gulf blockading squadron ; 
the gunboat Benton, of the Mississippi squadron, 
1864-65; was on special duty in Philadelphia, 
1866-67 ; was fleet captain, North Atlantic squad- 



McCAULEY 



McCLAMMY 



xx>n, 1867-68 ; was stationed at the navy yard, 
Portsmouth, N.H., 1868-70 ; at the U.S. Naval 
academy, 187(K-72 ; commanded the Lackawanna^ 
Asiatic station, 1871^75 ; was at the Boston navy 
yard, 187&-78, and at the Naval Asylum, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., 1878-80 ; was commandant of the 
League Island navy yard, Philadelphia, 1884-85, 
and of the Pacific station, 1885-86. He was re- 
tired on his own application, February, 1887. He 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Hobart college in 1892. He Lb the author of : 
The Egyptian Manual and Dictionary (1888-84). 
He died in Jamestown, R.I., Oct. 24, 1894. 

McCAULBYy James Andrewt educator, was 
born in Cecil county, Md., Oct. 7, 1822 ; of English 
and Scotch ancestry. He removed to Baltimore, 
Md., with his parents at an early age. He was 
graduated from Dickinson college, Carlisle, Pa., 
in 1847 ; was employed as a private tutor, 1847- 
49; entered the Baltimore conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, 1850 ; and was prin- 
cipal of the Wesleyan Female seminary at 
Staunton, Va., 1850^54. He ministered at 
Wesleyan chapel, Washington, D.C. ; was pre- 
siding elder of the Washington district, 1869-72 ; 
was delegate to the General conference, Balti- 
more, Md., in May, 1872 ; to the English and 
Irish Wesleyan conference in 1874 and to the 
general conference of 1884. He was president of 
Pickinson college as successor to the Rev. Robert 
L. Dashiell (q.v.), resigned, 1872-88. During his 
presidency a hall of science, a library building and 
a gymnasium were added to the college, and the 
invested fund was increased by one hundred and 
forty thousand dollars. He resigned the pres- 
idency in 1888. He received the degree D.D. 
from Dickinson in 1867, and that of LL.D. from 
Lafayette in 1888. 

ncCAULEY* Mary(Ludwig) Hays (''Molly 
Pitcher'*), Revolutionary heroine, was bom in 
Carlisle, Pa., Oct. 18, 1744; daughter of John 
C>eorge Ludwig, who emigrated from Germany 
with the Palatines. She was employed as a ser- 
vant in the home of Gen. William Irvine at Car- 
lisle, and on July 24, 1769, was married to John 
Hays, a barber, who became gunner in Proctor's 
1st Pennsylvania artillery in December, 1775. 
She followed him to the field, where she was em- 
ployed as a laundress and nurse. She carried 
water to the men in action at the battle of Mon- 
mouth, and was on the field when her husband 
was shot down in a charge made by the British 
cavalry. There being no one to take charge of 
his piece, it was ordered from the field, but at this 
point "Molly Pitcher," as she was familiarly 
called by the gunners, dropped her pitcher, 
stepped forward and g^rasped the ramrod, declar- 
ing that she would take her husband^s place and 
avenge his death. She did excellent service for 



which she was appointed sergeant by Grenerai 
Washington on the following day. She served 
nearly eight years in the army, and was after- 
ward placed on the list of half-pay officers. She 
lived at the Carlisle barracks for many years, 
where she washed and cooked for the soldiers and 
was employed as a children's nurse. She married 
secondly Sergt. G«orge McCauley, who lived 
on her earnings and ill-treated her. She was 
granted a pension of $80 annually for life by a 
special act of the Pennsylvania legislature in 
February, 1822, and at her death was buried with 
military honors. She left one son, John Hays. 
A monument representing her in the act of load- 
ing a cannon was erected on the field of Mon- 
mouth, and in 1876 a second was erected on her 
grave at Carlisle. She is also represented in 
George W. P. Custis's painting. The Field of Mon- 
mouth, She died in Carlisle, Pa., Jan. 22, 1823. 

ilcCAY, Charles Francis, educator, was bom 
in Danville, Northumberland county, Pa., March 
8, 1810 ; son of Robert and Sarah (Reed) McCay ; 
grandson of Neal and Rachel (Thornton) McCay, 
and a descendant of Donald McCay who landed 
in America in 1757. He was graduated from Jef- 
ferson college, Pa., A.B., 1829, A.M., 1832 ; taught 
school, 1829-32 ; was professor of mathematics, 
natural philosophy and astronomy at Lafayette 
college, 1832-33 ; tutqr at the University of Creor- 
gia, 1833-35 ; professor of civil engineering, 1837- 
42, of philosophy, 1842-46, and of mathematics 
and civil engineering, 1846-53. He created the 
Charles F. McCay fund of $20,000 for the benefit 
of the University of Georgia. He was married, 
Aug. 11, 1840, to Narcissa, daughter of Prof. 
William Williams. He was president of South 
Cai'olina college and held the chair of mathema- 
tics, 1855-57, and engaged as secretary and 
cashier in an insurance and banking company in 
Augusta, Ga., 1858-69, and as actuary in Balti- 
more, Md.. 1872-84. The College of New Jersey 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of LL.D. 
in 1857. He is the author of Lectures on the Dif- 
ferential and Integ^^aX Calculus (1840); Civil En- 
gineering ; and a treatise on evolution. He died 
in Baltimore, Md., March 13, 1889. 

ilcCLAflilYt Charles Washington* represen- 
tative, was bom at Scott*s Hill, N.C., May 29, 
1839 ; son of Luke D. and Anna E. (Chadwick) 
McClammy. He attended Scott*s Hill academy 
and was graduated' from the University of North 
Carolina in 1859. He taught school, 1859-61, and 
at the outbreak of the civil war he organized a 
cavalry company. He served under Gens. J. E. 
B. Stuart and W. H. F. Lee, and was promoted 
on the field of battle to the rank of major of the 
3d North Carolina cavalry for gallantry dis- 
played in action. He refused to surrender at 
Appomattox, and with a few troopers escaped 



McCLEARY 



McCLELLAN 



Orant*8 army, April 8, 1865. He was a represen- 
tative in the state legislature, 1866 and 1870, and 
state senator in 1868. He was a Democratic pres- 
idential elector in 1884, and a representative in 
"the 50th and 51st congresses, 1887-91. He was 
znarried in 1860 to Margaret, daughter of Owen 
Fennell, sherifif of New Hanover county, and his 
son Herbert became a lawyer in Scott's Hill. He 
was mortally injured by a boiler explosion and 
died at Scott's Hill, N.C., Feb. 26, 1896. 

JlcCLEARYt James Thompsoo, representa- 
tive, was born in IngersoU, Ont., Feb. 5, 1853. 
He attended the public schools and McGill uni- 
versity, Montreal, and taught school in Wiscon- 
sin. He was married, June 4, 1874, to Mary 
Edith, daughter of David Taylor, of Maiden Rock, 
Wis. He was elected superintendent of the 
achools of Pierce county, Wis. ; was appointed 
atate institute conductor of Minnesota in 1881, 
and was professor of history and civics in the 
atate normal school at Mankato, 1881-92. During 
the summer months he conducted institutes in 
Wisconsin, Dakota, Virginia, Tennessee and Ck>l- 
orado, and in 1891 was chosen president of the 
State Educational association. He was a Repub- 
lican representative from the second Minnesota 
•district in the 5tSd-58th congresses, 1898-1905. 
He is the author of : Studies in Civics (1888) and 
Manual of Civics (1894). 

McCLELLAN, Carswell, civil engineer, was 
born in Pliiladelphia, Pa., Dec. 8, 1885; son of 
Dr. Samuel and Margaret Gars well (Ely) McClel- 
Ian. He matriculated at the University of Penn- 
sylvania in the class of 1854, but left In 1851 to 
complete his college course at Williams, and was 
graduated A.B., 1855, A.M., 1858. He entered 
the volunteer army in May, 1862, as ensign in the 
<82d New York regiment, and in June, 1862, was 
made topographical assistant to the adjutant- 
general and special aide on the staff of Gen. 
Andrew A. Humphreys. He was wounded at 'Mai- 
Tern Hill and at Gettysburg. After April, 1864, 
he was assistant adjutant-general, 1st division, 
tsavalry corps. Army of the Potomac, and of the 
8d division, 5th army corps. He was taken pris- 
oner in the battle of Weldon Railroad, Aug. 19, 
1864, and was paroled, Nov. 16, 1864, when he re- 
signed. He engaged as civil engineer on various 
roads in the United States and Brazil, 1864-81, 
and was U.S. civil assistant engineer, 1881-92. 
He was married to Annis, daughter of Vines 
Davis, of CoUinsville, 111. He wrote Personal 
Memoirs and Military History of Ulysses 8. Grant 
t». the Record of the Army of the Potomac (1887). 
He died in St. Paul, Minn., March 6, 1892. 

ilcCLBLLAN* Charles A. O., representative, 

was bom in Ashland, Ohio, May 25, 1835 ; son of 

William and Eliza (Wiggins) McClellan, natives 

of New Jersey, and of Scotch-Irish descent. He 

VII. - 7 



attended the district schools and in 1856 removed 
to Auburn, Ind. He was admitted to the bar in 
1860 and engaged in practice at Auburn. He be- 
came connected with the banking business in 
1868, and was elected president of the First Na- 
tional bank of Auburn and of the De Kalb bank 
of Waterloo. He was judge of the 40th circuit 
court of Indiana, 1887-89, and was a Democratic 
representative from the twelfth Indiana district 
in the 51st and 52d congresses, 1889-93. He died 
at Auburn, Ind., Jan. 80, 1898. 

McCLELLAN* Ely* army surgeon, was born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 23, 1834; son of Dr. 
Samuel and Margaret Carswell (Ely) McClellan. 
He matriculated at the University of Pennsylva- 
nia with the class of 1854, left after his freshman 
year, attended Williams college, 1851-53, and was 
graduated at Jefferson Medical college, Philadel- 
phia, in 1856. He practised in Philadelphia, 
1856-61, and on Aug. 3, 1861, entered the U.S. 
army as assistant surgeon with the rank of 1st 
lieutenant and served in the field with the Army 
of the Potomac. He was attending surgeon at 
the headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, 
1861-62 ; and in hospital at Fort Monroe and 
Hampton, Va., 1862-65. He was promoted cap- 
tain and assistant surgeon, July 28, 1866 ; was 
post surgeon at the Camp of Recruits, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., July to August, 1865 ; at Fort Delaware, 
Del., 1865-67 ; at Fort Craig, New Mexico, 1867- 
68, and at Fort Garland, Colorado, 1868-71 ; post 
surgeon at Crab Orchard, Ky., 1871-72 ; at Leb- 
anon, Ky., 1872-74 ; on special duty to investi- 
gate and report upon the causes of the cholera 
epidemic of 1873 in the United States, 1874-75, 
and on special duty in the office of the medical 
director of the department of the South, 1875-76. 
He was promoted surgeon with the rank of major, 
June 26, 1876 ; was attending surgeon at Atlanta, 
Ga., 1876-78 ; post surgeon at FortLapwai, Idaho, 
1878-81; at Fort Vancouver, Washington Ty., 
at Fort McHenry, Md., 1881, and at Fort Trum- 
bull, Conn., 1881-84. He was surgeon to the 
cavalry depot at Jefferson barracks, Mo., 1885-89 ; 
attending surgeon at headquarters, Chicago, III., 
1889-93. He was promoted deputy surgeon-gen- 
eral with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1891. 
He was married to Emily Hopkins, daughter of 
Joshua Tevis of Philadelphia, Pa. He is the 
author of numerous medical works of impor- 
tance, and contributions to medical journals. He 
died in Chicago, 111., May 8, 1893. 

flcCLELLAN, George, surgeon, was born in 
Woodstock, Windham county, Conn., Dec. 23, 
1796 ; son of James and (Eldredge) Mc- 
Clellan. He was graduated from Yale, A.B., 
1816 ; studied medicine at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and was graduated M.D., 1819. He was 
resident physician of the Almshouse hospital, 



MCCLELLAN 

181B-19. He was married in 1630 to Elizabeth, 
daughter of John H. Brinton of Pliiladelptiia, Pa. 
He opened a dissecting room in 1621, and gave 
private lectures on anatomy and surgery which 
resulted in a charter for the Jefteraon Medical 
college in 1835, where he was professor o( sur- 
gery, 1836-38. In 1636 tlie scliool facultj was 
reorganiaed, and Itis name was eicludeii, where- 
upon lie obtained a charter for the Pennsjivania 
College Medical school, and was lecturer there, 
163tM3. Reacquired a large practice as surgeon 
in the United States, and also bad patients from 
the West Indies, South America and Europe, and 
was especially eminent in ophthalmic surgery. 
He was the author of original medico-chirur- 
gical re[>oit9 ; one of the conductors of the 
Anerican Meilical Review and Journal ; editor 
of Eberle's Theory and Practice of Phyiicg ( 1840) ; 
and the autlior of The Principle and Practice of 
Surgery, edited hf his son, John H. B. MoClellan 
(1846). He died in Philadelphia, Pa., May9, 1847. 
McCLELLAN, Qeorsc Brintoo, soldier, was 
born in Philadelphia, Pa,, Dec. 8, 1836; son of 
Dr. George and Elisabeth (Brinton) McClellan. 
He matriculated at the University of Peimsyl- 
Tania with the class of 1644, and left at the close 
of his sophomore year to enter the U.S. Military 
academy, where he 
WB8 graduated in 
July, 1846, second in 
the class. He was 
appointed to the en- 
gineer corps brevet 
3d lieutenant, and 
he served in the war 
with Mexico, l846-t8. 
He was engaged in 
openingthe road from 
Matamoras to Tam- 
pico, 1646-47 ; in the 
siege of Vera CruB, 
March 8-39. 1847; 
battle of Cerro Oordo, 
April 17-18 ; was 
promoted Sd lieutenant, April 34 ; engaged in 
the skirmish of Amazoque, May 14 ; the battles 
of Contreras, August 19-30, and Churubu-soo, 
August 20; in constructing batteries against 
Chapultepeu. Sept. 9-13, and in the nsaault and 
capture of the city of Mesico, Sept. 13-14, 1847. 
He was at West Point, N.Y., attaciied to a com- 
pany of -engineer trnop, 1846-f>0,and in command 
of the troop, 16r>0-51. He was hi'evetted 1st 
lieutenant, Aug. 20, 1847, for Contreraa and 
Churubusco ; captain, Sept. 8, 1847, for Molino 
del Rey, which brevet he declined, and captain. 
Sept. 18, 1847, for Uhapultepec. He was assist- 
ant engineer in building Fort Delaware. I851-.52 ; 
engineer of the exploring expedition. Red RiTer^ 



McCLELLAN 

Texas, 1633 ; chief engineer. Department of Texas, 
1653, and in charge of surveys on the coast of 
Texas, 1852-53. He was engineer in the explora- 
tion and survey of tlie western division of the pro- 
jected Northern Pacific railroad through the Caa- 
cade mountains, 1853-34 ; collected railroad statis- 
tics for the 
war depart- 
ment, 1851-35, 

member of tlie 
military corn- 
to the theatre 
of war ill Eu- 
rope, 1855-56, 
of which his 

official report «.<ciii*n. m.,.,..— .^. ... 

was published hy order of congress, 1857. He 
devised the McClellan saddle in 1850, which 
came into general use in the army. He nas 
promoted 1st lieutenant, July 1, 1853. and cap- 
tain in the 1st cavalry, March 3, 1855, on the 
eve of his departure to Europe, and on his return 
to the United States he resigned his commission 
in the army, Jan. 16, 1857, to take position aa 
chief engineer of the Illinois Central railroad, 
serving 1857-58. He was vice-president of the 
road, 1858-60, and president of the St. Louis and 
Cincinnati railroad. 1860-01. He was appointed 
major-general, Ohio militia volunteers, April 23. 

1861, and was in command of the Department of 
the Ohio from May 13 to July 15, 1861. He com- 
manded the Federal forces in western Virginia ; 
engaged in the action at Rich Mountain, July 11, 
1661, and by a forced march surprised Col. John 
Pegram near Beverly, July 12, 1861, and com- 
pelled him to surrender. For his services in 
brilliant and decisive victories on the battle-fields 
of western Virginia lie received the thanks of 
congress, July 13, 1881. He was commissioned 
major-general, U.S. army, May 14, 1861. and was 
placed in command of the Division of the Poto- 
mac with headquarters at Washington, D.C.. 
July 37, 1861. On Aug. 17, 1861. he was given 
command of the Departmentof the Potomac ; on 
Aug. 20, 1861, of the Army of the Potomac, and 
on Nov. 1, 1801, was made genernl-iii-cliiet of the 
armies of tlie United States. He advanced mum 
Manassas, Va., March 6-10. 1662, and transferred 
the Army of the Potoniac to the Virginia penin- 
sula, wliich movement was folluweJ by the siege 
of Yorktown, April ,5-May 4, 1863: the occupa- 
tion of Williamsburg, May 5-6. 1862 ; the battle 
of Fair Oaks. May 31-June 1. 1862. and the seven 
days' battles before Richmond. Julie 36-July 3, 

1862, during which time he transferred his base 
from the Pamunkey to tlie James river in order 
to he supported by the gwiboats of the navy. He 



McCLELLAN 

waa familiarly known by the men composingthe 
Army of the Polomao as " Little Mao," and be 
appears to have had the full conflilenoe of hia 
officers and men. The Peninsula oampaign was 
abandoned by order of General Halleck, who had 
been made general-in-ohief of the Federal army, 



McClellan having asked to be relieved of all 
responsibility of the operations outside the Army 
of the Pot«man. General Halleck gave theorder 
August 8, to which protest was made by Mo- 
Clellan, August 4, and in this protest he claimed 
that the Peninsula waa the true defence of Wash- 
ington and that the baQbs of the James should be 
the ground on which the fate of the Unionsbould 
be decided. Halleck telegraphed liim, August 10, 
that the enemy had crossed the Rapidan and were 
fighting the Army of Virginia, commanded by 
Gen. John Pope. On August 13 McClellan replied 
that if Washington was in danger bisarmy could 
hardly arrive in time to save it. On August 21 
his headquarters were at that place, on August 
24 he was at Acquia Creek, and on August 
27 at Alexandria, opposite Washington. On 
August 30 be telegraphed Halleck that every man 
of the Army of the Potomac within his reach waa 
at the front, and he asked to join them, if not in 
command of his own army, then as a volunteer, 
that he might share their fate on the battle-field. 
Halleck replied, Aii^ust 81, that General Pope 
ivaa in command of the department by order of 
President Lincoln, McClellau was left in Alex- 
andria, with orders from the war department de- 
fining bis command and leaving to his control his 
personal staff and about 100 men in camp and 
those left at Fort Monroe. Pope's army was de- 
feated, Aug. 39, 30, 31 and Sept. 1, 1863, and on 
Sept. 3, 1862, President Lincoln went to Mc- 
Clellan's house in Washington and instructed him 
to meet the retreating army, take command, and 
save Washington, and it was under this verbal 
order from the President, with no instruction 
from the war department, that the Army of the 
Potomac and the Army of Virginia were merged 
as the Army of the Potomac and prepared to 
meet the Confederate artny under General Lee in 
the Maryland campaign, the last campaign of 
McClellan. He was in command of the defences 
of Washington, Sept. 3-8, 1663, and in command 
of the new Army of the Potomac from Sept, 8 
to Nov. 10, 1863, and during this time he fought 
the battle of South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1803 ; the 



McCLELLAN 

battle of Antietam, Sept. 17, 1863 ; transferred 
his headquarters to Warrenton, Va., where dur- 
ing October and November he received reinforce- 
ments and placed the Army of the Potomac in a 
condition to protect the national capital from 
further danger. On Nov. 10, 1863, he received 
notice from the war department to report at New 
York city on waiting orders, and the command 
of the Army of the Potomac was transferred to 
Gen. A. E. Bumside. General McClellan visited 
Boston in the winter of 186S-63, where he was 
presented with a sword, and in June, 1864, he 
delivered the oration at the dedication of the sol- 
diers' monument at West Point, N.Y. He was 
nominated as a candidate for President of the 
United States by the Democratic national con- 
Tention that met in Chicago, Aug. 39, 1864, by 
a vote of 3031 to 33} for Tliomas H. Seymour, 
a peace Democrat. George H. Pendleton of 
Ohio was nominated for Vice-President, and in 
the election that followed in November, 1804, the 
ticket received 1,808,735 popular votes, while the 
Republican ticket received 2,316,067. At the 
meeting of the electoral college, McClellan and 
Pendleton received from New Jersey, Kentucky 
and Delaware 31 votes, to 213 for Lincoln and 
Johnson. He resigned from the U.S. army, Nov. 
8, 1894, visited Europe, 1866-68, with hie family, 
and on his return took up his residence in Orange, 
N.J. He declined the preaidency of the Uni- 
versity of California in 1868 and that of Union 
college, Schenectady, N.Y., in 1869. He had 
the supervision of the building of the Stevens 
battery under the terms of the will of Edwin A. 
Stevens, 1868-71 ; waa engineer-in -chief of the 
department of docks. New York city, 1870-73 ; 
planned the bridge erected over the Hudson river 
at Poughkeepsie ; was president of the New York 
underground railroad, of the U.S. Rolling Stock 
company, and of the Atlantic and Western rail- 
road, and in March, 1877, was nominated by 
Governor Robinson of New York superintendent 
of public works in New York state, but the sen- 
ate refused to confirm the appointment. He was 
nominated by acclamation by the Democratic 
state convention of New Jersey for governor of 
New Jersey, Sept. 19, 1877, and he was elected 
by 13,743 majority, serving as governor, 1878-81, 
He introduced reforms in the state militia, pre- 
served the non-partisan character of the judi- 
ciary, established schools for industrial educa- 
tion, recommended needed reforms in the prison- 
labor system, and left the public schools and other 
institutions of the state in a prosperous condition. 
He was a member of the board of managers of 
the National Home for Disabled Soldiers. 1881-Si3, 
and pronounced the oration at the dedication- 
day ceremony on the battle-field of Antietam in 
1885, his last public service. He was married to 



McCLELLAN 



McCLELLAN 



Marj Ellen, daughter of G(en. Randolph Barnes 
Marcy, and their son, Gftorge Brinton (q.v.), was 
a representative in congress from New York city. 
General McGlellan translated from thd French : 
*' Manual of Bayonet Exercises," adopted for use 
in the U.S. Army (1852), and is the author of: 
Chvemment Reports of Pacific Railroad Surveys 
(1854); Operations in the Crimean, and Organiza- 
tion, Instruction and Equipment of European 
Armies (1857); Rep<yrt on the Organization of the 
Army of the Potomac and its Campaigns in Vir- 
ginia and Maryland (1864) ; The Peninsula Cam- 
paign in the Century, May 5, 1885 ; and two articles 
in " Battles and Leaders of the Civil War" (Vol. 
n. , 1887) . He died in Orange, N.J. , Oct. 29, 1885. 

McCLELLAN, George Brinton, representa- 
tive, was born in Dresden, Saxony, Nov. 23, 1866 ; 
son of Gen. George Brinton and Mary Ellen 
(Maroy) McClellan. He was graduated at the Col- 
lege of New Jersey, A.B., 1886, A.M., 1889, and 
began life as a journalist. He was married to a 
daughter of John G. Heckster, a New York mer- 
chant. He was reporter and editorial writer on 
New York dailies, 1886-89, and treasurer of the 
New York and Brooklyn Bridge company, 1889- 
92. He was admitted to the New York bar in 
1892, was elected a member of the common coun- 
cil of the city of New York in 1898, and served as 
president of the body, 1893 and 1894, and as act- 
ing mayor of the city when less than thirty years 
of age. He was a Democratic representative 
from the twelfth districtof New Yorkin the 54th, 
55th, 56th, 57th and 58th congresses, 1894-1905. 

McCLELLAN, Henry Bralnerd, educator, was 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 17, 1840 ; son of 
Dr. Samuel and Margaret Carswell (Ely) McClel- 
lan ; grandson of James McClellan, of Woodstock, 
Conn., and of the Rev. Dr. Ezra Styles Ely of 
Philadelphia, Pa.; great-grandson of Gen. Samuel 
McClellan of the Revolution, and a descendant of 
William Bradford, governor of Plymouth Colony. 
He graduated from Williams, A. B., 1858, A. M., 
1869 ; and taught school in Cumberland county, 
Va., 1858-61. He served in the Confederate 
army, 1861-65 ; was adjutant of the 3d Vir- 
ginia cavalry in the Army of Northern Virginia, 
1862-63, and major and assistant adjutant-general 
of the cavalry corps of that army, 1868-65. He 
served on the staff of Qen, Robert E. Lee by ap- 
pointment from May to August, 1864, and was 
chief of staff of the cavalry corps of Gen. J. E. 
B. Stuarfc and of Wade Hampton, 1863-65. After 
the close of the war he resided in Cumberland 
county, Va., and in 1870#became principal of the 
Sayre Female Institute in Lexington, Ky. He 
was married, Dec. 31, 1863, to Catherine M. Mat- 
thews of Cumberland county, Va. He is the 
author of The Life and Campaigns of Major- 
Oeneral J. E, B. Stuart 



McCLBLLANt Robert, representative, was 
bom in Livingston, N.Y., Oct. 2, 1806 ; son of Dr. 
John and Sarah (Jones) McClellan ; grandson of 
Col. Hugh and Jane (Henry) McClellan, and 
great-grandson of Samuel and Sarah (Wilson) 
McClellan, who came from Scotland in 1749 and 
settled in Colerain, Mass. Robert was graduated 
at Williams college, 1825 ; was admitted to the 
bar in 1828, and practised in Middleboro, N.Y., 
1828-43. He was a Democratic representative 
in the 25th congress, 1837-4W. In congress he ad- 
vocated the establishment of an independent 
treasury and favored the claims of the heirs of 
Fulton to remuneration as the inventor of the 
steamboat. In 1839 he removed to Hudson, 
N.Y., where he practised law. He was a repre- 
sentative in the 27th congress, 1841-48 and in 
1858 retired on account of ill health. He died 
in Greenpoint, N.Y., June 28, 1860. 

McCLELLAN, 5amuel« soldier, was bom in 
Worcester, Mass., Jan. 4, 1780; son of William 
and Jeannie (Calhoun) McClellan, and grandson 
of James McClellan, the Scotch immigrant, who 
came to America from the north of Ireland. He 
was an officer in the French and Indian wars, 
was wounded in the service and in 1778 became 
captain of a troop of horse in Woodstock, Conn., 
to where he had removed. In 1776 he marched 
his company to Dorchester, on receipt of the 
news of the battle of Lexington. He was at- 
tached to the 12th regiment of Connecticut in- 
fantry and served successively under commission 
from Gov. John Trumbull as major, lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel of the regiment, stationed at 
New London, Conn., and on the Hudson river, 
advancing £1000 to pay his men in 1778. On 
June 10, 1779, he was commissioned by the gov- 
ernor brigadier-general and commandcnl the 5th 
brigade, state militia. General Washington urged 
him to join the Continental army, offering him 
promotion above his rank in the state militia, 
but he declined. He represented Woodstock in 
the state legislature in 1775. He was married 
Nov. 16, 1757, to Jemima, daughter of William 
and Jemima (Bradbury) Chandler. She died 
April 13, 1764, and he married secondly, March 5, 
1766, Rachel, daughter of Joshua and Mary 
(Ripley) Abbe of Windham, Conn., who died 
Jan. 22, 1795 ; and thirdly, July 3, 1798, Eunice 
Follansbee of Worcester, Mass., who died Nov. 7, 
1839. He died in Woodstock. Conn., Get. 17. 1807. 

McCLELLAN* Thomas Nicholas, jurist, was 
born in Limestone coimty, Ala., Feb. 23, 1853 ; 
son of Thothas Joyce and Mailha Fleming 
(Beattie) McClellan ; grandson of William and 
Matilda Caroline (Joyce) McClellan and of John 
and Joanna (Moore) Beattie ; and of Scotch an- 
cestors who came to Virginia, removed to North 
Carolina and thence to Tennessee early in the 



MCCLELLAND 

nineteenth oenturr. He was a student at Oak 
Hill college and Cumberland univeraitr, Teon., 
mod was graduated from Lebanon Law sobool in 
1872. He practised at Athens, Ala., with his 
brother Bobert Alexander HoClellan, 1872-84. 
He served in the state senate, 1880-81 ; as attor- 
ney-general of Alabama, 1884-89; as associate 
justice of the state supreme court, 188ft-W ; and 
inl898 was madeohief justice of the court for the 
term expiring in November, 1004. 

McClelland, AIoxjuuIm-, clergyman, was 
bom in Schenectady, N.Y., in 1794. He was 
graduated from Union college in 1809 ; studied 
theology tmder Dr. J. H. Mason, and was liceoeed 
by the Associate Reformed Presbytery of New 
York in 1819. He was pastor of the Rutgers 
Street Presbyterian church in New York city, 
1815-21 1 professor of rhetoric, logic and meta- 
physics at Dickinson college, Carlisle, Pa-, 1821- 
29 ; of languages at Rutgers college, New Bruns- 
wick, N.J., 1839-83 ; and of Oriental languages 
and litaratnze there, 1883-67. He was also pro- 
fessor of the evidencee of Christianity in the 
Seminary of the Reformed Dutch church, at New 
Brunswick, 1840-Gl. He travelled In Europe, 
1857-68. He received the degree of D.D. from 
the College of New Jersey in 1818 ; and from 
Dickinson college in 1830. He is the author of : 
Jlfunual of Sacred Initrpretalion (1843); Canon 
and Interpretation of Scriptures (1860); Ser- 
mons with a sketch of hia life by the Rev. R, 
W. Dickinson (1867). He died in New Bruns- 
wick, N.J. , Deo. 19, 1864. 

McClelland, Robert, governor of Michi- 
gan, was bom in Oreenoastle, Pa., Aug. 1, 1807 ; 
■on of Dr. John McClelland. He was graduated 
from Dickinson college in 1829, engaged in 
teaching, and was admitted to the bar at Cham- 
bersburg. Pa,, in 
1831. He practised 
law in Pittsburg, Pa., 
in 1833 ; and removed 
to Monroe, Mich. Ty., 
in 1838. He was mar- 
ried in 1837 to Sarah 
E. Sabi'n of Williams- 
town, Mass. He was 
a delegate from the 
second district to the 
first constitutional 
convention that met 
in Detroit, May II, 
1885, was represent- 
ative in the Michi- 
gan legislature in 
1889, 1840 and 1848, and was speaker in 1843. 
He was a Democratto repieeentativfl from the 
flTBt Hiohigan district in the astb, 39th and 
8Mh oongressea, 1848-49, and while in congress 



McCLERNAND 

he was chairman of the committee on com- 
merce and supported the Wilmot proviso. He 
was a delegate to the Democratic national con- 
vention, Baltimore, May 22, 1848, and t« the 
Michigan constitutional convention at Lansing, 
June 8, 1860 ; president of the Democratic state 
convention of 1860 ; and delegate to the Demo- 
cratic national convention at Baltimore, June 1, 
1853. He was elected governor of Michigan in 
1850 and brought the state government into 
operation under the new constitution. He was 
re-elected for a term of two years and was in- 
augurated, Jan. 6, 1863, resigning the o£Bce in 
March, 1858, to accept the position of secretary 
of the interior in President Pierce's cabinet, serv- 
ing 1853-57. He settled in Detroit, Mich., in 
1857, and was a delegate to the state coDstitu- 
tiooal convention from Wayne county, May IS, 
1667. He was an original regent of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, 1837, and again 1860-^3. He 
died in Detroit, Mich., Aug. 30, 1380. 

McClelland, Tbomas, educator, was bom 
in county Derry, Ireland. May 1, 1846. He was 
graduated at Oberlin college, Ohio, A.B., 1875, 
and studied theology at the Oberlin (1875-70), 
Union (1878-79), and Andover (1879-80) theolog- 
ical seminaries. He was graduated at the last 
named in 1880, and was ordained hy the Congre- 
gational association, at Council Bluffs, Iowa, 
June 13, 1883. He was professor of mental and 
moral philosophy. Tabor college, Iowa, 1880-Sl ; 
president of PaciBc university. Forest Grove, 
Ore., 189M900, and in 1900 he was elected presi- 
dent of Knox college, Oalasburg, 111. He re- 
ceived the degree of A.M. from Oberlin in 1888 
and that of D.D. from Tabor in 1891, 

McCLERNAND, John Alexander, representa- 
tive, was bom near Hardinsburg. Ey., Hay 80, 
1813 , the only son of Dr. John and Fatima (Cum- 
mins) Seaton McCler- 
nand, and grandson 
of Alexander McCler- 
nand, of Antrim, 
Ireland. His father, 
a political exile, left 
Ireland in 1801, 
landed in Philadel- 
phia Pa., and set- 
tled near Hardins- 
burg, Ey., from 
whence he removed 
in 1813 to Shawnee- 
town, ni., where he 

di«l ta 1816. John ^ Y<i.,.~^ 
was brought up on a 
farm, studied law un- 
der Henry Eddy, 1829-83, and was admitted to tho 
bar. In 1883 he volunteered for service in the 
,Black Hawk war and engaged in trading on Um 



McCUNTOCK 



McCLINTOCK 



Ohio and Mississippi river, 1833-34. He resumed 
his law practice and established the Democrat &t 
Shawneetown, III., in 1835, and was a representa- 
tive in the Illinois legislature, 1836-42, where he 
defended President Jackson against an attack by 
Governor Duncan. He was married in 1848 to 
Sarah, daughter of Colonel Dunlap, of Jackson- 
ville, 111. He was appointed by the legislature 
commissioner and treasurer of the Illinois and 
Michigan canal. He was a presidential elector on 
the Van Buren and Johnson ticket in 1840, and 
a Democratic representative from Illinois in the 
28th, 29th« 30th, 81st, 36th and 87th congresses, 
1843-51, and 1859-61. He resigned his seat in the 
37th congress to enter the U.S. volunteer army. 
He raised a brigade made up of Illinois men with 
the aid of N. B. Buford, John A. Logan and 
Philip B. Fouke, and was appointed brigadier- 
general of volunteers by President Lincoln in 1861. 
At the battle of Belmont he commanded the 1st 
brigade of Grant's army, and at the capture of 
Fort Donelson the 1st division made up of Ogles- 
by '8, W. H. L. Wallace's and William R. Morri- 
son's brigades. He was promoted major-general 
of volunteers, March 21, 1862. He commanded 
the 1st division, Army of the Tennessee, at the 
battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862. In the Vicks- 
burg campaign. May 1-July 4, 1863, he com- 
manded the 13th army corps. He took part in 
the engagements at Port Gibson, April 80 to May 
1, 1862; Champion Hills, May 16, 1868; and 
Black River Bridge, May 17, 1868, and at the 
siege of Vicksburg. He was charged by General 
Grant with not supporting the troops engaged in 
the battle of Champion Hills, and his action 
caused General Grant to countermand an order 
he had given General Hovey on the field, and 
McClernand was relieved of his command soon 
after the surrender of Vicksburg. He was rein- 
stated by President Lincoln, Jan. 31, 1864, but 
resigned from the army on account of ill health, 
Nov. 80, 1864, and resumed the practice of law at 
Springfield, 111., in 1865. He was circuit judge for 
the Sangamon district, 1870-78 ; chairman of the 
Democratic national convention at St. Louis, Mo., 
in 1876, and was appointed a member of the Utah 
commission by President Cleveland in 1886. He 
died in Springfield, III., Sept. 20, 1900. 

McCLINTOCK, John, educator, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 27, 1814 ; son of John and 
Martha (McMackin) McClintock. natives of Ire- 
land. He studied at Wesleyan university. Conn., 
for a short time in 1831 ; was a clerk in Philadel- 
phia and bookkeeper in the Methodist Book Con- 
cern, New York city, 1828-32, and was graduated 
from the University of Pennsylvaiua. A.B., 1835, 
A.M., 1838. He entered the PhiladelphiaConfer- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal clmrch in 
1835 ; was assistant professor of mathematics in 







Dickinson college, 1836-39, and professor of an- 
cient classics, 1840-48. He was editor of the 
Methodist Review, 1848-56 ; a member of the gen- 
eral conferences of 1856 and 1868 ; delegate to the 
Evangelical alliance, Berlin, 1856 ; fraternal dele- 
gate to the Wesleyan Methodist conference of 
England, and to the 
Irish, French and 
German conferences, 

1856, and the same 
year he was trans- 
ferred to the New 
York conference. He 
was president elect 
of Troy university, 
1857-58 ; declined the 
presidency of Wes- 
leyan university in 

1857, and was sta- 
tioned at St. Paul's 
church. New York, 
1857-60. He was mar- 
ried in 1836 to Caro- 
line, daughter of Jabez Wakeman, of Jersey City, 
N. J., and secondly In 1857 to Catharine Wilkina 
(Stevenson) Emory, daughter of Dr. George 
Stevenson, of Pittsburgh, Pa., and widow of 
Robert Emory (q.v.). He was pastor of the 
American chapel at Paris under the American 
and Foreign Christian Union, 1860-63, and ad- 
vocated in France and England the cause of the 
north. He was corresponding editor of the Meth- 
odistf 1860-64; was chairman of the centenary 
committee of Methodism, 1866, and in co-opera- 
tion with Daniel Drew, he established the Drew 
Theological seminary at Madison. N.J.,and was 
president of the seminary and professor of prac- 
tical theology, 1867-70. The honorary degree of 
D.D. was conferred on him by the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1848, and that of LL.D. by Rut- 
gers college in 1866. He edited Sketches of 
Eminent Methodist Ministers (1854) : Bungen- 
er's '* History of the Council of Trent" and six 
centenary hymns by George Lansing Taylor 
(1866); wrote, with Prof. George R. Crooks,^ 
First Book in Latin (1846), and A First Book in 
Greek (1848) ; and is the author of : A Second 
Book in Greek (1850); A Second Book in Latin 
(1858), and The Temporal Pouoer of the Pope 
(1855), and, with James Strong, The Cyclopcedia 
of Biblical, Theological and Ecelesiastical Litera- 
ture (12 vols., 1867-82). He lived to see only 
three volumes published but his name is attached 
to the whole series. He wrote the introduction to 
"Anecdotes of the Wesley s" by J. B. Wakeley 
(1869). Living Words or Unwritten Sermons of the 
Late John McClintock, D,D., LL.D., with preface 
by Bishop James, was published in 1871, and Lec- 
tures, by the late John McClintock, D,D., LL,D, on 



MCCLINTOCK 

the Theologicat EncyOopoedia arid Mttthodology, 
«diled by John T. Short, B.D., with introduotion 
by JamsB Strong, 8.T.D., in 1873. He died in 
Madison, N.T., March 4, 1870. 

ncCLINTOCK, Satnud, clergyman, was bom 
in Medford, Hasa., May 1, 1783, of Scotch-Irish 
descent. He was graduated from the College of 
New Jeraej in 17S1 ; declined a tutorship there in 
that year, and was ordained pastor of the Con- 
gregational cliurcii at Greenland, N.H., in I7S6, 
where he ministered for forty-eight yeara, during 
which time the last Sunday of hia life was the 
only one on which he was unable to perform hia 
usual Sabbatii duties. He served as chaplain in 
the French war, and repeatedly to portions of the 
New Hampshire troops during the Revolution. 
He was present at the battle of Bunker Hill, June 
17, 177.5, as represented in Trumbull's picture ot 
that battle. He also had four sons who served in 
the war of the Kevolution, three of whom died 
before peace was established. He received the 
degree of A.M. from the CoUege of New Jersey 
and from Harvard in 1761, and that of D.D. from 
Yale in 1791. He engaged in a theological oon- 
troversy with the Rev. J. C. Ogden, an Episcopal 
clergyman of Portemouth, Mass., in 1787, ooca- 
sioned by Bishop Seabury'a sermon on apostolio 
succession at the ordination of Mr. Ogden, and 
the oontroversy ended in Mr. Ogden being ejected 
from his parish. He ia the author of : A Sermon 
on the Jattiee of Ood in the Mortality of Man 
{1739): The Artifices of Deceiver* Detected and 
Chrialiana Warned agaimt Them (1770); Hero- 
diaa. or Cruelty and Revenge the Effeetn of Uniaw- 
fiil Pleature (1772); ASermon at the Commence- 
ment of the New Constitution of New Hampehire 
{1184); An EpiBtotary Correepondenoe with Sev. 
John C. Ogden (1791); The Choice (nm); An 
Oration Commemorative of Washington (1800). 
He died in Greentand, N.H., April 27, 1804. 
ricCLlSH, Bill educator, was bom in Rains- 

■' ville, Ind., Oct. 8, 1846 ; son of James and Eliza- 
beth (West) McClisli, and grandson of John and 
Azubah (Wilson) West, who emigrated from 
Scotland. He enlisted as a volunteer in the U.S. 

' army in 1663, and served under Slierman, 1860-66. 
He was graduated from the Northwestern uni- 
versity, A.B., 1874, A.M.. 187B, B.D., 1877. He 
was married in 1872 to Louisa Adelaide Clarke. 
He was pastor in tlie Central Illinois conference 
ot the Methodist Episcopal church, 1877-84 ; pres- 
ident of Grand Prairie seminary, 1884r-91, and pas- 
tor of Grace H. E. church, San Francisco, Cal., 
1891-96. He declined the presidency of the Uni- 
versity of tlie Pacific in 1801, but accepted the 
office in 1606. He received the degree of D.D. 
from Northwestern university in 1887. Clarke 
Loring McClish, A.B. University of the Paci- 
fic, H.D. University of California, was his son. 



McCLOSKEY 

ncCLOSKEY, John, cardinal, was born in 
Brooklyn, N.Y., March 30, 1810. His parents 
emigrated from county Londonderry, Ireland, 
to New York, where hie father died in 1830. He 
was graduated from Mount St. M&ry'a college, 
Emmitsburg, Md., 
A.B., 1838, A.M., 
1831, and from the 
theological depart- 
ment of that institn> 
tion in 1834. He was 
ordained Jan. 13, 
1834, in St. Patrick's 
cathedral. New York 
city, by Bishop Du- 
Bois. and was sent 
to Borne, where he 
continued his atudiea 
at the college of the 
Propaganda, 18S6-T" 
On his return 
New York he was 

appointed pastor of St. Joseph's church, Not. 
1, 1887, and upon the opening of St. John's col- 
lege, Foidham, he was appointed by Bishop 
Hughes first president of the college, June 34, 
1841. He held this office until 1842, when he r^ 
signed and returned to his parochial duties. He 
was appointed bishop of Aziere and ooadjutor to 
the Bishop of New York, Nov. 31, 1843, and was 
consecrated by Bishop Hughes, assisted by Bish- 
ops Fenwick of Boston, and Whelsn of Rich- 
mond, Vs., March 10, 1844. After the creation of 
the sees of Albany and Buffalo, April 28, 1847, he 
was transferred to Albany, May 31, 1847, where 
be introduced numerous religious orders, built 
the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception and 
founded the theological seminary at Troy, N.Y. 
On May 6, 1864, he was promoted to New York as 
successor to Archbishop Hughes, who died Jan. 
8, 1864, and he was installed Aug. 31, 1864. He 
was created a cardinal priest of the Holy Roman 
church under the title ot Sancta Maria supra Mj- 
nervam, March 15, 1875, and tlie baretta was con- 
ferred on him by Archbishop Bnyley, April 37, 
1875. He took possession ot his titular church, 
Sept. 30, 1875, and on May 35, 1879, he dedicated 
St. Patrick's cathedral on Fifth avenue. New 
York, the corner stone of which was laid by 
Archbishop Huglies, Aug. 15, 1858, and to which 
Archbishop MoCloskcy personally contributed 
$30,000. Failing health caused him to ask for a 
coadjutor in 1880, and Bishop M. A. Corrigan was 
appointed Oct. 1, 1880. Cardinal McCloskey died 
in New York city. Oct. 10. 1885. 

HcCLOSKEV, John, educator, was born In 
Ireland in 1815. He entered Mount St. Mary's 
college, Emmitsburg, Md., in 1839. and wan grad- 
uated A.B., 1833, A.M., 1886. He made liis theo- 



McCLOSKEY 



McCLURE 



logical studies at Mt. St. Mary's seminary, and 
was ordained a priest by Bishop Hughes of New 
York in 1841. The same year he was made a 
member of the faculty of Mount St. Mary's col- 
lege, and was elected vice-president and treasurer. 
In 1871 he was elected president and remained in 
that office until 1877, when he resigned. He was 
re-elected in 1879, and remained at his post up to 
the time of his death, which occurred at Emmits- 
burg. Md., Dec. 24, 1880. 

McCLOSKBYt William George, R.C. bishop, 
was born in Brooklyn, N.Y., Nov. 10, 1828 ; son of 
Qeorge and Ellen McCloskey. He graduated at 
Mount St. Mary's college, Emmitsburg,Md., 1840 ; 
entered Mt. St. Mary*s seminary in 1846, received 
minor orders and subdeaconship from Arch- 
bishop Eccleston in 1850, and was ordained priest, 
Oct. 6, 1852, in St. Patrick's cathedral. New York 
city, by Archbishop Hughes, who sent him as 
assistant to his brother, the Rev. George Mc- 
Closkey, at the Church of the Nativity in New 
York city. He remained there one year, when he 
was appointed professor of English and after- 
ward of Latin in Mount St. Mary's. In 1857 he 
succeeded Archbishop Elder as director of Mt. 
St. Mary's seminary and became professor of 
moral theology and sacred scripture. In 1859 he 
was appointed by Pope Pius IX. first president of 
the newly founded American college in Rome, 
which position he filled until 1868, when he was 
elected bishop of Louisville, March 16, and was 
consecrated in the college church, S. Maria dell' 
Umiltd, on May 24, 1868, by Cardinal August 
Charles de Reisach, who was assisted by Mgr. de 
Merode, archbishop of Militene, and Mgr. Nobile 
Vitelleschi, archbishop of Osimo and Cingoli. 
On reaching the United States he assumed charge 
of his diocese where, in 1901, he was still in the 
active discharge of his manifold duties in a 
territory embracing an area of over 22,000 square 
miles. 

McCLUNBYy William J., naval officer, was 
warranted midshipman in the U.S. navy, Jan. 1, 
1812, and his first battle was the action between 
the Wasp and the fVoZic, Oct. 18, 1812. He was 
promoted lieutenant, April 1, 1818, and com- 
mander, Dec. 9, 1839. He served in Commodore 
Conner's fleet in the operations at Vera Cruz 
which led to the landing of General Scott's army 
and the surrender of the place, March 29, 1847, 
and was promoted captain, Oct. 13, 1851. He com- 
manded the Potidhatan on Commodore Perry's 
Japan expedition, 1858-56, and next served as gen- 
eral supervisor of the construction of the Stevens 
battery, Hoboken, N. J. , 1857-58. He commanded 
the Atlantic squadron, 1858-60 ; was placed on the 
retired list, Dec. 21, 1861 ; and was commissioned 
oommodore on the retired list, July 16, 1862. He 
died in Brooklyn, N.Y., Feb. 11, 1864. 



McCLURBt Addison Siiiltli« representatlTe. 
was bom in Wooster, Ohio, Oct. 10, 1839 ; son of 
Charles and Lucetta McClure and grandson of 
Matthew MoClure. He matriculated at Jefferson 
college, Canonsburg, Pa., but was not graduated. 
He studied law and practised in Wooster. Dur- 
ing the civil war he served as sergeant-major of 
the 4th Ohio infantry and captain in the 16th 
Ohio infantry, 1861-64. He was a Republican rep- 
resentative from the eighteenth district of Ohio 
in the 47th, and from the seventeenth district in 
the 54th congresses, 1881-83 and 1895-97. He 
was a delegate to the Republican national con- 
ventions at Chicago, May 20, 1868, and at Cincin- 
nati, June 14, 1876. 

McCLURBt Alexander Kelly, journalist, was 
bom in Sherman's Valley, Perry county. Pa., 
Jan. 9, 1828; son of Alexander and Isabella 
(Anderson) McClure; grandson of William Mc- 
Clure ; and of Scotch and Irish ancestry. He 
was reared on his 
father^s farm, re- 
ceived his education 
at home and was ap- 
prenticeH to James 
Marshall, a tanner, 
for whom he served, 
1843-46. He began 
his editorial career 
at the age of nine- 
teen as editor of a 
Whig organ, the 
Juniata Sentinel^ at 
MifiSintown, Pa., 
1846-52; was a bur- 
gess of Mifflintown in 
1860, and was commis- 
sioned a member of Oov. William F. Johnston's 
staff with the rank of colonel in 1849. He was 
appointed U.S. marshal of Juniata county. Pa., 
in 1850, commenced the study of law with Davis 
Sharon, in that year, and bought the Franklin 
Repository and published it at Chambersburg, 
Pa., 1852-56. He was defeated for auditor-gen- 
eral of Pennsylvania on the Whig ticket in 1858, 
was admitted to the bar in 1856, and became the 
law partner of his last preceptor, William Mc- 
Leilan. He was appointed superintendent of 
public printing by Oovernor Pollock of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1855, but' after eight months resigned 
the office. He was a member of the convention 
that organized tlie Republican party at Pittsburg, 
Pa., in 1855 ; superintendent of the Erie and 
Northwestern railroad in 1856, when he succeeded 
in quelling the riots ; a member of the state leg- 
islature, 1857-^, and a state senator in 1859. He 
was a delegate to the Republican national con- 
ventions of 1856, 1864 and 1868, and was engaged 
again in publishing the FranMin Repository at 




McCLDRE 

Chambereburg, 186S-B7, He was chaiTman of tho 
Republican state ceDtral committee in I860, a 
8tat« senator and ohairman of the committee on 
military a^in in 1861, and was commissioned 
assistant adjutant^neral of the United States 
by President Lincoln in 18fl3, and organized the 
draft in Pennajrlvania. With assistance of two 
clerfca lie bad all matters adjusted and seventeen 
regiments in the field within two months. He 
WBS a delegate at large from Pennsylvania to the 
Republican national convention at Baltimore, 
June 7, 18M, and was a representatiTS in the 
State legislature in 1804. His property at Cham- 
bersburg was destroyed by McCausIand's brig- 
ade in 1661. He settled in Philadelphia and 
practised law there, 1868-75, and in the latter 
year established with Frank Mclaughlin The 
Timea at Philadelphia, of which he was manager 
and editor-in-chief until March, IMl, when he 
retired. He was a delegate to the Republican 
national convention at Chicago, May 20, 1806, 
and ohairman of the delegation ; chairman of 
the Pennsylvania delegation to the Liberal Re- 
publican national convention atCinoinnati, Ohio, 
May 1, 1873, that nominated Horace Oreeley for 
the presidency, and of the Liberal Republican 
stat« committee in 1872. He eerved a third term 
in the Pennsylvania senate in 1872 and was de- 
feated for the office of mayor of Philadelphia by 
Mayor Stokley in 1874. He received the degree 
of LL.D. from Washington and Lee university in 
1887. He was married, Feb. 10, 18S3, to Matilda 
8., daughter of James Gray of Mifflintown, and 
on March 19, 1879, to Cora M., daughter of Ed- 
ward Qrats of Philadelphia. He ia the author of : 
Three TTiou»and Miles through the Rocky Moiiii- 
totn«(1860); The South (\S66)\ LinaAn and Men 
of War Time» {1898); Our Presidents and How 
We Make Them (1900); To the FaciJUs artdMexico 
(1901); Life of WiUiam McKinleg (1901). 

ncCLURB, Jamea Gore King, educator, was 
bom in Albany, N.Y., Nov. 24, 1648; son of 
Archibald and Susan Tracy (Rice) McClure and 
grandson of Archibald and Elizabeth (Craigmiles) 
MoClure. His first ancestor in America on his 
mother's side, Edmund Rice, waa one of the 
foundera of Marlborough and Sudbury, Mass., in 
1638. James was graduated from the Albany, 
N.Y., academy, 1866; from Phillips-Andover 
academy, 1666 ; from Yale. A.B.. 1870, and from 
Princeton Theological seminary, 1678. He was 
ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 1674 and 
was pastor of the New Scotland, N.Y., Presbyte- 
rian church, 1674-70. He was married, Nov. 
19, 1679, to Annie P., daughter of the Hon. Na- 
than F. Dixon of Westerly, R. I. He travelled in 
Europe, Palestine, Greece and Egypt, 1680-61 ; 
waa installed as pastor of the lake Forest, 111., 
Presbyterian church, 1881, and was elected pres- 



HoCLURO 

Ident of Lake Forest university in 1887, The 
honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on him 
by Lake Forest university in 1888. He ia the 
author of ; History of New Scotland Preibyterian 
CTturcft (1676); PoasQnlities (1896); The Man 
Who Wanted to Help {,\%1>1); Eni)ironment{lWa); 
The Great Appeal (1609). 

ncCLURQ, AInander CaldweU, publisher, 
was bom in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. S, 1882 ; son 
of Alexander and Sarah (Trevor) McClurg; 
grandson of Joseph and Ann (Caldwell) McClurg 
and of Samuel and Sarah (Bond) Trevor. Joseph 
McClurg came to 
Pittsburg, Pa., from 
Ireland in 1798 with 
hia son Alexander, 
born in Coleraine, 
Ireland, in 1766, and 
his wife, Sarah Trev- 
or, bom in Upton, 
England, in 1700. 
Alexander Caldwell 
McClurg was gra- 
duated from Miami 
university,A.B.,1858, 
A.M., 1856. Hestudied 
law one year in Pitta- Jj^T <_/^ 

burg, was a clerk i-'^Xl^tttS™ — 
in the employ of 

S. C. Origgs & Co., booksellers, Chicago. III., 
1859-62, and in August, 1863, he enlisted as a 
private in Co. H, 88tb Illinois volunteers, and waa 
almost immediately unanimously promoted cap- 
tain of the company. In 1663 he was detailed at 
Nashville as judge advocate of a general oourt- 
maitial. In May, 1668, Qeneral McCook tendered 
him a position on his staff, and when GeneralMc- 
Cook was relieved from command Captain Mc- 
Clurg was made assistant adjutant-general of 
General Baird's division and held this poeition 
through the battles of Cbattanooga and Mission- 
ary Ridge, November, 1863. On April 12, 1864, 
be was made adjutant-general of the 14th army 
corps, Oen. John M. Palmer, and when Gen. 
Je&ereon C. Davis succeeded to the command of 
the 14th army corps, he was promoted lieutenant- 
ooloneland chief of staff of thecorps. He partic- 
ipated in the battles of Perry ville. Stone's River, 
Liberty Gap, Cliickamauga, Chattenooga, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Ringgold Gap, Tunnel Hill, Rocky 
Face Ridge, Resaca, Adairs ville, New Hope 
church, Pine Mountain, Eenesaw Mountain and 
theotherbattlesaround Atlanta, and in Sherman's 
march to the sea and through the Carolinas. He 
was bre vetted colonel and brigadier-general, 
March 18, 186d. He was a partner in the book 
publishing firm of S. C. Griggs & Co., 1865-73, 
which became Jansen. McClurg & Co. in 1673, 
and A. C. McClurg & Co. in 1886. On Feb. 13, 



McCLURG 

IB99, the establiBhrnent waa nholiy destroyed hy 
fire, aud Hr. McClurg re-establislied the business 
in the iutereats of his faithful aasJatants and em- 
ployes and a large part of the <«pital stock of 
1600,000 was purchased by them and another por- 
tion was distributed among them. In 1893 he 
waa appointed bj President Cleveland examiner 
at the U.S. Hilitar; academy, West Point, and in 
the same year Yale university conferred upon 
him the honorary degree of A.M. He is tlie 
author of : Memorial of Jefferson C. Davis (1881), 
and contributions to leading periodicals. He 
died at St. Augustine. Fla., April 15. 1001. 

McCLURQ. Joseph Washington, governor of 
Missouri, was born in St. LouIh county. Mo., 
Feb. 33, 1B18. He was brought upon a faim,and 
was graduated from Oxford college, Ohio, in 
1685. He taught school in Louisiana and 
Mississippi, 1835-SS, 
studied law in Texas, 
and was admitted to 
the bar iu 1841. He 
returned to Missouri 
in 1844, and engaged 
in mercantile pur- 
suits. He was colonel 
of the Osage regi- 
ment in the Federal 
army and later of a 
cavalry regiment. He 
waa a delegate to the 
Missouri stat« con- 
' ventiona of 1861, 
la and 1668, and 
Republican re- 
presentative in the 38th, 30th and 40th con- 
gresses, 1868-66, resigning in 1866. He was a 
delegate to the Republican national convention 
at Baltimore, June T, 1664, and to the Loyalists' 
couvention at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1866. Ho 
waa elected governor of MiEsouri by the Republi- 
can party, serving 1669-71, and was defeated for 
a second term by Benjamin Oratz Brown in 16T0. 
He was receiver of public moneys at Springfield, 
1869-93. He died at Lebanon, Mo.. Dec. Z, 1900. 
McCOlD, MoBM Ayers, representative, waa 
born in Logan county, Ohio, Nov. 6, 1840 ; son of 
Robert and Jean (Bnin) McCoid. His paternal 
grandfather, a native and at one time treasurer 
of county Dinvn. Ireland, emigrated to Anier- 
icii before 1600 and Kettl>'d iu P.-nnnytvania ; and 
his maternal ancestor, Quiiitou Bain, a native of 
Ayrshire, Scotland, and a schoolmate of Robert 
Burns, came to America, settled in Virginia, and 
served in the Virginia troops under Oeiiei-al 
Wnshington during the Revolution. Moses A. 
McCoid attended the public swhools of Ohio ; 
Fairfield universitj', Iowa. l^i.^il-riO, and Wash- 
ington college. Pa., 1856-56, but was not grad- 



McCOHAS 

nated. He returned to Jefferson county, Iowa, 
in 1856 ; studied law and was admitted to the bar 
in the spring of 1861. In May, 1861, he enlisted 
iu the 2d Iowa volunteer infantry, was promoted 
3d lieut«nant in 1862 and during the advance on 
Corinth, Miss., served aa acting adjutant of the 
regiment. He waa engaged in tbe battles of Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Bear Creek, Eesaca 
and Oostenaula River, and was discharged at tbe 
expiration of his term, May 30, 1864. He was 
married, Sept. 7, 1803, to Helen, daughter of 
Thomas Ireland of Jacksonville, 111. He settled 
in the practice of law at Fairfield, Iowa ; was at- 
torney for sixth judicial district of Iowa, 186?^ 
71 ; state senator from Jefferson county, 1873-70, 
and chairman of its judiciary committee, 1875- 
79. He was a Republican representative from 
the first congressional district of Iowa in tlie 
46th, 4Ttb and 48th oongreeses, 1679-65. 

McCOLLESTER, Sullivan Holman, educator, 
waa born at Marlborough, N.H., Dec. 18, 1826 ; 
son of Silas and Achsah (Holman) McCoHester ; 
grandson of Samuel and Silence McCollester, and a 
descendant of Scotch ancestors. He was graduated 
from Norwich university, Northfield, Vt., A.B., 
1851, A.M., 1854 ; studied theology at the Harvard 
Divinity school and was pastor of Universalist 
churches at Swanzey, 1853-56, and Westmoreland, 
N.H., 1858-63. Be was president of the state 
board of commissioners, 1854-58 ; was principal 
of a seminary at Deering. Maine, 1863, and in 
1864 he founded a female college there and waa 
its president, 1804-73. He was president of 
Buchtel college, Akron, Ohio, 1673-78; and 
founded and was pastor of the Universalist 
church at Bellows Falls, Vt., 1676-63, and of that 
at Dover, N.H., 1683-66. The honorary d^reo 
of D.D. was conferred on him by St. Lawrence 
university, 1674. He waa superintendent of 
schools in New Hampshire in 1901. He is tlie 
author of : Aper Thoughts of Foreign Travel in 
Historic Laitd (1880); .Round the Globe in Old 
and iV'eio Paths (1691); Babylon and Ninewh 
through American Eyes (1602); Mexico, Old and 
New (1897). 

iHcCOMAS, Louis Emory, senator, was bom 
near Williamsport, Md.. Oct. 38, 1646 ; son of Fred- 
erick C. and Catliarine (Angle) McComas. He 
attended St. James college, Md., and was gradu- 
at«>d from Dickinson college, Pa., in 1360. He 
studied law witii Col. James Wallace at Cam- 
bridge, Md., and subsequently with Chief-Justire 
R. H. Al^y at Hagerstown. Md., and practised 
at Hagerstown. 1866-92. He was married. Sept. 
23. I87S. to Leah M., daughter of Cliaries W. 
Humrichouse of Baltimore, Md. He waa nom- 
inated by the Republicans of Maryland for repiv 
sentative in the J5th congress in 1877, but was de- 
feated by William Walsh ; declined re-nomination 



McCONAUGHY 



McCONNELL 




to the 46th congress in 1878 ; was a representative 
iu the 48th^lst congresses, 188^-91, and was de- 
feated for the r>2d congress in 1890. He was a del- 
egate at large to the Republican national conven- 
tions of 1892 and 
1900, and was secre- 
tary of the national 
committee during the 
presidential cam- 
paign of 1892. He 
was elected professor 
of law of evidence 
and contracts at 
Georgetown Univer- 
sity law school, D.C., 
in 1895. He was ap- 
pointed an associate 
justice of the supreme 
court of the District 
of Columbia by Pre- 
sident Harrison in 
1802, which office he held until he was elected to 
the U.S. senate in 1899 to succeed Arthur Pue 
Grorman. 

ncCONAUQHY, David* educator, was born in 
York (now Adams) county. Pa., Sept. 29, 1775. He 
^raduat-ed from Dickinson college in 1795, and 
was licensed to preach in 1797. He was pastor 
of the United Christian churches at Upper Marsh 
Creek and Conewago, Pa., 1800-31, and was elected 
principal of Washington college, Washington, 
Ph., Dec. 21, 1831. He served as president of 
Washington college, 1831-49, resigned Sept. 27, 
1849, and continued to reside in Washington. 
The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on 
him by Jefferson college in 1883, and that of 
LL.D. by Washington college, in 1849. He is the 
author of : A Brief Summary and Outline of 
Moral Science (1838); Discourses, chiefly Biogra- 
phical, of Persons Eminent in Sacred History 
(1850); besides many sermons, addresses and 
ti-acts. He died in Washington, Pa., Jan. 29, 1852. 
ricCONNELL, Felix Qrundyt representative, 
was boi*n in Nashville, Tenn., in 1809, of humble 
parentage. He was taken by his parents to 
Fayetteville, Tenn., in 1811, received a limited 
education and became a saddler. In 1834 he re- 
moved to Talladega, Ala., where he studied law 
and was admitted to the bar. He was married 
to a daughter of William Hogan of Talladega 
county. He was a representative in the state 
legislature, 1838 ; a state senator, 1839-43 ; and a 
Democratic representative in the 28th and 29th 
congresses, 1843-46. He died by his own hand 
while ill in Washington, D.C., Sept. 10, 1846. 

McCONNELL* Samuel David* clergyman, was 
bom in Westmoreland county, Pa., Aug. 1, 1846 ; 
son o€ David and Agnes (Guthrie) McConnell ; 
grandson of David and Martha (Whiteside) Mc- 



Connell and great-grandson of John and Rebecca 
(Kirkpatrick) McConnell. He attended Elders- 
ridge academy and was graduated from Wash- 
ington and Jefferson college, A.B., 1868, A.M., 
1871, studied theology at Princeton, 1868-70, and 
was graduated from Nashotah Theological sem- 
inary, S.T.B., 1871. He was admitted to the 
diaconate, June 11, 1872, and ordained priest in 
1873. He was rector of St. John's, Erie, Pa. , 1872- 
74; Christ church, Watertown, Conn., 1874-76; 
Cathedral church, Middletown, Conn., 1876-82 ; 
rector of St. Stephen's, Philadelphia, 1882-96; 
of Holy Trinity, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1896-1902, and 
in 1902 succeeded the Rev. R. Heber Newton 
(q.v.), as rector of All Saints', New York city. He 
was married, Sept. 3, 1873, to Anna Bliss, and of 
their sons, Ellicott became assistant engineer in 
the U.S. navy, and Guthrie became a physician. 
He was elected a member of the Pennsylvania 
Historical society, 1882, and of the Royal Victoria 
institute of Great Britain in 1900. The honorary 
degree of D.D. was conferred on him by the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1887 and that of 
D.C.L. by Hobart college in 1897. He is the 
author of : History of the American Episcopal 
Church (eighth edition, 1899); The Doctrine of 
the Dead (1891); Sons of God (1894); The Next 
Step (1895); Sermon Stuff (first and second senes, 
1895); A Year's Sermons (1896); The Open Secret 
(1897); Essays (1900); Evolution of Immortality 
(1901). 

McCONNELL* William J^ senator, was bom 
in Commerce, Oakland county, Mich., Sept. 18, 
1839. He attended the district schools and acad- 
emies of Ann Arbor and Lansing, Mich., and at 
the same time taught school. In 1860 he crossed 
the plains to California. During the mining ex- 
citement in northern Idaho, he went north and 
remained in Oregon, 1862-63, during which time 
he engaged in teaching in Yamhill county. In 
1863, with one companion, he walked from Dallas, 
Oregon, to Bois6 City, Idaho Territory, a distance 
of four hundred and fifty miles. He became a 
successful miner ; was a leader in organizing the 
vigilance committee in Idaho and was deputy 
U.S. marshal, 1865-67. He returned to Califor- 
nia, and engaged in the cattle business in Hum- 
boldt county for five years, when he returned 
north and established a mercantile house in 
Oregon, and one in Idaho. He was a representa- 
tive in the Oregon state legislature, a state 
senator, and was elected president of the senate 
in 1882. He removed to Idaho Territory and 
settled in Moscow, where he engaged in banking 
and mercantile business. He was a member of 
the state constitutional convention of 1890, and 
on Dec. 18, 1890, the legislature convened and he 
was elected U.S. senator for the term ending 
March 4, 1891. On May 5, 1892, the Republican 



MCCOOK 

canvention plaoed him In nomin&tion for gov- 
emor of the state'; in November, 1893, he was 
elected, and was m-eleoted in November, 1894, 
serving 1893-97. 

McCOOK, Alexander McDowell, soldier, was 
bom in Columbian county, Ohio, April S3, 1831 ; 
fifth son of Maj, Daniel and Martha (Latimer) 
McCook. He removed with his parents to Carroll 
county, Ohio; was graduated from the U.S. 
Military academy in 
1653 as brevet second 
lieutenant and was 
appointed to the 8d 
infantry. He served 
on garrison duty, 
185S-58 ; on frontier 
duty, 1854-55 ; in the 
campaign against 
the Apache Indians, 
June- August, 1B54, 
and ag^nst the Utes 
in 1855 ; and was pro- 
moted second lieu- 
^^^72^^777/ J^O-**'^ tenant. June 30, 1854. 
^ He was chief goide 
and adjutant-general 
of an expedition against the Indians of Ari- 
zona in March, 1856. He was promoted 1st lieu- 
tenant, Dec. 16, 1858 ; was sssistaiit instructor 
in military tactics at the U.S. Military aca- 
demy. 1S58-61 ; was commissioned colonel and 
assigned to the let Ohio volunteers, April 16, 
1861, and engaged in the defence of Washington, 
D.C., May-July, 1891 ; was promoted captain of 
the 3d U.S. infantry. May 14, 1861 ; participated 
in the skirmish at Vienna, Va., June 17, 1861, 
and was in oommand of the Ist Ohio regiment at 
the battle of Bull Kun, July 21, 1861. He was 
brevetted major U.S.A., July 31, 1861, for gallant 
and meritorious services at the battle of Bull 
Run : and was appointed hrigadier'^neral, 
U.S.V., Sept. 8, 1861. He commanded a brigade 
in the operations in Kentucky, October-Decem- 
ber, 1861, and the 3d division. Army of the Ohio, 
uuder Major-General Buell, in the Tennessee and 
Mississippi campaign, February-June, 1863. He 
was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, March 3, 1863, 
for gallant and meritorious services at the cap- 
ture of Nashville, Tenn. His division formed the 
extreme right of Buell's army at the battle of 
Pittsburg Landing. April 7, 1862, and drove the 
Confederates back along the Corinth road, which 
was the great central line of this battle, thus 
connecting the Army of the Ohio with Wallace's 
division, which formed the extreme right of 
Grant's force. He was brevetted colonel U.S.A. 
for Shiloh, April 7, 1863. He commanded the re- 
serve of the Army of the Ohio in the advance 
upon and at the siege of Corinth, Miss, His 



HoCOOK 

division, however, was engaged at Bridge's Creek 
and at Geratt's Hill. He then served in northern 
Alabama and in East Tennessee ; was commis- 
sioned major-general of volunteers, July 17, 
1863 ; was in command of the 1st army corps in 
the advance to Kentucky and at the battle of 
Perryville, Oct. 8, 1863. He led his troops to the 
relief of Nashville, Tenn., in October, 1862 ; com- 
manded the 14th army corps in the Tenneeaee 
campaign, and commanded the right wing of the 
Army of the Cumberland, in the battle of Stone's 
River, Dec. 81, 1862. He commanded the 80th 
army corps, Army of the Cumberland, in the 
Tullahoma campaign, participating in the action 
at Liberty Cap and in the skirmishes at Tulla- 
homa, Winchester and Elk River. He com- 
manded the 20tb corps in the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, Sept. 19, 1888. He was relieved from com- 
mand, Oct. 0, 1868. and he asked for a court of 
inquiry, which found him free from blame. He 
was assigned to duties in the middle division in 
November, 1864, and in February, 1865, was 
plaoed in command of the Eastern district of 
Arkansas. He represented the war department 
in the investigation of Indian affairs. May 6, 
1866. On March 13. 1865, be was brevetted brig- 
adier-general for gallantry at Perryville, Ky., 
and major-general for gallant and meritorioua 
services in the field during the war, and was 
mustered out of the volunteer service, Oct. 21, 
1865. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel of 
the 36th infantry, March 5, 1867 ; was transferred 
to the 10th infantry, March 15, 1869, and served 
for several years on the staff of Oen. William T. 
Sherman. He was promoted colonel of the 6tb 
infantry, Dec. 16, 1880, and commanded the in- 
fantry and cavalry school at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kan. He was appointed brigadier-general, July 
11, 1890, and major-general, Nov. 9, 1694. and was 
retired from the regular army, April 33, 1895, 
having reached the age limit. He represented 
the United States at the coronation of the czar of 
Russia, Moscow, May 24, 1896, and was a member 
of the commission appointed by President Mo- 
Kin ley to investigate the war department during 
the war with Spain, Sept. 23, 1898, to Feb. 10, 
18S9. He died June 11, 1903. 

ricCOOK, Anson Qeorge, representative, was 
horn in Steubenville, Ohio, Oct. 10, I8S5 ; second 
son of Dr. John and Catharine Julia (Sheldon) 
McCook and grandson of George and Mary (Mc- 
Cormack) McCook. He attended school at New 
Lisbon, Ohio, 1840-54; went overland to Califor- 
nia, where he remained, 18a4r-60 ; and studied law 
in the olSce of his cousin, George Wythe McCook, 
1660-61. He raised the first company in eastent 
Ohio in 1861, and was commissioned a captain in 
the £d Ohio infantry. He participated in the 
battle of Bull Run, July 31, 1861, and subse- 



McCOOK 



McCOOK 



<iuently, when the tegiment was re-organized for 
three years' service, he was commissioned major. 
He was promoted successively lieutenant-colonel 
•and colonel. He served in the battles of Perry- 
viUe, Stone's River, Lookout Mountain and Mis- 
sionary Ridge, 1862-68, and in many of the hard 
fought battles of the Atlanta campaign, com- 
manding a brigade at Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, 
July 19, 1864. He was mustered out of the volun- 
teer service with his regiment, Oct. 10, 1864. In 
March, 1865, he rejoined the army as colonel of 
the 194lh Ohio infantry, and performed guard 
duty in the Virginia valley in command of a 
brigade until the close of the war. He was bre- 
vetted brigadier-general, March 13, 1865, for 
pliant and meritorious services during the war, 
and was mustered out of the volunteer army 
in October, 1865. He was U.S. assessor of in- 
ternal revenue at Steubenville, Ohio, 1865-73 ; re- 
moved to New York city in 1873 ; was a Repub- 
lican representative in the 45th, 46th and 47th 
congresses, 1877-83 ; secretary of the U.S. senate, 
1884-93, and city chamberlain of New York, 
1894-97. He was married June, 1886, to Hettie 
B. McCook, of Steubenville, Ohio. 

McCOOK* Danlelt soldier, was born in Canons- 
burg, Pa., June 20, 1798 ; son of Oeorge and 
Mary (McGormack) McCook. His father emi- 
^^ted from Ireland in 1780 and settled in Canons- 
burg ; was a charter member of the ** McMillan 
church " and was active in the establishment of 
Jefferson college. Daniel McCook attended 
Jefferson college and removed to New Lisbon and 
thence to CarroUton, Ohio, where he engaged in 
the practice of law. He was married to Martha, 
daughter of Abraham and Mary (Greer) Latimer, 
descendants of the family which gave Hugh 
Latimer to the English reformation. He and his 
nine sons all served in the Federal army or navy 
in the civil war. At the outbreak of the civil 
war, although sixty-three years of age, he offered 
his services to the government and was commis- 
eioned a major. He participated in the skirmish 
at Buffington's Island, July 20, 1863, where he 
opposed the advance of Morgan's raiders and was 
mortally wounded. He died near Buffington's 
Island, Ohio, July 21, 1863. 

McCOOK* Danlelt soldier, was born in Carroll- 
ton, Ohio, July 22, 1834 ; sixth son of Maj. Daniel 
and Martha (Latimer) McCook. He attended 
Alabama university, studied law at Steubenville, 
Ohio, was admitted to the bar in 1858, and was a 
partner of William T. Sherman and Thomas 
Ewing at Leavenworth, Kan., until 1861. He 
was married in December, 1860, to Julia Tibbs of 
Platte county. Mo. He volunteered as captain of 
a local company in the 1st Kansas regiment, 
and served under Qen, Nathaniel Lyon at Wilson's 
Creek, Mo., Aug. 10, 1861. He was chief of staff 



of the Ist division. Army of the Ohio, during the 
Shiloh campaign; was commissioned colonel of 
the 52d Ohio infantry and commanded the 36th 
brigade, 11th division, 3d army corps, during the 
battle of Perry ville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862. On the 
eve of the battle he was selected to attack the 
Confederate line and take possession of some pools 
of water in the bed of Doctors Fork, which he 
successfully accomplished before daybreak. He 
commanded the 2d brigade, 2d division, reserve 
corps, during the battle of Chickamauga, and 
was stationed at McAffee's church, where his 
brigade covered Ringgold road. He was subse- 
quently ordered to take the place of General 
Thomas's force at Point Spring, thus allowing 
Thomas to r^eve the two divisions commanded 
by Crittenden at Crawfish Springs. He was in 
command of the 3d brigade, 2d division, 14th 
army corps, Army of the Cumberland, and during 
the Atlanta campaign while leading an assault 
on the southern slope of Kenesaw Mountain, 
July 16, 1864, he was mortally wounded. He was 
made brigadier-general for gallant conduct at the 
assault on Kenesaw Mountain. He died from 
the effect of his wound, July 21, 1864. 

ilcCOOKt Edward iloody, soldier, was bom 
in Steubenville, Ohio, June 15, 1838 ; eldeist son 
of Dr. John and Catharine Julia (Sheldon) Mc- 
Cook. He received a common school education, 
engaged in the practice of law in the Pike's Peak 
region, and was a representative in the E^ansas 
legislature. He was a volunteer secret agent for 
the U.S. government prior to the war, and in 
recognition of this service he was appointed 2d 
lieutenant of the 4th U.S. cavalry, May 1, 1861, 
and was promoted 1st lieutenant in July, 1862. 
He participated in the battles of Shiloh, Perry- 
ville, Chickamauga, Salem, and in the cavalry 
operations in East Tennessee. He was brevetted 
1st lieutenant for Shiloh, April 7, 1862 ; captain 
for Perry ville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862 ; major for Chick- 
amauga, Ga., Sept. 20, 1863; lieutenant-colonel 
for cavalry operations in East Tennessee, Jan. 27, 
1864; colonel for Selma, Ala., March 13, 1865, 
and brigadier-general for gallant and meritorious 
service in the field during the war. In the vol- 
unteer service he was successively major, lieu- 
tenant-colonel and colonel of the 2d Indiana 
volunteer cavalry, and was commissioned briga- 
dier-general, April 27, 1864, and major-general, 
March 13, 1865. He resigned his commission in 
the regular array, May, 1866. He was U.S. min- 
ister to Hawaii, 1866-69, where he concluded the 
treaty with the United States that led to annex- 
ation. He was territorial governor of Colorado, 
by President Grant's appointment, 1869-75. He 
was twice married : first to Mary Thompson, of 
Peoria, lU., and secondly to Mary McKenna, of 
Colorado. 



1 



McCOOK 

McCOOKt Edwin StantoOt soldier, was bom 
in Carroliton, Ohio, March 26, 1837 ; seventh son 
of Maj. Daniel and Martha (Latimer) McCook. 
He entered the U.S. Naval academy as a cadet, 
but left the academy before graduating, and in 
1861 recruited a company for John A. Logan's 
81st Illinois regiment. He served at Fort Donel- 
Bon and at Jackson, Tenn. ; commanded the reg- 
iment at Vicksburg, May to July, 1868, where he 
was wounded, and in the Atlanta campaign he 
commanded the 1st brigade, 3d division, 17th 
army corps, where he was again wounded. He 
was promoted brigadier-general and was brevet- 
ted major-general of volunteei's, March 18, 1865, 
for services during the war. He was appointed 
by President Grant secretary of Dakota Terri- 
tory, and served for a time as acting governor of 
the territory ex officio. While presiding in this 
capacity at a public meeting at Yankton he was 
shot and fatally wounded by a man in the audi- 
ence. He died at Tankton, Dak., Sept. 11, 1873. 

McCOOKy Qaorge« physician, was bom in Can- 
onsburg. Pa., in 1792 ; eldest son of George and 
Mary (McCk)rmack) McCook. He was gi*aduated 
at Jefferson college in 1811 ; studied medicine 
with Dr. Warren, of Canonsburg, and practised 
in Washington county. On Jan. 18, 1817, he 
married Margaret G. , daughter of Abraham and 
Mary (Greer) Latimer, and in 1818 removed to New 
Lisbon, Ohio, where he continued the practice of 
medicine until 1849, when he removed to Pitts- 
burg, Pa., where he was professor of surgery in 
the medical college. He returned to New Lisbon, 
Ohio, in 1873, where he died, June 23, 1873. 

ricCOOK, George Wjrthe* lawyer and soldier, 
was born in Canonsburg, Pa., Nov. 2, 1821 ; sec- 
ond son of Maj. Daniel and Martha (Latimer) 
McCook. He removed with his father's family 
to New Lisbon, Ohio, in 1825 ; studied law in the 
office of Edwin M. Stanton, Steuben ville, Ohio ; 
was admitted to the bar in 1842, and became a 
partner with Mr. Stanton. He served in the 
Mexican war as lieutenant-colonel of the 3d Ohio 
volunteers, 1847 ; was reporter of the supreme 
court, 1852 ; attorney -general of the state, 1854- 
56, and was commissioned bngadier-general of 
volunteers in 1861, but served in the field but a 
short time on account of ill-health. He was the 
unsuccessful Democratic candidate for governor 
of Ohio in 1871 against George W. Noyes. He 
edited the first volume of the Ohio state reports. 
He died in Steubenville, Ohio, Dec. 28, 1877. 

ricCOOK, Henry Christopher, clergyman, was 
bom in New Lisbon, Ohio, July 8, 1837 ; third 
son of Dr. John and Catharine Julia (Sheldon) 
McCook. He attended the public schools of his 
native town and learned the printer's trade. He 
was graduated from Jefferson college. Pa., in 
1859 ; taught school in New Lisbon, Salem and 



McCOOK 

Steubenville, Ohio, 1859-60, and was graduated 
from the Western Theological seminary in 1863. 
He was married, Sept. 11, 1861, to Emma C, 
daughter of Dr. George and Anna (Crowe) Her- 
ter. He was licensed and ordained by the pres- 
bytery of Steubenville in 1861, and was a home 
missionary in Illinois and Missouri. He assisted 
in organizing the 41st Illinois volunteer regi- 
ment, in which he enlisted as 1st lieutenant in 
1861, and served subsequently as chaplain. In 
1862 he left the service and returned to Clinton, 
111., as pastor of the Presbyterian church. He 
served as city missionary in St. Louis, Mo., until 
1869, when he became pastor of the Tabernacle 
Presbyterian church of Philadelphia. He was 
chaplain of the 2d regiment, Pennsylvania vol- 
unteer infantry, during the Spanish- American 
war, and served in Santiago de Cuba with the 5th 
army corps on special duty. He was the founder 
of the National Relief commission for the Span- 
ish-American war. He was elected president of 
the American Society of Entomology; vice- 
president of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, and president of the American 
Presbyterian Historical society. Lafayette col- 
lege conferred upon him the honorary deg^'^e of 
D.D. in 1880, and that of Sc.D. in 1888. His pub- 
lished books include : Object and Outline Teach- 
ing (1870); Teacher*8 Commentary on the Last 
Year of Our Lord's Ministry (1871); The Last 
Days of Jesus (1872); Historic Ecclesiastical 
Emblems of Pan-Pretifyterianisni (1880); The 
Women Friends of Jesus (1884); The Latimers, 
a Scotch' Irish Historical Romance of the West- 
ern Insurrection (1899); The Martial Graves of 
our Fallen Heroes in Santiago de Cuba (1899). 
He also edited the '* Tercentenary Book ** (1873). 
His most widely known works are those on 
Natural History of the Agricultural Ant of 
Texas (1880): The Mound-Making Ants of the 
Alleghanies (1877); Honey and Ocddetit Ants 
(1882); Tenants of an Old Farm (1884); American 
Spiders and Their Spinning-Works (Vols. I., II., 
IIL, folio, 1888). 

McCOOK, JohOt surgeon, was bom in Canons- 
burg, Pa., Feb. 21, 1806; son of George ahd Mary 
(McComiack) McCook. He was a student at 
Jefferson college and became a physician, settling 
in practice in New Lisbon and subsequently in 
Steubenville, Ohio. He was married May 21 , 183U 
to Catharine Julia, daughter of Roderick and 
Mary Sheldon of Hartford, Conn., and their iive 
sons, Edward Moody, Anson George, Henry C, 
Roderick Sheldon, and John James, were volun- 
teer officers in the Federal army in the civil war. 
Dr. McCook also served in the army as a volun- 
teer surgeon, and while at the military head- 
quarters of his son. Gen. Anson O. McCook, near 
Washington, D.C., he died, Oct. 11, 1865. 



McCOOK 



McCOOK 



McCOOK* John James* educator, was bom in 
New Lisbon, Ohio, Feb. 2, 1843 ; fifth son of Dr. 
John and Catharine Julia (Sheldon) McCook. He 
attended the high school at Steubenville, Ohio, 
and Jefferson college, Canonsburg, Pa., and at 
the outbreak of the civil war he enlisted under 
President Lincoln's first call in the 1st Virginia 
volunteers, serving as lieutenant during a short 
campaign in West Virginia and participating in 
the battle of Philippi, one of the earliest engage- 
ments of the war. His term of service having 
expired he returned to college and was graduated 
from Trinity, Hartford, Conn., A.B., 1868, A.M., 
1866. He studied medicine at the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York, 1868-64, was 
graduated from the Berkeley Divinity school in 
1866, and was admitted to the priesthood in 1867. 
He was i-ector of St. John's, Detroit, Mich., 
1867-68, and in 1869 became rector of St. John's, 
East Hartford, Conn. He was instructor at 
Trinity college, 1883-85, and was elected professor 
of modem languages and literature in 1885. He 
was married, June 7, 1866, to Eliza Sheldon But- 
ler, of Hartford, Conn. Three of their sons, John 
Butler, Philip James and George Sheldon served 
as volunteers in the war with Spain, 1898. He 
edited the Church Weekly in 1872, contributed 
several reports on poor-law administration and 
prison reform and is the author of Pat and ths 
Council (1870) and articles in current magazines 
on penalogy, venality, vagabondage and like sub- 
jects. 

McCOOK, John James, lawyer and soldier, 
was bom at CarroUton, Ohio, May 35, 1845 ; ninth 
son of Maj. Daniel and Martha (Latimer) Mo- 
Cook. He attended E^enyon college, but left 
after his freshman year to enter the 6th Ohio 

cavalry. He was pro- 
moted lieutenant and 
served on the staff of 
Oeheral Ci*ittenden 
at Perryville, Stone's 
River, Tullahoma, 
Chickaniauga and 
Chattanooga with the 
Army of the Cumber- 
land, and under Grant 
with the Army of 
the Potomac from 
the Wilderness to the 
crossing of the James 
river. He was pro- 
moted captain and 
aide decamp U.S.V., 
and distinguished himself in the battle of 
Shady Grove, Va., where he was severely 
wounded. He wasbrevetted major for Shady 
Grove and lieutenant-colonel and colonel for gal- 
lant and meritorious services during the war. 




and was mustered out as lieutenant-colonel, 
March 18, 1865. He was graduated from Kenyou 
college, A.B., 1866, A.M., 1869, and from the Har- 
vard Law school, LL.B., 1869. He practised law 
in the office of Stanton & McCook, in Steuben- 
ville, Ohio, and subsequently in New York city as 
a member of the law firm of Alexander & Green. 
He was married, Feb. 17, 1876, to Janetta, 
daughter of Henry M. and Susan Mary (Brown) 
Alexander. In 1897 he was said to have been the 
first choice of President McKinley for attorney- 
general in his cabinet, but he declined to give up 
his extensive law practice. He was elected a 
trustee of Princeton university in 1890 and was 
chairman of the Army and Navy Christian com- 
mission during the war with Spain. The honor- 
ary degree of A.M. was conferred on him by 
Princeton in 1873 and that of LL. D. by the Uni- 
versity of Kansas in 1890 and by Lafayette col- 
lege in 1898. 

McCOOK, Latimer A, surgeon and soldier, was 
bom at Canonsburg, Pa., April 26, 1820 ; eldest 
son of Maj. Daniel and Martha (Latimer) McCook. 
He was educated at Jefferson college, Canons- 
burg. studied medicine with his uncle, Dr. George 
McCook (q. v.), and received his degree from 
Jefferson Medical college of Pliiladelphia. He 
entered the army in 1861 as assistant surgeon, 
and was soon promoted surgeon of the 81st Illinois 
volunteers with the rank of major. He served 
throughout all the campaigns of the Army of the 
Tennessee, and while caring for the wounded of 
his regiment, during action, he was himself twice 
wounded— once in the trenches before Vicksburg, 
and again at Pocotaligo Bridge, S.C, in General 
Sherman's movement northward from Savannah, 
after the march to the sea. He survived the war, 
but was broken down in health and died from 
general debility, resulting from wounds and ex- 
posure incident to his service in the army, at his 
home, Pekin, 111., Aug. 28, 1869. 

ricCOOK, Robert Latimer, soldier, was bom 
in New Lisbon, Ohio, Dec. 28, 1827 ; fourth son of 
Maj. Daniel and Mai-tha (Latimer) McCook. He 
attended school until 1842, when he entered his 
father's office as deputy clerk of Carroll county. 
He studied law in the office of Stanton & McCook, 
and practised in Steubenville, Columbus, and 
Cincinnati, Ohio, until 1861, when he was ap- 
pointed colonel of the 9th Ohio regiment. He 
participated in the action of Carnifex Ferry, 
W. Va., Aug. 10, 1861, and was commissioned a 
brigadier-general of volunteers and assigned to a 
brigade in BuelPs Army of the Ohio. He com- 
manded the 8d brigade under Gen, George H. 
Thomas at Mill Springs, Ky., Jan. 19, 1862, wliere 
he was wounded. He accompanied his brigade 
across Tennessee from Stevenson to Delchard, and 
although ill he refused to return to Nashville, and 



1 



McCOOK 

directed the movements of his troops from an 
amb'ilance. On August 6, 1862, while his escorts 
were reoounoitering he was attacked by a party 
of mounted guerillas and mortally wounded. 
He died near Delchard, Tenn., Aug. 6, 1862. 

McCOOK» Roderick Sheldon^ naval officer, 
was born at New Lisbon, Ohio, March 10, 1889 ; 
fourth son of Dr. John and Catharine Julia 
(Sheldon) McCook. He was graduated from the 
U.S. Naval academy in 1859 ; was promoted lieu- 
tenant, Aug. 31, 1861 ; lieutenant commander, 
Dec. 25, 1865 ; and commander, Sept. 25, 1873. 
He served throughout the civil war and partici- 
pated in the engagements on the James river ; 
the coast operations in North Carolina ; in the 
action at New Berne. March 14^ 1862, where he 
commanded a battery of naval howitzers, and in 
both engagements at Fort Fisher. After the war 
he served in lighthouse duty on the Ohio river. 
He was retired from active duty, Feb. 23, 1885. 
He died at Vineland, N. J., Feb. 13, 1886. 

McCORDy David James* law reporter, was born 
in St. Matthew's parish, S.C, in January, 1797. 
He was a student at South Carolina college in the 
class of 1814, but left in his senior year, studied 
law and was admitted to the bar in 1818. He con- 
ducted a law business in partnership with Henry 
J. Nott in Columbia, S.C, 1818-21 ; was in Eu- 
rope, 1821-22 ; was law partner of Col. W. C. 
Preston, 1822-24 ; state reporter, 182^27 ; and 
was intendant or mayor of Columbia, 1825. He 
visited Europe, 1828-30. and was a representative 
in the state legislature during the nullification 
excitement, serving several times between 1832- 
40. As chairman of the committee on Federal 
relations he championed the cause of nullifica- 
tion. He retired from the bar in 1836, to accept 
the presidency of the Columbia branch of the 
South Carolina bank in Charleston, from which 
office he was removed in 1840, when he became a 
Whig. He then retired to '* Langayne, " his 
plantation on the Congaree, and devoted himself 
to raising cotton. He was a trustee of South 
Carolina college, 1829-37. He was married first 
to Miss Wagner of Charleston, S.C, and in 
1840 to Louisa, daughter of Langdon and Mary 
(Dallas) Cheves of Columbia, S.C He aided in 
establishing the South Carolina Law Journal in 
1836; compiled and edited, as successor to Dr. 
Thomas Cooper, who died in 1839, the Statviesat 
Large of South Carolina ; prepared reminiscences 
of Dr. Thomas Cooper, president of South Carolina 
college ; contributed articles on political economy 
to the Southern Review and De Bow's Review y and 
is the author of Reports of Cases determined in 
the Constitutional Convention of South Carolina 
(4 vols. , 1821-8) ; Chancery Cases in the Court of 
AppecUs of South Carolina (2 vols. , 1827-29). He 
died in Columbia, S.C, May 12, 1855. 



McCORD 

ilcCORD, Oeorge Herbert* painter, was bom 
in New York city, Aug. 1, 1848 ; son of Oeorge 
and Matilda (Secor) McCord ; grandson of David 
McCord and of William Thome Secor, and a de- 
scendant of the Mabies of Holland, and the Hoyts 
of New Brunswick, Canada. He attended Quack- 
enbos Collegiate school. New York, and Hudson 
Biver institute, Claverack, N.Y.; studied art un- 
der Prof. Moses Morse, and in 1868 exhibited at 
the National Academy. He sketched in New 
England, Canada, Florida and the west, 1875-78« 
and made a sketching tour of Scotland and Eng- 
land in 1890. He was made an associate acade- 
mician in 1880, and also became a member of the 
Artists' Fund society, of which he was secretary, 
1878-80; of the American Water Color society, 
and of the Brooklyn Art, Salmagundi, Lotos and 
Black and White clubs. He received a silver 
medal at the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' 
Association exhibition in Boston, Mass., in 1883, 
and a bronze medal and diploma at the New Or- 
leans exposition in 1884. He devoted himself to 
landscape and marine painting, his works includ- 
ing: Sunnyside, Home of Irving (1875); Cave of 
the Winds, Niagara (1878) ; Mirror Lake (1878); 
Wintry Night, Fifth Avenue (1876) ; Near Bidde- 
ford, Maine (1879); Napanock Mills (1879); Craig 
Dhu (1880); Hunting Days (1880); Winter Eve- 
ning on the Hu/dson (1881) ; Market Place, Montreal 
(1882) ; Vesper Hour (1883) ; Where Swallows Skim 
(1883) ; Memory of June (1884) ; Ice Harvest (1884) ; 
Cross-Road Bridge (1884); Old Mill Race on 
Whippany River, New Jersey (1885); Long Pond, 
New Hampshire (1B86); On Bamegat Bay (1887); 
The Signal Bell (1898); Grand Cation, Arizona 
(1901). 

flcCORD, Louisa Susannah (Cheves), poet, 
was bom in Columbia, S.C, Dec. 3, 1810 ; daugh- 
ter of Judge Langdon (q.v.) and Mary (Dallas) 
Cheves. She received a liberal education, and in 
1840 became the second wife of Col. David J. Mc- 
Cord (q.v.) She contributed to current litera- 
ture; translated F. Bastiat's ** Sophisms of the 
Protective Policy" (1848), and is the author of : 
My Dreams, poems (1848) ; Caius Oracchus, a tra- 
gedy (1851), and essays in Southern Quarterly Re- 
view» She died in Charleston, S.C, Nov. 27, 1880. 

ilcCORDv Myron Hawley, governor of Ari- 
zona, was born in Ceres, Pa., Nov. 26, 1840 ; son of 
Myron and Ann Eliza McCord ; grandson of John 
McCord, and a descendant of James McCord, who 
settled in Pennsylvania in 1773. He removed with 
his parents to Shawano, Wis. , in 1854. He attended 
Richburg academy. New York; was elected a 
state senator from Shawano county in 1873 ; was 
a representative from Lincoln county in the state 
legislature, 1880-82 ; and a representative from 
the ninth district of Wisconsin in the 5lRt con- 
gress, 188^91. In 1893 he removed to Phoenix, 



MacCORKLE 



Mccormick 



Arizona. In 1805 he was appointed by (Governor 
Hughes Republican member of the territorial 
board of control and went out of office on Gov- 
ernor Hughes's retirement. In May, 1897, he 
was appointed by President McKinley territorial 
governor of Arizona as successor to Benjamin J. 
Franklin. In April, 1898, he recruited a regiment 
of volunteer infantry in the four territories for 
service in the war with Spain, and upon being 
elected colonel of the regiment he resigned as 
governor to serve in the field. In 1900 he be- 
came proprietor and manager of the Arizona 
Daily Gazette at Phoenix. 

MacCORKLBt William Alexander, governor 
of West Virginia, was bom in Rockbridge county, 
Va., May 7, 1857 ; son of William and Mary (Mor- 
rison) BdacCorkle and grandson of Alexander and 
Rebecca (McNutt) MacCorkle, and of William 
and Margaret Morrison. His ancestor emigrated 
from Scotland in 1650. His great grandfathers, 
Oapt. John MacCorkle and Capt. John McNutt, 
were killed in the battle of Cowpens during the 
Revolutionary war. The family settled in Rock- 
bridge county, Va. William attended a private 
school and was graduated from Washington and 
Lee university in 1879. He was married, Oct. 
19, 1881, to Isabelle Goshorn. He was city solic- 
itor of Charleston for eight years, and was chosen 
governor of West Virginia in November, 1893, 
and held this office until March 4, 1897. The de- 
gree of LL.D. was conferred on him by the Uni- 
versity of West Virginia in 1898. He published 
a number of addresses, speeches and discussions. 
Mccormick, Alexander Hught naval officer, 
was born in the District of Coliunbia, May 9, 1842 ; 
son of Alexander and Eliza (Van Horn) McCor- 

niick ; grandson of Alexander and (Quirk) 

HcCormick and of William and Alethea (Beall) 

Van Horn. He was 
apix>inted to the U.S. 
Naval academy from 
Texas in 1859, and 
was ordered into 
active service in 
April, 1861. He was 
attached to the 
Quaker City and 
served in the Chesa- 
peake bay blockade, 
June to September, 
1861 ; on the receiv- 
ing-ship North Caro- 
linaj October to De- 
cember, 1861, and 
on the steamer Nor" 
mch of the South Atlantic blockading squadron 
from January, 1863, to April, 1863. He was ap- 
pointed a volunteer acting master in April, 1863 ; 
participated in the bombardment of Fort Pulaski 

vn.— 8 




and of the fort in Winyaw Bay, S.C., in 1862, and 
was promoted ensign, Dec. 22, 1862. He took 
part in the second occupation of Jacksonville, 
Fla., in 1868; served on the Housatonic off 
Charleston, S.C, April to July, 1863 ; on the Wa- 
bash, July to September, 1868, and was promoted 
lieutenant, Feb. 22, 1864. He served on the steam 
sloop Iroquois on special service from March, 
1864, to October, 1865 ; on the Chattanooga, Feb- 
ruary to August, 1866, and was promoted lieuten- 
ant-commander, July 25, 1866. He was instructor 
in mathematics at the U.S. Naval academy, 1866- 
69 ; attached to the Macedonian, June to Sep- 
tember, 1867 ; to the flagship Lancaster on the 
east coast of South America, 1869-72, and to the 
Portsmouth, July to September, 1872. He was an 
instructor in astronomy and navigation at the 
U.S. Naval academy, 1872-75 ; cruised on the 
steamer Fortune, July to September, 1773, and 
was attached to the Pensacola, flagship of the 
Paciflc station, 1875-76. He was promoted com- 
mander, Sept. 30, 1876 ; served on duty in the 
bureau of ordnance at Washington, D.C., 1877- 
81 ; commanded the Essex in a cruise around the 
world, 1881-85 ; was inspector of ordnance at the 
navy yard,' Washington, D.C., 1885-88, and on 
duty in the bureau of ordnance at Washington, 
1888-89. He was inspector of ordnance at the 
navy yard, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1889-92; was pro- 
moted captain, April 3, 1892; commanded the 
Lancaster on the Asiatic station, 1892-94 ; was 
captain of the Norfolk navy yard, 1894-97 ; com- 
manded the battle-ship Oregon in the winter of 
1898, and commanded the navy yard at Washing- 
ton, D.C., from Oct. 17, 1898, to March 26, 1900. 
He was promoted rear-admiral Sept. 9, 1899, and 
was retired after forty years' service, March 26, 
1900. 

McCORMICKy Cyrus Hallt inventor, was born 
in Walnut Grove, Rockbridge county, Va., Feb. 
15, 1809; son of Robert and Mary McChesney 
(Hall) McCormick. He attended the public 
schools and was employed on his father's farm 
and in his workshop. His father had invented 
various labor-saving farm devices, including a 
grain-cutting machine in 1809, which he improved 
from time to time, adding the vibrating sickle 
and horizontal reel in 1828-29, and in 1881 it 
worked moderately well. Cyrus, then twenty- 
two years of age, added to and perfected some 
details in the machine and secured a patent in 
1834. He became interested in an iron furnace 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1836, and during'the panic 
of 1837 failed. He then returned to Walnut 
Grove, where he assisted his father in manufac- 
turing the reapers, and travelled extensively 
among the farmers soliciting orders. After his 
father's death in 1846 he secured further patents 
on various improvements on the reaper, notably 



C. Mho^fru*^ 



HcCORMICE 

in 1817 and 1SQ8. He emplojed a firm to mann- 
faoture the reapers in Cinoiuaati, Ohio, and in 
1847 his brother Leander superintended their con- 
struction. They established a manofaotorj in 
Chicago, 111., in 18'S, and In 18S1 he took his per- 
fected reaper to the 
World's Fair in Lon- 
don, where the Lon- 
don Time* acknowl- 
edged it to be worth 
more than the entire 
cost of the exposition 
to the farmers of 
England. He exhi- 
bited it in Paris in 
18SS and at Hamburg 
In 1883. The U.S. 
patent office refused 
to extend the patent 
In 1859, and during 
argument be- 
fore the oommission 
of patents, Reverdy Johnson declared that the 
McCormick reaper was worth $55,000,000 a year 
\a the United States, a statement never disput«d. 
Secretary Seward also declared that its introduc- 
tion in the harvest fields of the United States 
moved the line of civilization westward thirty 
miles every year, and in 1897 it was estimated 
that it saved in labor alone to the farmers of the 
United States more than «100,000,000 yearly. 
Mr. MoCormick received numerous prizes, di- 
plomas and medals at home, and in 1678 re- 
ceived for the third time one of the grand prizes 
from the Paris exposition, and the rank of officer 
of the Legion of Honor. He was also elected a 
member of the French Academy of Science In 
that year, " as having done more for agrioulttire 
than any other 
living man." 
! He gave $100,- 
1 000 to (onnd 
?. the Presby te- 
l^rian seminary 
■' of the North- 
t west in Chica- 
go, III., in 1850, 
iM f.ait niMTic'L UARK which became 

the McCormick Theological seminary, and his 
gifts to the institution during hie lifetime aggre- 
gated $300,000. He gave to Washington and Lee 
university, Lexington, Va., $10,000 soon after the 
close of the war, to which he added $10,000 more 
during his lifetime, and his trustees under the 
provisions of his will added $20,000, making his 
gift, known as the Cyrus H. McCormick fund, 
amount to $40,000 in real-estate mortgages. 
Upon this foundation the trustees of the univer- 
sity established the McCormick professorship of 



HcCOBMICK 

nattusl philosophy. He aided Union Theological 
eeminary in Virginia to the amount of $30,000, 
and was also a generous bonefactor of HastingB 
ooUege, Neb. He gave his support to the 7ii- 
terioT, a religious paper in 1873, which became 
the organ of the Presbyterian church in the north- 
western states. After the great fire of 1871 he 
rebuilt his business on a much larger soale and 
also built several business blocks in the city. He 
was married in 1858 to Nettie, daughter of Melxar 
Fowler, of Jefferson county, N. Y,, and their son, 
Cyrus Hall MoCormick, Jr., succeeded as preai- 
dent of the MoCormick Harvesting Machinecom- 
pany on the death of his father. In the selection 
of names for a place in tlie Hall of Fame for 
Great Americans, New York university, in Oo- 
tober, 1900. his name in Class D, inventors, re- 
oeived twenty-six votes, Fulton, Howe, Horseand 
Whitney only exceeding. He died in Chicago, 
111.. May 13, 1B84. 

Mccormick, Henry CUy, representative, was 
born in Washington township, Lycoming county, 
Pa.,JuneS0,1844; BonofSethT.andEUlen (MiUw) 
McCormick ; grandson of Seth McCormick, and of 
William and Sarah (Moore) Miller, and a descend- 
ant of Hugh McCormick who immigrated to 
America about 1754 and resided in Cumberland 
county, and of James McCormick of Londonderry, 
Ireland, prominent in the famous siege in that 
city. He attended the common schools and Dick- 
inson seminary, studied law, was admitted toth» 
bar in 1880, and practised his profession in Wil- 
liamsport. Pa. He was a Republican represent- 
ative in the 50th and 51st congresses, 1887-Sl, and 
attorney -general of Pennaylvania, 1865-90. In 
1899 be resumed the practice of law at Wil- 
liamsport. 

McCORMlCK, JamM RoMnson, representa- 
tive, was bom in Washington county, Mo., Aug. 
1,1834; third son of Joseph and Jane (Bobinson) 
McCormick, and grandson of Andrew and Cath- 
erine (Adams) McCormick. Andrew McCormick 
came from the nortli of Ireland about 1770, served 
in the Revolutionary war, and married the 
daughter of John Adams, who with his sister 
Catherine, fled from Qermany to escape persecu- 
tion from the Papists. He was graduated at the 
Memphis Medical college in 1849, and settled in 
practice in Ironton, Mo. He married in 1853 
Berchette C. Nance, who died in 1868, and sec- 
ondly Susan E. Gamer. Emmet Curran UcCor- 
mick, M.D., his son by his first marriage, and 
James Edward McCormick, M.D., by his seoond 
marriage, survived him. He was a delegate to 
the state constitutional convention of 1861; amem- 
ber of the state senate, 1683, but resigned to serve 
in the Federal army, where he attained the rank 
of brigadier-general, and served to the close of the 
war. In 1868 he was again elected a state sena- 



1 



Mccormick 

tor, but resigned in 1867 to take bis place as a 
Democratic representative in the 40tb congress 
to fill tbe unexpired term of Thomas E. Noell, 
who died Oct. S, 18S7, and he was re-elected to 
the 41st and 43d congrosaea, serving 1867-78. 
He died in Farmington, Ho., Ma^ 19, 1897. 

McCORAIlCK, Leaodw J., inventor, was bom 
at Walnut Grove, Va., Feb.S, 1819 ; son of Robert 
and Mary McCliesney (Hall) McCormiok. He 
attended tbe public schools of Rockbridge countf 
and was engaged with his father and brothers in 
farming aud in perfecting and constructing the 
reaping machine invented by hia father in 1809. 
He invented various improvements to the reaper, 
iacluding a seat or stand from which a man could 
divide the grain in aheavea auitable for binding, 
184.') ; an improvement ou the divider side in 184&; 
and later a seat for the driver, who had before 
ridden on one of the horses. He was married in 
1845 to Henrietta Maria, daughter of John Hamil- 
ton, of Rockbridge countj, Va.; she died in Chi- 
cago in November, 1809. Their son, Robert S. 
HoCormick, was secretary of legation under U.S. 
minister, Robert T. Lincoln, in London ; married 
a danghter of Joseph MediU, editor of the Chicago 
Trdmne, and in 1901 was appointed by President 
HcEinley envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary of the United States to Austria- 
Hungary. Leander J. McCormiok went to Cin* 
ninnati, Ohio, in 1847, to superintend the oon- 
Btruction of one hundred reaping machines and 
in 1848 he removed to Chicago, III., where he was 
joined by his brother Cyrus Hall, in 1649, and 
where they established a factory. He took entire 
charge of the manufacturing department until 
1879, when the business was incorporated as the 
McCormick Harvesting Machine Co., and he re- 
tired from active participation in the business. 
He presented the University of Virginia in 1671 
with a twenty-siz-inch refracting telescope oon- 
truoted by Alvan Clark & Bone of Cambridge, 
Mass., and at the time the largest refracting lens 
in the world, and the observatory building was 
known as the McCormick observatory. Mr. Mo- 
Cormick died in Chio^^. III., Feb. SO, 1900. 

McCORMICK, Richard Cuanlngbam, governor 
of Arizona, was bom in New York city. May 88, 
1832 ; son of Richard and Sarah (Decker) McCor- 
mick ; grandson of Hugh McCormiok of Lycom- 
ing county. Pa. (bora in 1777), and a descendant 
of James McCormick, of Londonderry, who came 
to America about 1700. He received a classical 
education in New York city, and settled as a 
broker in Wall street in 1850, which business he 
pursued until 1854. He was war correspondent 
duriog the Crimean war. 1654-55, edited the 
Young Men's Magazine, 1858-^9, and was oon- 
nected with the New Yoiit Evening Post, 19W-fil. 
He was war correspondent for that and other 



McCORMICK 

New York newspapers, in the Army of the Po- 
tomac, in the civil war, 1861-63, and chief clerk 
of the U. S. department of agriculture, 1662-68. 
He was appointed by President Lincoln secretary 
of Arizona when organized as a territory in 
February, 1863, and 
in 1866 he was ap- 
pointed by President 
Johnson governor as 
successor to John N. 
Goodwin. He resigned 
in 1869 to take his 
seat as delegate to 
congress from Ari- 
zona, and served as 
such in the 41st, 42d 
and 43d congresses, 
1860-75. He was mar- 
ried in Washington, / ; 

D.C.,Nov.35,1873,t0 ^^.^JCj^^^/p^^ 
Elizabeth, daughter "^•^"^ /■ 

of the Hon. A. Q, 

Thurman of Ohio. He established the ^W- 
zona Miner, at Preecott, in 1864, and tbe Arizona 
Citizen, at Tucson, in 1670. He was a delegate 
from Arizona territory to the Republican na- 
tional conventions of 1873 and 1876 ; a commis- 
sioner from Arizona territory to the Centennial 
exhibition at Philadelphia, Fa., in 1876 ; assistant 
secretary of the U.S. treasury, 1877, and commis- 
sioner general to tbe Paris exposition in 1878, 
where be was decorated a commander of the 
Legion of Honor by the French government. He 
declined the mission to Brazil in 1877, and the 
miasion to Mexico in 1879. He removed to 
Jamaica, L.I., N.Y„ in 1879 ; was the Republican 
candidate for representative from the first New 
York district in the 50th congress in 1686, and 
was defeated by Perry Belmont, Democrat, but 
served as a representative in the 54th congress, 
1895-97. He is the author of : Vi»it to the Camp 
before Sebagtopol (1855); St. PauCs to St. Sophia 
(1860); Arizona, its Re»ource» (1665). He also 
edited Tfie Reporta of the United States Commit- 
sionera to the Paria Exposition (fi vols., 1679). 
He died in Jamaica, N.Y., June 3, 1901. 

McCORMICK, Robert, inventor, was bom at 
Walnut Grove, Rockbridge county, Va., in 1780 ; 
son of Robert and Martha (Sanderson) McCor- 
mick. Hisancestors, who were Scotch, emigrated 
to the north of Ireland and thence to America. 
His father, a native of Pennsylvania, served in 
the Revolution, removed his family to Rockbridge 
county, Va., in 1779 ; and was at Guilford Court 
House, N.C., where he narrowly escaped death, 
March 15, 1781. After the war he conducted a 
number of farms at Walnut Grove, Va., a grist 
and saw mill and a machine shop, where he in- 
vented and manufactured labor-saving farm inv 



Mccormick 



McCOSH 



plements. In 1809 he conBtructed the first grain- 
cutting machine ever devised, which was im- 
proved, first by himself, then by his sons, Cyrus 
Hall and Leander J., and all the improvements 
were patented by his son Cyrus Hall, in 1884. 
He engaged with his sons, Cyrus Hall, William 
S. and Leander J., in manufacturing these ma-, 
chines, out of which grew the McCormick Har- 
vesting Machine manufactory in Chicago, 111. 
His other labor-saving inventions include a hemp- 
breaking machine, a machine for cleaning hemp, 
a number of successful threshing machines, a 
blacksmith's bellows and a machine to supply 
power by putting water under pressure. This 
last was alMindoned for lack of machinery for use 
in its construction. He was a student of classical 
literature and of science, especially of astronomy. 
He was married to Mary McChesney, daughter of 
Patrick Hall, a quartermaster in the war of 1812. 
He died at Walnut Grove, Va., July 4, 1846. 

McCORMlCK* Samuel Black, educator, was 
born in Irwin, Westmoreland county, Pa., May 6, 
1858 ; son of Dr. James I. and Rachel Long 
(Black) McCormick, and grandson of John and 
Esther (Sowash) McCormick, and of Samuel and 
Jane (Mansperger) Black. He was instructed at 
home by his father and was graduated from 
Washington and Jefferson college, A.B., 1880, 
A.M., 1883. He was married Sept. 20, 1882, to 
Ida May, daughter of William Steep of Washing- 
ton, Pa. He was a teacher at Jefferson academy, 
1880-81, and at Washington and Jefferson college, 
1881-82 ; studied law with H. H. McCormick, 
Pittsburg, Pa., 1882-88, and practised there, 1882- 
83, and at Denver, Col., 1888-87 ; was a student 
at Western Theological seminary, 1887-90, was 
licensed to preach, April 24, 1889, and pastor of 
the Central Presbyterian church at Allegheny, 
Pa., 1890-94, and of the First Presbyterian church, 
Omaha, Nebraska, 1894-97. He was elected pres- 
ident of Coe college, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in 1897. 
The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on 
him by Washington and Jefferson college, in 
1897. 

McCORVEYt Thomas Chalmers, educator, 
was born in Monroe county, Ala., Aug. 18, 1851 ; 
son of Murdock and Lydia (Ranaldson) McCorvey, 
and grandson of John and Barbara (McMillan) 
McCorvey, and of Drury Allen and Mary (Single- 
tary) Ranaldson. His paternal grandparents 
were both born in Kintyre, Scotland, and while 
they were very young their parents immigrated 
to Robeson county. North Carolina, about 1783. 
His Ranaldson ancestors fought for the young 
Pretender at CuUoden, and immigrated to what 
is now Cumberland county, N.C., about 1747. 
He was prepared for college at the MonroeviUe 
academy, Alabama, studied at Erskine college. 
South Carolina, 1870-71, and was graduated at 



the University of Alabama. Ph.B., 1878, LL.B., 
1874, A.M., 1878. He was elected commandant 
of cadets in the University of Alabama in 1873, 
and in 1888 was made professor of history and 
political economy there. He was married, July 
22, 1880, to Netta L., daughter of Henry and Julia 
(Ashe) Tutwiler at Greene Springs, Ala. He was 
appointed by President Cleveland a member of the 
board of visitors to the U. S. Military academy 
in 1886. He was elected a member of the Amer* 
ican Academy of Social and Political Science, 
and in 1895 a member of the American Historical 
association. He is the author of : The Oovem- 
ment of the People of the State of Alabama (1895), 
and of literary, political and historical articles 
contributed to newspapers and magazines. 

McCOSH, James, educator, was born on the 
bank of the river Doon, near the village of Patna, 
Scotland, April 1, 1811. His father was an escten- 
sive farmer. He attended the parish school, 
studied at the University of Glasgow, 1824-29, 
and took a course in 
theology at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, 
1829-84. He received 
the honorary degree 
of A.M. from the 
University of Edin- 
burgh in 1835, for an 
essay on '*The Stoic 
Philosophy." He was 
licensed to preach in 
1834 ; was ordained 
to the Presbyterian 
ministry in 1835, 
and was pastor of 
the Abbey church 
at Arbroath, 1835-38. 

In 1838 he was appointed by the crown pastor of 
the Presbyterian church at Brechin, and minis- 
tered to over 1,400 communicants until the dis- 
ruption of the church in 1843, when he joined the 
Free Church party. In 1843 and 1844 he was a 
member of a deputation appointed by the General 
Assembly to visit England and enlist non-con- 
formist interest for the Free Church. He was 
married at Brechin in 1845 to Isabella Guthrie, 
daughter of James Guthrie, M.D., and niece of 
Thomas Guthrie, the celebrated Edinburgh divine. 
He took an active interest in the establishing of 
churches in the shires of Forfar and Kincardine. 
He was appointed professor of logic and meta- 
physics in Queen*s college, Belfast, Ireland, in 
1852, by the E^arl of Clarendon, at that time lord 
lieutenant of Ireland, and filled that office until 
1868, becoming famous as a lecturer. He was for 
a part of that time an examiner in ethics for the 
Queen's University of Ireland as member of the 
board which organized the system of campetition 




/di4€44 t4i£s^^ 



HCCOSH 

for the oivil ofBoea in India. He also was an ex- 
aminer for the Ferguaon scholarship open to grad- 
uates ot Scottish universitiea. He visited the 
principal German universities in 18S8, and those 
of the United States in 1806, and was called to 



the presidency of the College of New Jersey at 
Princeton, in 1S88, succeeding Dr. John Mac- 
lean. He was inaugurated in October, 1808, and 
was professor of biblical instruction and of psy- 
chologj and the history of philosophy. During 
his administration the number of students in- 
creased from 304 to 008, a dozen new fellowships 
were founded, the number of professors increased 
from seventeen to forty-one, the standard ot 
scholarship was raised, the number of buildings 
was greatly enlarged, the number of books and 
apparatus was trebled, and the sum of (8,000.000 
was added to the funds of the institution, which 
he raised to the dignity of a university. He 
resigned the presidency of Princeton university 
in February, 1887, and his professorship in 1890. 
He was made president emeritus with his salary 
continued from his resignation. On April 1, 1801, 
his eightieth birthday, a silver bowl was pre- 
sented by the faculty, agold pitcher by the faculty 
and alumni during his administration, and a silver 
cup by the Princeton club of New York city. He 
was a member of the American Philosophical 
society ; a fellow of the American Academy of 
Arte and Sciences ; a delegate to the general 
assembly of the Presbyterian church at Philadel- 
phia, Pa., in 1870. and to the tercentenary cele- 
bration of the reformation in Scotland at Phila- 
delphia in 1872, where he presented a scheme for 
the organisation of the Presbyterian alliance ; a 
moderator of the conference at London, England, 
which organized the alliance in 1875, and a dele- 
gate to Edinburgh, Scotland, in IS77. His last 
pnblio appearance was at the International Con- 
grees of Education at the World's Columbian 
exposition, Chicago. July, 1893. In 1889 a full 
length heroic-size tablet of Dr. McCosh, executed 
by Ai^^ustus St. Oandens, was placed on the walls 
of Harqnand chapel by the class of 1B70. He 
received the honorary degrees : A.U. from Aber- 



McCOSKBT 

deen, 1850, LL.D. from Harvard, 1668, and from 
Queen's university, Ireland; D.D. from Browo 
and from Washington and JeSerson, 1868, and 
Litt.D. from Queen's, Ireland, 1S82. He contrib- 
uted articles on various controversial subjects 
to leading British and American reviews and 
magasinea, and is the author of : The Wheat and 
Chaff: a Contribution toward the Hittory of the 
Diarvplion at t?ie Scottish EccIenaatiealEataMigk- 
ment(lS4S) ; The Method of the Divine Oovemment, 
nyaicaJandMotxa (ISfiO.llth ed., 1874); T^^ptcaJ 
Form* and Special Ends in Creation, with Dr. 
QeorgeDickie<1855); The Intuitions of the Mindt 
Inductively Investigated (1860, 3d rev. ed., 1872); 
3%e Supernatural in Relation to the Natvral 
(1803) ; Examination of MiO't Philosophy : Being 
a Defense of Fundamental Trvlh (I860); TheLatet 
of Discursive TkougM: Being a Treatise on 
Formal Logic (1860, rev, ed., 1890); Christianity 
and Positivism (1871); The Scottish Philosophy 
(1874); Ideas in Nature overlooked by Dr. Tj/ndall 
(1875); The Development Hypothesis: U it Suffi- 
eient T (1870); The Emotions (1880) ; Bealistic Phil- 
osophy Defended in a Philosophic Series (3 vols., 
1B87); Psychology: the Cognitive Powers (1886); 
Psychology: the Motive Powera (18S7); The Relig- 
ious Aspect of Evolution (1888); First and FuTida- 
mental Truths (1889); The Tests of Various Kinds 
of Truth (1889); The Prevailing Types of Philos- 
ophy: Can they Logically Reach Reality f (ISDO); 
Our Moral Nature (1892); Philosophy of Reality 
(1804). See •' Life," by William M. Sloane (1896), 
forcomplete bibliography. He died at Princeton, 
N.J., Nov. 10, 1894, and is buried in the Pres- 
ident's lot in the Princeton cemetery. 

A1cC05KRY, Samuel Allen, first bishop of 
Michigan and 83d in succession in the American 
episcopate, was bom io Carlisle, Pa., Nov. 4, 
1804. His maternal grandfather, the Bev. Dr. 
Charles Niabet, was 
president of Dickin- 
son college. He was 
a cadet at the U.S. 
Military academy, 
1830-22. and was 
graduated at Diokin. 
son college, Pa., A.B., 
1635, A.M., 1628. He 
studied law and was 
admitted to the bar ; 
at Carlisle, Pa., in 
1835, and while prac- 
tising his profession, 
1835-31, served as d< 
uty-Bttomey - general ' 
of Cumberland coun- 
ty, 1828-80. He pursued theological studies 
under Bishop H. U. Onderdonk, 1881-W ; was 
ordained deacon in Christ church, Reatiing, 



:S AMA^> 



McCOWN 



MacCRACKEN 



Pa., March 28, 1883, and priest, Dec. 18, 1833. 
He fii*st served as assistant at Christ church 
and was rector of St. Paul's church, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., 1834-36. He was elected bishop 
of the newly formed diocese of Michigan and was 
consecrated in St. PauPs church, Philadelphia, 
Pa., by Bishops H. U. Onderdonk, Doane and 
Kemper, July 7, 1836. Besides administering 
the affairs of the new diocese, Bishop McCoskry 
also served as rector of St. Paul's church, Detroit, 
1836-63. He attended the jubilee of the Vener- 
able Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts in London, England, 1852. He 
served the diocese for over forty -one years and 
nis administration was accompanied by a remark- 
able growth. In March, 1878, ** owing to fail- 
ing health and infirmities of age which hinder 
the efficient administration of the affairs of the 
diocese," he tendered his resignation, being at 
the time seventy-five years of age. Upon learn- 
ing that charges had been made against his moral 
character, he withdrew his resignation and de- 
manded an investigation, but before the House 
of Bishops met he sailed for Europe after renew- 
ing his resignation. The House of Bishops met 
in New York, Sept. 8, 1878, and when a quorum 
had been obtained with some difficulty, he was 
deposed, as recorded in the ** Journal of the Gen- 
eral Convention of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church for 1880." He received the honorary 
degree of D.D. from Columbia college in 1837 and 
that of D.C.L. from Oxford in 1852. He died in 
New York city, Aug. 1, 1886. 

McCOWNt John Porter, soldier, was born in 
East Tennessee, Jan. 20, 1815. He was graduated 
from the U.S. Military academy, July 1, 1840, 
and promoted 2d lieutenant of the 4th artillery. 
He served during the removal of the Indians to 
the west in 1840 ; in the Canadian border disturb- 
ances at Detroit, Mich., 1840-41, and at Buffalo, 
N.Y., 1841-42. He was promoted 1st lieutenant, 
Sept. 30, 1843 ; served in the military occupation 
of Texas, 1845-46, and in the war with Mexico, 
1846-47, participating in the battles of Palo Alto, 
Resaoa de la Palma, Monterey, the siege of Vera 
Cruz, Cerro Gk>rdo and the assault and capture of 
the city of Mexico. He was bre vetted captain, 
April 18, 1847, for *' gallant and meritorious 
conduct in the battle of Cerro Gordo." He was 
quartermaster of the 4th U.S. artillery, 1847-48, 
served on frontier duty in Texas, 1849-50 ; was 
promoted captain, Jan. 5, 1851, served in the Flor- 
ida hostilities against the Seminole Indians, 
1856-57, and was a member of the Utah expedi- 
tion in 1858. He was on garrison duty in Ne- 
braska and Dakota, 1858-61, and at the outbreak 
of the civil war he resifirned his commission in 
the U.S. army and entered the Confederate serv- 
ice as lieutenant-colonel in the corps of artillery. 



C.S.A. He commanded the corps in the provi- 
sional Army of Tennessee from May, 1861, and was 
promoted brigadier-general, Oct. 12, 1861. At 
the battle of Belmont, Nov. 7, 1861, he command- 
ed the Kentucky side of the river at Columbus, 
and there being no opposition he crossed the 
river and met General Grant's force. He was 
placed in command of Island No. 10 and 
Madrid Bend in February, 1862. On March 27 he 
was succeeded by Gen. W. W. Mackall. He took 
part in General Bragg s Kentucky campaign from 
April 20, 1862, as commander of the dd division, 
Army of the West, and he assumed command of 
that army, June 20, 1862. At the battle of Stone's 
River, with Cleburne's command he held the 
right of Hardee's oorps and drove back the ad- 
vance of General McCook, capturing many pris- 
oners, cannon and small arms. After the close 
of the war he settled near KnoxviUe, Tenn., 
where he taught school. He removed to Little 
Rock, Ark., where he died Jan. 29, 1879. 

McCOY« Isaac* missionary, was bom in Fayette 
county. Pa., June 13, 1784. His parents removed 
to Shelby county, Ky., in 1790. He was married 
in 1803 to Christina, 4aughter of Captain Polls, 
whose wife and several children were captured 
by the Ottawa Indians. With his wife he jour- 
neyed to Vinoennes, Ind.Ter., in 1804, and to Clark 
county in 1805, where he was licensed to preach 
by the Silver Creek Baptist church. In October, 
1810, he was admitted to the ministry of the 
church at Maria Creek and was pastor, 1810-17. 
He was made missionary to the Indians residing 
in the Northwest territory in 1817, established 
Fort Wayne mission, and in 1822 Carey mission 
at Niles, Michigan Territory. His journeys 
through his territory, and even his several visits 
to Washington to lay the claims of the Indians 
before congress and the president, were made on 
horseback. He urged the colonization of the 
tribes on territory not to be disturbed by settlers 
and away from the temptations of whiskey and 
rum pressed upon them by the white men. He 
sent several pupils to Hamilton college to be 
educated, and on Oct. 9, 1825, delivered near the 
site of the future Chicago the first sermon preach- 
ed to English-speaking hearers in that locality. 
He removed from Carey mission in 1826 to west of 
the Mississippi, where he laid out reservations and 
located several tribes in what became Indian Ter- 
ritory. He was the first secretary of the Ameri- 
can Indian Mission association with headquarters 
at Louisville, Ky., 1842-46. He is the author of 
History of the Baptist Indian Mission (1840). He 
died in Louisville, Ky., June 21, 1846. 

MacCRACKEN, Henry Mitchell, educator, was 
bom at Oxford, Ohio, Sept. 28, 1840 ; son of the 
Rev. John Steele and Eliza Hawkins (Dougherty) 
MacCracken ; grandson of John and Martha (Wii- 



MacCRACKEN 



McCRADY 




aon) MacCracken, and great-grandson of Henry 
MacCracken, who fell at a frontier post on the 
"West Susquehanna in the war of the American 
fievolution, and of Major Samuel Wilson, also a 
Herolutionary soldier. His father was a Presby- 
terian clergyman, 
and his mother be- 
fore her marriage 
was principal of a 
school for young 
ladies in Oxford. He 
was graduated from 
Miami university in 
1857 ; was a classical 
teacher at Grove aca- 
demy, Cedarville, 
Ohio, 1857-68 ; school 
superintendent at 
Charleston, Ohio, 

y ^^ * oal teacher at the high 

school, Xenia, Ohio, 
1860-61. He studied theology in the United Pres- 
byterian Theological seminary at Xenia, 1860-63 ; 
and at the Princeton Theological seminary, 1862- 
63. He was stated supply of the First church, 
Toledo, Ohio, in 1862 ; was ordained by the presby- 
tery of Columbus, Ohio, Nov. 7, 1863, and was 
pastor of Westminster church, Columbus, 1863-67. 
He studied philosophy and history in the univer- 
«ities of TObingen and Berlin, Germany, 1867-^ ; 
was pastor of the First Presbyterian church, Tol- 
edo, 1869-81 ; a member of the committee that led 
in founding Wooster university in 1865 and Green 
Spring academy in 1877, and was also the first to 
propose, in his *' Historical Memorial to the Gen- 
eral Assembly,'* the Presbyterian Tercentenary 
of 1872. He was chancellor and professor of 
philosophy in the Western University of Penn- 
sylvania, 1881-84; became professor of philosophy 
in the University of the City of New York in 
1884 ; was vice-chancellor of the same, 1885-91, 
and in 1891 became chancellor. During his 
administration the university founded its grad- 
uate seminary, its school of pedagogy, and ob- 
tained new grounds in the upper part of New 
York city, named upon the map University 
Heights, upon which were erected buildings cost- 
ing about 12,000,000, including the Hall of Fame 
for Great Americans. He was a delegate to the 
General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland 
at Edinburgh in 1867 ; to the Presbyterian assem- 
bly at Dublin, Ireland, in 1867, and historical 
orator at the Scotch-Irish reunion, Belfast, Ire- 
land, in 1884. He was elected an officer of the 
American Society of Church History, of the 
Society for the Prevention of Crime, The Ameri- 
can Tract society, and other benevolent associa- 
tions. He received the honorary degree of D.D. 



from Wittenberg college, Ohio, in 1878, and that 
of LL.D. from Miami university in 1887. He was 
married, July 2, 1872, at Columbus, Ohio, to Cathe- 
rine, daughter of the Rev. Tliomas Hubbard of 
Stockbridge, Vt. The writings of Chancellor Mac- 
Cracken include periodical articles upon phil- 
osophical, sociological, educational, historical and 
religious questions. He is the author of : Kani 
and Lotze (1885); Lives of the Leaders of Our 
Church Universal, translated in chief part from 
the German of Dr. Ferdinand Piper (3 vols., 
1879); A Metropolitan University (1892) ; Educa- 
tional Progress in the United States in the Quarter 
Century Ending 1893 {18Qd); The Hall of Fame 
(1901). 

MacCRACKEN* John Henry, educator, was 
bom in Rochester, Vt., Sept. UO, 1875 ; son of 
Henry Mitchell and Catherine (Hubbard) Mac- 
Craoken and grandson of John and Eliza (Doug- 
herty) MacCracken and of Thomas Swan and 
Mary (Fay) Hubbard. His paternal ancestor, Hen- 
ry MacCracken, emigrated from the north of Ire- 
land about 1760, settled in Pennsylvania and 
taught school on the west branch of the Susque- 
hanna river. His maternal ancestor, John Hub- 
bard, was pastor of the church at Northfield, 
Mass., 1749-94. He attended the public schools of 
Allegheny, Pa., and Lyons collegiate institute at 
New York city, and was graduated from New 
York university, A.B.,1894, A.M., 1897. He was a 
student at the Union Theological seminary, 1894- 
95, and at the University of Halle- Wittenberg, 
Germany, 1895-96 and 1899, receiving the degree 
of Ph.D. in 1899. He was instructor and assist- 
ant professor of philosophy at ^ew York uni- 
versity, 1896-99, and was elected president of 
Westminster college in 1899, at the age of twenty- 
three. He was elected a member of the Western 
Philosophical association in 1899 and of the Amer* 
ican Historical association in 1900. 

McCRADY* Edward, lawyer and theologian, 
was born in Charleston, L C, March 16, 1803 ; 
son of John and Jane (Johnson) McCrady ; grand- 
son of Edward and Elizabeth (Campbell) Mc- 
Crady, who emigrated from Antrim, Ireland, 
about 1765, also of William Johnson, who re- 
moved from New York to Charleston in 176- , a 
leader in the Revolutionary war. Both his grand- 
fathers were among the patriot exiles sent to St. 
Augustine, Fla. , from Charleston upon the capture 
of that city by the British in 1780. His father 
was a lawyer. He was prepared for college at 
the private academy of the Rev. Thomas Frost, 
Sr., was graduated from Yale in 1830, and was for 
several years the oldest living graduate of that 
university. He studied law under his uncle, 
William Johnson, associate justice of the supreme 
court of the United States, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1824. He espoused the Union side of 



McCRADY 



McCRADY 



the nullification struggle in 1882, was chairman 
of the committee of correspondence of that party 
in Charleston, and attended the nullification con- 
vention in Columbia, S.C., as one of the agents 
of the administration, reporting to Washington 
on the transactions of each day. In behalf of the 
Union party he made the question as to the oath 
of allegiance prescribed by the nullification con- 
vention, in a case reported as : ** The State ex 
relatione McCready vs. Hunt,*' published in 
Hill's Law Reports, and occupying half that 
volume, which resulted in the overthrow of the 
court which sustained his position. He was U.S. 
district attorney, 1839-50, resigning to take an 
active part in the organization of the co-operation 
party of the south as against the immediate se- 
cession party, and served for several years as a 
representative in the legislature from Charleston. 
He was a member of the state convention which 
met in 1852, and in that body voted against an 
ordinance declaring the right of peaceable seces- 
sion, he maintaining that secession, however 
justified, could only be a measure of war. He 
was again a member of the state convention of 
1860, in which he voted for the ordinance of se- 
cession. He was recognized throughout the 
United States as one of the most learned laymen 
iu the Episcopal church. He represented St. 
Philip's parish in the diocesan convention for over 
fifty years consecutively, was for thirty years a 
member of the general convention of the church 
in the United States and a member of the standing 
committee of the diocese for forty years, and was 
a constant contributor to church reviews and 
periodicals. Two of his articles, one on the 
litany, written in his eightieth year, and the 
other a review of Henry Drummond's " Natural 
Law in the Spiritual World," written in his 
eighty-fourth year, attracted much attention. 
He was married in 1829 to Louisa Rebecca, 
daughter of Robert and Louisa (de Bernidre) 
Lane, and granddaughter of Col. John de Ber- 
nidre of the British army, who immigrated to 
South Carolina in 1799. Of their children, four 
sons and four daughters reached maturity : 
Edward (q.v.) ; John (q.v.) ; Thomas, a dis- 
tinguished officer in the Confederate army ; Louis 
de Bemi^re, who, with his brother Edward and 
his brother-in-law, Thomas W. Bacot, formed 
the law firm of McCrady & Bacot ; Louisa de 
Bemi^re, the wife of Thomas W. Bacot, Ellen 
Madelina, Jane, and Mary Margaret. He died at 
Charleston, S.C, in November, 1892. 

flcCRADV* Edward* lawyer and historian, 
was bom in Charleston, S.C, April 8, 1833 ; son 
of Edward and Louisa Rebecca (Lane) McCrady. 
He was prepared for college in private academies 
in Charleston, 1841-49 ; was graduated from the 
College of Charleston in 1853, and was admitted 




BdJti^a4AMj\/^^iMd4^ 



to tbe bar in 1855. He took part in the earliet^t 
military operations during the civil war as captain 
in the state service, Deo. 27, 18M. On April 13, 
1861, he entered the Confederate States service 
as captain of the first company raised ** for the 
war " in South Caro- 
lina, and was pro- 
moted major and 
lieutenant-colonel , 1st 
S.C. volunteers, June 
27, 1861. He served 
in Jackson's corps in 
Virginia, and being 
disabled by wounds 
he was in 1864 trans- 
ferred to the com- 
mand of the camp 
of instruction at Ma- 
dison, Fla. After 
the war he was 
major-general of the 
state volunteer force. 
He was married, Feb. 24, 1868, to Mary Fraser 
Davie, granddaughter of Gen. William Richard- 
son Davie (q.v.). He resumed the practice of law 
in October, 1865, was a member of the Soutli 
Carolina house of representatives, 1880-90, and 
was the author of state election and registration 
laws popularly known as the *' eight box law," 
and of other important measures. He was elected 
a member of the Historical Society of South 
Carolina, 1857 ; of the Elliot Society of Natural 
History ; a trustee of the Charleston Library 
society ; a trustee of the Medical College of South 
Carolina and president of the Historical Society 
of South Carolina. He received the honorary de- 
gree of LL.D. from the College of Charleston in 
1900. He is the author of: The History of South 
Carolina under the Proprietary Oovemmentyl670- 
1719 (1897) ; The History of South Carolina 
under the Royal Government, 1719-1776 (1899) ; 
The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 
1776-1780 (1901) ; The History of South Carolina 
in the Revolution, 1780-1783 (in preparation, 
1901), and numerous legal, political and historical 
essays and addresses. 

McCRADYy John* scientist, was bom in 
Charleston, S.C, Oct. 15, 1831 ; eldest son of 
Edward and Louisa Rebecca (Lane) McCrady. 
He was graduated from the College of Charleston 
in 1850 and began the study of law with his 
father, but soon abandoned it for scientific pur- 
suits. Attracting the attention of Louis Agassiz, 
then lecturing at the medical college at Charles- 
ton, by his invitation be became his private pupil, 
and as such accompanied him to Cambridge, 
Mass., where he spent three summers. He was 
one of the few American naturalists to be trained 
as such under the instruction of Agassiz, and the 



MCCRADT 

results were apparent as soon as he usJertook to 
Dukeorigin&l obaervntioriB. He was appointed m- 
BtEiant proteBBor of mathematica in the College of 
Charleston io 13B6, and in addition to the dutiesof 
that ohair he pursued his scientific researches. 
He was an enthusiastic member and curator of 
the Elliot Society of Natural History. His paper 
on the medusee occupied over one hundred pages 
of the Proceedingg of that eooiety, and mark an 
event in the history of soClogy in the south, inas- 
much as naturalists who preceded Mr. McCrady 
had confined themseWes to describing species 
almost exclusively amongtbe vertebrate animals, 
whereas with the assistance of the microscope he 
studied out carefully the development of the 
various medusa from theovum to the adult state. 
He was thus enabled to eliminate many forms 
which were thought to be distinct speoies, but 
which, upon more careful examination, were 
found to be the same animal in various stages of 
its growth. At the time of his work the subdivi- 
sion to which sea blubber belongs had only been 
slightly investigated in America and his papers 
upon the subject have since been commented 
upon A» never having been exceeded in accuracy. 
Upon the breaking out of the war between the 
states he at once resigned his professorship and 
entered the service of the state as an officer of 
engineers, becoming a major in that corps in the 
Confederate States army. He served upon the 
military atafl of Qeneral Beauregard, in charge 
of the construution of the fortifications around 
Savannah ; joining the army of Qen. Joseph B. 
Johnston after the evacuation of Savannah and 
attaining reputation as askilful military engineer. 
His manuscripts and books recording the result 
of hia scientific reeearches and labors of the seven 
years before the war were burned in Columbia in 
11)65. He was professor of mathematics in the 
College of Charleston, 1865-78 ; succeeded Agassix 
as professor of zoology at Harvard, 1874-77, and 
delivered a course of lectures before the theolog- 
ical school of the university. In August, 1877, he 
was elected professor of biology and the relation 
of science and religion in the University of the 
South at Sewanee, Tenn. , and spent the remainder 
of his life in that institution. In the winter of 
1880-81 he delivered a series of lectures at the 
Johns Hopkins university in which he outlined 
his philosophical system. He married Sarah, 
daughter of Paul Dismukes of Tennessee and 
granddaughter of Thomas Lynch (q.v.). Hiason, 
the Rev, Edward McCrady, was in 1901 rector of 
Trinity church, Abbeville. S.C. In September, 
1881, Professor MoCrady was taken ill, and while 
ooDvaleeoent, the house in which he lived and the 
manuscripts of hia lifelong work were burned. 
This shook arrested hia recovery, and he died at 
Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 10, 1881. 



Mccreary 

McCRARY, Oeorge Wasblagton, cabinet 
officer, was bom near Evansville, Ind., Aug. 29, 
1839; son of James and Matilda (Forrest) Ho- 
Crary. His parents removed beyond the Missis- 
sippi in 18SS and made their home in the limits of 
Iowa Territory. He 
studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 
1856, and settled in 
practice in Keokuk. 
He was married in 
1867 to Helen A. 
Gelatt. He was a 
Republican represent- 
ative in the Iowa 
legislature in 1857 
and a state senator, 
1661-65. He served 
in the senate as chair- 
man of the com- ^ ^.4-j^h. -c 
mitteeon military af- 'Sc^>^/7k C*^i*p 
fairs and of the judi- 
ciary committee. He was a Republican represent- 
ative from the first Iowa district in the 41st, 43d, 
43d and 44th congresses, 1869-77, being chairman 
of the committee on elections in the 42d con- 
gress. He introduced the bill in congress that 
led to the appointment of the electoral coiumia- 
sion of 1877. In arguing the Florida case before 
the commission he denied the power of congress 
to go behind the returns, and his view of the ques- 
tion was adopted by the commission. He was 
also the author of the law under which the 
judiciary of the United States was t'eorganised. 
He was appointed secretary of war by President 
Hayes, March 12, 1877 ; resigned in December, 
1879, upon receiving the appointment of judge 
of the 8th judicial district of the U.S. circuit 
court, and served until March, 1884, when he re- 
moved to Kansas City, Mo., to serve as attorney 
and counsellor for the Atchison, Topeka and Santa 
F^ railroad company and toengagein the general 
practice of law. He is the author of Tht Amer- 
ican Law of Ekctiont (1875). He died in St 
Joseph, Mo., June S3, 1890. 

McCREARY, James Bennett, governor of 
Kentucky, was bom in Richmond. Ky., July 8, 
1838 ; son of Robert and Sabrina (Bennett) Mc- 
Creary and grandson of James and Mary (fiarr) 
McCreary, His ancestry on both sides removed 
from Virginia to Kentucky. He was graduated 
at Centre college, Ky., A.B., 1857 ; Cumberland 
university, LL.B., 1859. He practised hiw in 
Richmond. Ky.. was major and lieutenant-col- 
onel of the nth Kentucky cavalry, CS.A., 186S- 
65, serving in the west under Generals Bragg and 
Morgan and in the east under Qeneral Breckin- 
ridge. He was married. June 13. 1867, to Katie, 
daughter of Thomas Hughes of Fayette county. 



1 



Q^at'^^ /?. ^t^a*^u^ 



Mccreary 

Kj. He waa a delegate to the Democratic na- 
tional coDventioa in New York city, July 4, 
ISnS 1 a representative in the state legislature, 
I86S-74; and speaker of the hous?, 1ST1-T2 and 
1873-74. He waa gov- 
ernor of Kentucky, 
1875-79, and a repre- 
sentative from the 
eighth coDg^ressional 
district of Kentucky 
in the 49th-54th con- 
gresses, 1883-97. In 
oongres* he was chair- 
man of the committee 
on foreign affairs and 
waa one of the five 
delegates autliorized 
by congress to ro- 
present the United 
States at the Inter- 
national Monetary 
conference held at Brussels, Belgium, in 1892. 
He was delegate at large from the state of Ken- 
tucky to the Democratic national convention held 
at Kansas city in 1900, and was chairman of the 
Democratic state campaign committee in that 
year. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from Centre college, Ky., in 1879. 

McCRGARY, Pitt L., educator, waa bom at 
Fairview, Erie county. Pa., April 8, 1851. He 
was graduated at Pennsylvania Stato college, 
B.S., 1871, and became a civil engineer in Erie. 
He surveyed and planned the Akron, Ohio, water- 
works, 1874-75 ; was landscape engineer at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, 1876 ; Willoughbj, Ohio, and Nash- 
ville, Tenn., 1877; and EvansviUe, Ind., 1878; 
teacher at the Evansville High school, 1879 ; 
professor of mathematics, Vincennes university, 
1880-62, and president of the university, 1882-86. 
He died at Vincennes, Ind., Jan. 27, 1880. 

McCREARY, Thamai CUy, senator, was bom 
near Owensboro, Ky., in 1817 ; son of Robert and 
Cynthia (Clay) McCreary. His mother was the 
daughter of Thomas Clay of Virginia, sixth in 
descent from the immigrant ancestor, John Clay, 
who came to that colonyin 1618, and from whom 
also Henry Clay, his second cousin, was descended 
in the same degree. He received a liberal educa- 
tion at Centre college, Ky., in the cIhsb of 1B37, 
but did not graduate ; studied law in Davieaa 
county, and was admitted to the bar in 1838. 
He practised law for a short time and then 
devoted himself to agricultural pursuits in his 
native county. He was married, in 184S, to Clara 
Hawea. He ia said to have been of " scholarly 
tastes, broadly read, and a speaker of force and 
eloquence." He was candidat« in 1853, on the 
Democratic ticket for elector for Pierce and 
King, and in 1860 for Breckinridge and Lane, 



Mcculloch 

but was defeated. With these exceptions he was 
never a candidate or held other office than that 
of U.S. senator. He was first elected U.S. sena- 
tor in 1868, to fill tlie unexpired term of James 
Quthrie, caking his scat Feb. 27, 1868, and served 
until March S, 1871. He was elected for a full ■ 
term in 1872, serving 1873-79. During his service 
as senator he Introduced a bill to restore the 
property at Arlington, Va., to the family of 
Robert E. Lee, which was defeated by a party 
vote. In his second term he was a member of 
the committees on foreign relations, Indian af- 
fairs, civil service and retrenchment. He died 
in Owensboro, Ky., July 10, 1890. 

Mcculloch, Benlanila, soldier, was bom in 
Rutherford county, Tenn., Nov. 11, 1811 ; son of 
Lieut. Alexander McCuUoch, an aide-de-oamp to 
Qdn. James Coffee. He worked on his father'a 
farm, was a raftsman on the river, and became 
an expect hunter and 
trapper. In 1835 he 
removed to Texas to 
aid that colony in 
its struggle for in 
dependence. He ar- 
rived at Nacogdoches 
too late to join Gen- 
eral Houston's army, 
and started alone for 
the Brazos river. 
After the faU of the 
Alamo he joined 
General Houston's 

army and was in y^, 1 ^ ^i 
charge of one of the '^^^**'^=^1?^*«^*>* ' 
"twin sisters " guns 

at the battle of San Jacinto which he used 
with such effect that he was promoted on the 
field, and his heroism formed the subject for a 
poem, "Ben McCulloch at San Jacinto." Be was 
engaged in recruiting a company in Tennessee 
until the close of the war, when be settled in 
Gonzales, engaged in exploration and surveying, 
and defended the frontier against Indian raids, 
taking part in the engagement at Plum Creek. 
He was a representative in the Texas congress in 
1839 ; and while in congress lie had a duel with 
Col. Reuben Davis, in which he received a severe 
wound in the shoulder. In 1840 he rendered 
notable service during the Indian raid as a 
scout and as commander of a company. He de- 
clined the nomination for representative in the 
Texas congress in 1842, and upon the annexation 
of Texas to the United States in 1845 he was a 
representative in the first state legislature and 
was appointed major-general of state militia for 
the western district. At the outbreak of the war 
with Mexico, in April. 1846, he organized a 
company of picked isoouta, and joined General 



Mcculloch 

Taylor after the battle of B^saca de la Palma, 
Alay 9. 1846. He was promoted quartermaster 
withtberankof major, July 16, 1846; participated 
in the battle of Honters; , Sept. 20-25, 1846, and 
with his soouts was sent forward one hundred 
miles into the enemy'ti country, and discovered 
the exact strength of Santa Anna's forces. At 
Buena VisU, Sept. 23-24, 1847, by his great bra- 
-very he won the recognition of the command- 
ing general and was placed on duty at Scott's 
headquarters. After resigning his staff posi- 
tion he organized a company of spies and per- 
formed valuable services at the taking of the 
«itj of Mexico. He returned to Texas after the 
close of the war and resumed his business of 
surveying. In 1840, upon the discovery of gold 
in California, he removed to Sacramento, and 
was elected sheriff of Sacramento county. He 
returned to Texas in 1853 ; was appointed U.S. 
marshal for the eastern district by President 
Fierce, and was retained by President Buchan- 
an. In 1857 be was appointed one of the com- 
missioners to adjust the Mormon troubles in 
Utah, and to report on the condition of Arizona. 
He refused the Domination of U.S. senator in 
lSa5, and at the outbreak of the civil war he was 
engaged on official duty at Washington. After 
the conclusion of his final reports he returned to 
Texas and offered his services to the Confederate 
cauao, and he was com missioned brigadier-gen- 
eral. May 14. 1861, and ordered to Fort Smith, 
Ark. He hastily organized an army and marched 
to the relief of Oovernor C. J. Jackson, and after 
forming a junction with Generals Sterling Price 
and N. B. Pearce. he assumed command of the 
combined forces and met and defeated the Fed- 
eral army under Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, at Wilson's 
Creek. Aug. 10, 1801. Having no orders to make 
Missouri a lighting ground, he refused to pursue 
and gave up the commaDd to General Price. He 
participated in the attempt made by General Van 
Dorn to surround the Federal army at Benton- 
ville. Ark., and succeeded in driving General 
Sigel from the town. McCullocb commanded a 
division composed of an infantry and cavalry 
brigade at the battle of Pea Ridge, March 7, 
1863, and while leading his troops in a furious at- 
tack against the division of Oen. P. J. Osterhaus, 
ne was mortally wounded and his command, de- 
prived of its commander, was beaten liack. He 
died near Elkhom Tavern, Ark., March 7, 1862. 

Mcculloch, Henry EusUce, soldier, was 
born in Rutherford county, Tenn., Dec. 6, 3816 ; 
,son of Lieut. Alexander MoCulloch, He engaged 
in rafting on the Mississippi, and at the out- 
break of the Florida war of 1886 he served as a 
volunteer. He removed to Texas in 1837 and 
engaged in land surveying. He was married, in 
1840, to Jane Isabella Asbby. He was appointed 



Mcculloch 

tax-collector for Gonzales county in 1840. H<; 
was elected ciptain of four different volunteer 
companies during the war with Mexico ; raised a 
company of rangers in 1850, of which he was 
eleoted captain, and engaged in several skirmishes 
with hostile Indians. He was mustered out of 
service, Nov. 4, 1851, and returned to Texas, 
where he engaged in farming and stock-raiBing, 
He was a representative in the state legislature, 
1853-55 ; state senator, 1855-58 : and U.S. mar- 
shal for the eastern district of Texas, 1850-61. 
He was appointed by the secession convention a 
colonel with authority to recruit a regiment of 
volunteers, with which he captured U.S. stores 
at Camp Colorado andat FortChadburn. He was 
commissioned colonel by President Davis, and 
raised a regiment of mounted men for the Con- 
federate army. He assumed command of tlie de- 
partment of Texas ; was elected colonel of tlie 
regiment be had raised and was sulieequently 
appointed brigadier-general. After the war he 
returned to Texas. He was superintendent of 
the state deaf and dumb asylum, 1876-79, and 
agent of the state land board, 1885-87. 

Mcculloch, Hugh, cabinet officer, was born 
iu Kennebunk, Maine, Dec. 7, 1808 ; son of Hugh 
and Abial (Perkins) McCullocli ; grandson of 
Adam and Louisa (Brown) McCulloch, and a de- 
scendant of Hugh McCuiloch. baillie of Dornoch, 
Sutherland shire, Scotland. Hit! fatlier was one 
of the largest ship- 
owners of New Eng- 
land, but sustained 
severe losses during 
the war of 1812-15. 
Adam McCuUoch, his 
grand fatlier, emi- 
grated from Scotland 
about 1766 and settled 
in Arundel, now Ken- 
nebunkport, Maine. 
Hugh attendedThorn- 
toD academy, Saco, 
Maine, and ma- 
triculated at Bow- 
doin college, class ' 
of 1820, but was 
obliged to leave on account of illness. He was a 
teacher, 1826-20 ; studied law in Kennebunk and 
Boston, and in 1833 removed to Fort Wayne, 
Ind., where he practised law. He was casliier 
of the Fort Wayne branch of the State Bank of 
Indiana, 1835-56. Wlien tlie institution was re- 
organized as the Bank of the State of Indiana in 
1856 he was eleoted president, serving till 1863, 
when Secretary Salmon P. Chase made him 
comptroller of the U.S. treasury. McCullocii 
stipulated in his acceptance that as soon as he 
had given the newly-enacted national bank law 



MC5CULL0CH 



McCULLOUGH 



a start, his resignation would be accepted. The 
work of reorganization was particularly difficult, 
as the large eastern banks distrusted the sjrstem 
and disliked to have their individuality absorbed 
in a national system. This objection was com- 
promised by allowing the banks to retain their 
former names, prefixing or adding the designa- 
tion *' national." In less than three years the 
national banking system was in full operation 
without disturbing the current business of the 
country. Upon the resignation of William P. 
Fessenden, Secretary Chase's successor, in March, 
1865, Mr. McCulloch was appointed by President 
Lincoln secretary of the treasury, and he was 
retained in President Johnson's cabinet. Secre- 
tary McCulloch raised the amount due 500,000 
discharged soldiers and sailors in less than six 
months, and also converted $1,000,000,000 of short- 
time obligations into a funded debt in less than 
two years. He was opposed to legal-tender notes 
and advocated the return to specie payments 
and a steady reduction of the national debt, and 
his views were sustained by congress. He re- 
signed the office, March 4, 1860, and in 1870 he 
established in London a bremch of the banking- 
house of Jay Cooke & Co. Upon the outbreak of 
the great panic of September, 1873, the Ameri- 
can firm failed. The London firm was carried 
through the panic and continued business for 
some time. He was a member of a syndicate 
organized in 1877 for the purpose of funding the 
debt of the southern states. During the admin- 
istration of President Arthur he declined a posi- 
tion on the tariff commission, but in 1884, upon 
the resignation of Walter Q. Qresham, he suc- 
ceeded him as secretary of the treasury, serving 
until 1885. He was the only secretary of the 
treasury to hold office under three Presidents. He 
supported the tariff reform policy of President 
Cleveland in 1888. He spent his last days in 
Washington and at his country seat in Mary- 
land. Bowdoin college conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of A.M. in 1863 and that of 
LL.D. in 1889. He is the author of a series of 
letters written in London for the New York 
Tribune (1875), and Men and Measures of Half a 
Century (1882). His widow, Susan McCulloch, 
daughter of Albon and Maria (Piatt) Man, was 
born in 1818, married in 1838, and died at Spar- 
kill, N.Y., July 25, 1898, at the residence of her 
daughter, Mrs. J. B. Yale. Secretary McCulloch 
died at his country home, near Washington, 
D.C., May 24, 1895. 

flcCULLOCHy Joseph Flavitts» educator, was 
born in Guilford county, N.C., June 24, 1856 ; 
son of Joseph and Sarah (Julian) McCulloch and 
grandson of Thomas and Rebecca (Dobson) Mc- 
Culloch, and of Robert and (Brower) 

Julian. He was graduated at Adrian college. 



Mich.. A.B.,1883, Ph. B., 1884, A.M., 1889; wa» 
instructor in Adrian college, 1883-84^ Hopkins, 
scholar at Johns Hopkins university, 1884-85; 
assistant professor of mathematics, Adrian col> 
lege, 1885-^7 ; instructor in mathematics, Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 1887-88 ; acting professor of 
psychology and logic, Adrian college, 1888-89 ^ 
fellow in mathematics, Clark university, Wor- 
cester, Mass., 1889-90 ; president of Adrian col- 
lege and professor of psychology, logic and his- 
tory of philosophy, 1890-93 ; pastor of the Meth- 
odist Protestant church, Fairmount, W. Va., 
1893-94, and in 1894 became editor and publisher 
of Our Church Record, Greensboro, N.C. He 
was married in 1883 to Mary Elizabeth Barrow, 
of Blissfield, Mich. He is the author of " Math- 
ematical Theorems with Demonstrations,*' in An- 
nals of Mathematics, University of Virginia. 
(1888). 

Mcculloch, PhlUp Doddridge, representa- 
tive, was bom in Murfreesboro, Tenn., June 23,. 
1851 ; son of Dr. Philip Doddridge and Lucy Vir- 
ginia (Burrus) McCulloch ; grandson of Benja- 
min and Sarah Ann (Lytle) McCulloch and of 
Lafayette and Eliza (Ready) Burrus, of Ruther- 
ford county, Tenn., and a descendant of Alexan- 
der McCulloch, who emigrated from Scotland to- 
the province of North Carolina sometime before* 
the Revolutionary war and settled near the old 
town of Halifax. He was councillor of the prov- 
ince and an ardent Whig during the Revolution- 
ary war. Philip D. ' McCulloch removed with 
his parents to Trenton, Tenn., in 1854, and at- 
tended Andrew college at that place. He was: 
admitted to the bar in August, 1872, and engaged 
in the practice of his profession. He removed to- 
Marianna, Ark., in February, 18 T4; was elected 
prosecuting attorney of the Ist judicial district 
of Arkansas in September, 1878, and was re- 
elected for three successive terms. He was a 
Democratic presidential elector in 1888 and was* 
a representative from Arkansas in the 53d-57th 
congresses, 1893-1903. 

McCULLOUQHy t11raiii» representative, was- 
bom in Cecil county, Md., Sept. 26, 1813 : son of 
Samuel and Mary (Hall) McCullough,and grand- 
son of Samuel and Mary MoCullough, who camo> 
from Scotland to New Castle, Del., in 1710. He 
attended Elkton academy, and was admitted' 
to the bar in 1838. He served in the state sen- 
ate, 1845-51, and was one of the codifiers of the* 
laws of Maryland during the winter of 1852-53. 
He was a Democratic representative from the* 
first Maryland district in the 39th and 40th con> 
gresses, 1865-69. He was a delegate to the Dem- 
ocratic national convention that met in New 
York, July 4, 1868 ; a representative in the Mary- 
land legislature for several terms, and speaker iiL 
1880. He died at Elkton, Md., Maroh 4, 1885. 



McCULLOUGH 



McCURDY 




gi^1lffb*M^ 



McCULLX>UaH, John Edward, actor, was 
bom in Ck>leraine, Ireland, Nov. 14, 18S2. His 
parents immigrated to the United States after 
John had spent his boyhood and early manhood 

on a small farm in 
Ireland, with no 
educational advan- 
tages. On locating in 
Philadelphia, Pa., he 
worked as a chair- 
maker. He became 
interested in the 
stage and played 
with an amateur com- 
pany, taking Othello 
as his initiatory part. 
He obtained an en- 
gagement at the 
Arch Street theatre in 
1855, taking a minor 
part in *'The Belle's 
Strategem." His success determined his profes- 
sion, and he played in different cities in the 
United States, 1855-66, where he attracted the 
attention of Edwin Forrest, and during 1866-68 
filled second parts to that actor. He undertook 
the management of the Bush Street theatre, San 
Francisco, in connection with Lawrence Barrett 
in 1869, and was fairly successful. Forrest con- 
sidered him as his legitimate successor, and left 
most of his manuscript plays in his possession, 
and in 1873 he began to take Forrest's rdles in 
•* Brutus," " Jack Cade," ** The Gladiator," ** Vir- 
ginius," ** Damon and Pythias," and Shaksperian 
plays. He was not a great actor, lacking education 
and originality, and creating no new characters, 
but was the best imitator of Forrest on the Ameri- 
can stage. In 1881 he made a tour of England, 
where he was not successful. In 1884 he began 
to decline, and the end came in a performance of 
*' The Gladiator," in Chicago, where he collapsed 
and was placed in a lunatic asylum. He died in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 8, 1885. 

McCULLOUQH, John Griffith, capitalist, was 
bom in Newark, Del., Sept. 16, 1835 ; son of 
Alexander and Rebecca (Griffith) McCuUough 
and grandson of John Griffith. He was grad- 
uated from Delaware college, A.B., 1855, A.M., 
1858, and from the University of Pennsylvania, 
LL.B., 1858. He was admitted to the bar in 1859, 
removed to California the same year and prac- 
tised law in Sacramento, and soon after in Mari- 
posa. In 1861 he supported Gen. E. V. Sumner in 
preventing the secession of California. He was a 
Republican representative in the state assembly, 
1863 ; state senator, 1863, and attorney-general of 
the state, 1864-67. He practised in San Fran- 
cisco, 1867-73, when he removed to Vermont and 
settled at North Bennington. He became exten- 



sively interested in railroad enterprises; was 
vice-president of the Panama railroad company, 
1874-82 ; president, 1882-88 ; was elected presi- 
dent of the Bennington and Rutland railroad 
company in 1882 ; president of the Chicago and 
Erie railroad company in 1890, and a director in 
the Erie and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6 
railroad companies. He was also president of the 
First National bank of North Bennington ; a 
director in the New York Security and Trust 
company the Bank of New York, the National 
Life Insurance company of Vermont, the Fidel- 
ity and Casualty Insurance company of New 
York, and other industrial, charitable and liter- 
ary corporations. The honorary degree of LL.D. 
was conferred on him by Middlebury college, 
Vermont, in 1900. He was married, Aug. 30, 
1871, to Eliza Hall Park, granddaughter of Gov. 
Hiland Hall, and their son Hall Park Mc- 
CuUough, became a lawyer in New York city. 

McCUMBER, Porter James, senator, was bom 
in Crete, 111., Feb. 3, 1858 ; son of Or lin and Anna 
Elvira (Fuller) McCumber, and grandson of Ben- 
jamin and Sally McCumber, and of Zaccheus and 
Eliza (Durham) Fuller. He was brought up on 
a farm ; attended the district schools and subse- 
quently the city schools, and was graduated from 
the law department of the University of Michigan 
in 1880. 'He removed to Wahpeton, Richland 
county, Dakota Territory, in 1881, and commenced 
the practice of his profession. He was a repre- 
sentative in the territorial legislature in 1885 and 
1887, and took part in the long controversy that 
led to the formation of the states of North and 
South Dakota, Nov. 2, 1889. He was attorney- 
general, 1887-88, was married in 1889 to Jennie 
Shoming and was elected to the U.S. senate, 
Jan. 26, 1899, by the Republican legislature, for 
the term expiring March 3, 1905. 

McCURDY, Charles Johnson* jurist, was born 
in Lyme, Conn., Dec. 7, 1797. He was graduated 
from Yale in 1817, and was admitt^ to the bar 
at New London, Conn. , in 1819. He was a repre- 
sentative in the Connecticut legislature, 1827-29, 
1833-^, 1838, 1840-41 and 1844, and speaker for 
three sessions. He was a state senator in 1832, 
and was lieutenant-governor of Connecticut, 
1847-48. He was appointed U.S. charg^ d'affaires 
to Austria by President Fillmore in 1850 and was 
succeeded by F. M. Foote in 1852. He resumed 
practice in New London in that year ; and was 
judge of the superior court of Connecticut, 1856- 
63 ; an active member of the peace conference at 
Washington, in February, 1861, and a judge of 
the supreme court, 1863-67. He was the author 
of the law in Connecticut allowing principals in 
criminal suits to testify in their own behalf. He 
was the last survivor of his college class and the 
oldest living Yale graduate in 1890. He received 



McCURDY 



McDANIEL 



the degree LL.D. from Yale in 1868 and was a 
lecturer there on life insurance, 1878-75. He 
died in Lyme, Conn., June 8, 1891. 

McCURDY, Charles William, educator, was 
born in Ossian, N.Y., Nov. 26, 1856 ; son of David 
and Lydia (Lemen) McCurdy, and grandson of 
James D. and Jane (McNair) McCurdy, both of 
Scotch descent. His paternal great grandfather 
emigrated from county Antrim, Ireland, in 
1758 and settled in Pennsylvania. Charles was 
prepared for college at the state normal school at 
Greneseo, N.Y., and was graduated from the 
Michigan State college, B.S. 1881, M.S. 1885. He 
was a graduate student at the University of 
Wisconsin and at the University of Wooster. 
He was assistant superintendent at the Michi- 
gan school for the blind, 1882-88; superintend- 
ent of schools at Sand Beach, Mich., 1884-88; 
head of the science department at the Winona, 
Minn., high school, 1888-98; professor of chem- 
istry and chief chemist of the experiment station 
at the University of Idaho, 1893-1900; acting 
president of the university and director of ex- 
periment station from August to November, 
1898, and special agent on the sugar beet inves- 
tigation for the CJ.S. government in Idaho, 1898 
and 1899. He was elected a member of the Amer- 
ican Chemical society in 1893 ; of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science in 
1886 and fellow of the latter in 1895. He was 
married, August 16, 1898, to Eva Augusta Wood- 
ruff. The honorary degree of Sc. D. was conferred 
on him by Milton college in 1892 and the post 
graduate degree of Ph.D. in chemistry by the 
University of Wooster in 1895. He is the author 
of numerous reports, bulletins and lectures on 
chemical and pedagogical subjects. 

McCURDY, Irwin Pounds, clergyman and 
educator, was bom near Livermore, Pa., March 
28, 1856 ; son of Alexander Jackson and Sarah 
(Pounds) McCurdy ; grandson of Alexander Hen- 
derson and Mary (Doty) McCurdy, and of Joseph 
and Mary (Drummond) Pound ; great-grandson 
of Sergeant Alexander McCurdy, who with his 
father, Captain William, and his grandfather, 
John McCurdy, were soldiers from Pennsylvania 
in the Revolutionary war, and whose great- 
grandfatlier, John McCurdy, came from Ireland 
and settled near Philadelphia in 1705 ; and a 
descendant of Gov. William Bradford, Ed- 
ward Doty and Henry Sampson, who came 
to America in the Mayflower in 1620. Irwin 
Pounds McCurdy studied law, was graduated 
from the State Normal college, Indiana, Pa., 
B.E., 1876, M.E., 1878 ; attended Wooster uni- 
versity one year, entered Lafayette college as a 
senior and was graduated A.B., 1880, A.M., 1883, 
Litt.D., 1890. He was a student at Princeton 
Theological seminary and a graduate student at 




'^'y. 



fnotmf (^*Mftd4 TfvifMfU^ 



the College of New Jersey, Princeton, 1880-82 ; 
and was also a graduate student at Johns Hop- 
kins university, 1882-83. He was ordained to 
the Presbyterian ministry, July 8, 1881 ; waa 
pastor at Frederick City, Md., and professor of 
Greek and higher 
mathematics at Fred- 
erick Female semi- 
nary, 1881-84 ; pastor 
of the South-western 
church, Philadelphia, 
1884-95 ; and in 1895 
was made honorary 
pastor of the latter 
for life. He became 
pastor of the Fifth 
church, Kansas City, 
Mo., in 1897, and 
resigned in 1900, 
after w^iich he 
engaged in literary 
work at his coun- 
try seat, Harmony Grove^ Md. He was editor 
of the Southwestern Observer , 1885-87 ; of 
The Amendment, 1889 ; and of The Weekly Re- 
minder^ 1897-99 ; a delegate to the Pan Presby- 
terian council, London, 1888 ; financial secretary 
of Lafayette college, 1891-92 ; a member of the 
Presbyterian board of education, 1887-98 ; and 
president of the board of managers of the Phila- 
delphia Evangelical Alliance, 1889-94. He re- 
ceived the degrees D.D. from New Windsor col- 
lege, Md., 1882; Litt.D. from Hanover college, 
Ind., 1890; Ph.D. from Bellevue college, Neb.. 
1890 ; Sc.D. from the College of Science, Illi- 
nois, 1890; L.H.D. from Mary vi lie college, 
Tenn., 1891 ; H.L.D. from Lenox college, Iowa, 
1891 ; Philol.D. from Grove City college. Pa., 
1891 ; and LL.D. from Rutherford college, N.C., 
1898. All these degrees, except D.D. and LL.D., 
were conferred on examination. He is the 
author of: A Philological Discussion of the 
Works, Style and Language of Edgar Allan Poe ' 
a prize essay (1880) ; The Successful Teacher (1881); 
Sonera Trinitas (1881); Charier and Constitutions 
(1886); Evangelistic Work (1888); Centennial 
Hymns (1888) ; Lovely Lafayette and other Poems 
(1889); The Saxon and Norman Elements in our 
Language and Literature (1890); The Causes of 
the Intellectual Development of the Elizabethan 
Age (1890); Christmas Carols and New Year 
Hymns (1892); Our Country* s Olory and other 
Patriot Poems (1901). 

McDANIEL, Henry DIckerson, governor of 
Georgia, was born in Monroe, Walton county, 
Ga., Sept. 4, 1837; son of Ira O. and Rebecca 
(Walker) McDaniel ; grandson of Philip and 
Nancy Bible (Terry) McDaniel, and of Daniel 
and Martha (Holliday) Walker, all of Georgia ; 



McDEARMON 



McDILL 




^l£u4^^^T^i^-^^ 



and a descendant of Henry McDaniel of Amherst 
county, Virginia, and of Henry Terry and John 
Baldwin, both of Prince Edward county, Va. ; 
and on the maternal side of John H. Walker and 
of John Holliday, both of Georgia. He was grad- 
uated from Mercer 
university, A.B., 

1856, A.M., 1859, was 
admitted to the bar 
in La Grange in 

1857, and practised 
in Monroe, 1857-61. 
He was a member 
of the secession con- 
vention in 1861, and 
voted against the re- 
solution to secede, 
but voted for and 
signed the formal 
ordinance. He served 
in the Confederate 
army throughout the 

civil war, 1861-65, and attained the rank of 
major. He commanded Anderson's brigade on 
the third day at Gettysburg, and participated in 
the retreat through Maryland. When in command 
of his regiment, the 11th Georgia, he was severely 
wounded and was a prisoner of war for about five 
months in hospitals in Maryland and Pennsylva- 
nia and afterward at Johnson's Island. He re- 
turned to Monroe and resumed his law practice. 
He was married, Dec. 20, 1865, to Hester, daugh- 
ter of Stephen Felker of Georgia. He was a mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention of 1865 ; a 
representative in the state legislature, 1872-74 ; a 
state senator, 1874-82, and was elected governor 
of the state in April, 1883, to fill the unexpired 
term of Alexander H. Stephens, deceased. He 
was re-elected in October, 1874, and served till 
Nov. 10, 1886. He was elected a trustee of the 
University of Georgia in 1885, and chairman of 
the board of trustees in 1899. He also served as 
trustee of the Southern Baptist Theological semi- 
nary, 1883-90. He was elected in 1878 a director 
in the Georgia Railroad and Banking company 
and also became a director in three cotton mill 
companies and one cotton seed oil mill company 
in Walton county, (Georgia. 

McDEARMON, James Calvio, representative, 
was bom at New Canton, Va., June 13, 1844 ; son 
of James Archibald and Elizabeth (Hopkins) Mil- 
ler McDearmon ; grandson of Joseph and Sarah 
(Gill)McDearmon of Powhatan, Va., and of Wil- 
liam and Massey Hopkins of Goochland county. 
He removed with his parents to Gibson county, 
Tenn., in 1846, and was a student at Andrew col- 
lege, Trenton, Tenn., 1858-61. He joined the 
Confederate army as a private in the 12th Ten- 
nessee infantry regiment, Cheatham's division, 



Army of the Tennessee, in April, 1862; was 
wounded at Murfreesboro and at Franklin, and 
surrendered with Johnston's army, April 26, 1865. 
He was married, Deo. 4, 1867, to Theodora^ 
daughter of M. T. MoCuUoch of Hay ward coimty> 
Tenn. He was admitted to the bar in 1867 and 
practised in Trenton , Tenn . He was a Dem ocratic 
representative from the ninth congressional dis- 
trict of Tennessee in the 58d and 54th congresses, 
1893-97. 

McDILL, Alexander Stuart, representative, 
was born in Crawford county. Pa., March 18, 1822. 
He attended Allegheny college ; was graduated 
from the Cleveland Medical college, M.D., 1848» 
and practiced medicine in Crawford county, 
1848-56. He removed to Glover, Wis., in 1856; 
was a Republican representative in the state 
legislature, 1862; state senator, 1863-64, and a 
presidential elector from the 6th district in 1864. 
He was a member of the board of managers of 
the Wisconsin hospital for the insane, 1862-68, and 
superintendent of the hospital, 1868-72. He was 
a representative from the eighth district in the 
43d congress, 1873-75, was defeated for re-election 
in 1874 and upon the expiration of his term of 
office resumed charge of the state hospital. He 
died at Mendota, Wis., Nov. 12, 1875. 

McDILL, David, educator, was born near Morn- 
ing Sun, Preble county, Ohio, Aug. 10, 1826 ; son 
of Hugh and Grizella (Brown) McDill ; grandson 
of David and Isabella (McQuiston) McDill and of 
James and Elizabeth (Beggs) Brown, and great- 
grandson of Thomas McDill and of John Beggs, 
both of whom came from the north of Ireland to 
South Carolina before the Revolutionary war. 
His parents removed from South Carolina to Ohio, 
where David attended Miami university, 1845-48^ 
was graduated at Centre college, Ky., A.B., 1849^ 
A.M., 1856, and studied theology at Oxford, 
Ohio. He was married, Sept. 21, 1853, to Martha 
E. Gordon of Xenia, Ohio. He was pastor of the 
United Presbyterian church. Cherry Fork, Ohio, 
1853-76 ; professor of philosophy, Monmouth col- 
lege, 1876-85, and in 1885 was made professor of 
apologetics at Xenia Theological seminary. He 
received the honorary degree of D.D. from Mon- 
mouth college, Ohio, 1873, and that of LL.D. from 
Centre college, 1892. He is the author of : Tht Bi- 
ble a Miracle (1872); The Higher Critics (18ttl); 
The Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch (1896); 
PremiUermialism Discussed (1897) ; Common Sense 
and Logic Applied to Darwinism and Teleology 
(1899). 

McDILL, James Wilson, senator, was bom in 
Monroe, Ohio, March 4, 1834, son of the Rev. John 
McDill (1806-1840; Miami, 1829), pastor of the 
United Presbyterian church, South Hanover, Ind., 
1835-38 ; and<^ descendant of Thomas MacDill, a 
Scotchman who came to America from the north 



HcDONALD 

of Ireland and settled in Bouth Carolina before 
the BavolutioD. James was graduated from 
Hiami university, A.B.. 1858, A.M., 1656; taught 
echool, IB0&~54 ; waaadmitted tothebarat Akron, 
Ohio, in 1856, and practised in Afton, Iowa, 1837- 
58. He was elected count j judge of Union coun- 
ty, Iowa, in 1B58 ; superintendent of county 
achoolsin 1860 ; was secretary of the U.S. senate 
committee on the District of Columbia, 1861-63 ; 
clerk in the treaaorj department, 1863-65 ; circuit 
judge of Union county, 1868-70 ; district Judge, 
1870-73 : a Republican representative in the 48d 
and Uth congreaaea, 1873-77 ; commissioner of rail- 
roads in Iowa, 1870-81, and in 1681 he was ap- 
pointed U.S. senator by Governor Gear to fill 
the Tacancy caused by the reeignation of Samuel 
J. Eirkwood, and was elected by the succeed- 
ing legislature, serving to March S, 1B83. He was 
state commissioner of railroads, 1883-86, and a 
member of the interatatie commerce commission, 
18fla-M. He died in Creeton, Iowa, Feb. 28, I8W. 
McDonald, Chariea JoiDM, governor of 
Georgia, was bom in Charleston, S.C, July 9, 
1798. He removed with his parents to Hancock 
county, Ga., where he attended the school kept 
by Dr. N. S. S. Beman (q.v.). He was graduated 
from South Carolina 
college in 1816 ; 
studied law under 
Noel Crawford, and 
began the practice 
of law in Milledge- 
TiUe,Ga.,inl817. He 
was solicitor-general 
of the Flint circuit, 
t822-M ; judge of the 
circuitcourt, 1835-30; 
arepresentative in 
tlie state legislature, 
18B0-34; state sena- 
tor, 1834-39, and gov- 

two terms, 1839-43. 
He outlined a policy that lessened the financial 
distress inoideut to the panic of 1837 ; recom- 
mended a resumption of the state and county 
taxes; vetoed the bill reducing the taxes one per 
cent., and when tlie legislature was about to ad- 
journ after rejecting a bill to add twenty-five per 
cant, to the tax budget and kaving $110,000 of 
expenses unprovided for, be closed the state 
treasury to all warrants except those for appro- 
priations actually made and he held his ground 
until Che tax bill was passed. He was de- 
feated for re-election in 1850 by Howell Cobb ; 
was a delegate to the States' Rights convention at 
Nashville in 1850 and was judge of the supreme 
court of Georgia, 1897-60. He died in Marietta, 
Ga., Dec. 16, 1860. 



MacDONALD 

Mcdonald. Dulel, educator, was bom at 
Watertown, Conn., June 28, 1785 ; son of James 
and Huldey (Foot) McDonald ; grandson of 
Daniel and Sarah (Boetwick) McDonald and 
great-grandson of Louis McDonald, who was bom 
at Inverness, Scotland, in 1708, and came to 
America, where he became colonel of the colonial 
militiaof New York. Daniel McDonald attended 
the academy of Cheshire, Conn., where hewasan 
assistant teacher, 1808-13. and was for a time a 
student at Hiddlebury college, Vt. He took 
orders in the Prot«8tant Episcopal church in ISIO 
and waa rector of St. Peter's, Auburn, N. Y., 
1818-17 ; of St. Paul's, Waterloo, N.Y"., 1823-26; 
principal of the academy and theological school 
at Fairfield, N.Y., 1817-21 ; principal of Geneva 
academy and professor of Latin and Greek lan- 
guage and antiquities at Geneva (afterward 
Hobart}college, 1821-80, acting president 1825-26, 
and professor in the General Tlieological semin- 
ary (Geneva branch), 1823-25. He was married, 
first, Oct. 9, 1807, to Percy Talmage of Cheshire, 
Conn., and secondly, Oct. 11, 1811, to her sister 
Phebe Talmage. He was president of the 
Christian Knowledge society, New York. Colum- 
bia conferred upon him the degree S.T.D. in 
1821. He died in Geneva, N.Y., March 25, 1830. 

McDonald, David, jurist, was bom near 
Millersburg, Ky., 1803. His parents removed to 
near Washington, Daviess county, Ind., in 1817, 
and he received a very limited education at the 
school of the Rev. Cyrus Mclntire. He became 
a " New Light "preacher in 1820, was married in 
1838 to Mary R. Miller of Lawrence county, 111., 
and in 1830 left the ministry to engage in the 
practise of the law, and incidentally in teaching 
school. He was a representative in the Indiana 
legislature, 1834 ; prosecuting attorney for the 
7tli judicial district, 1834-38 ; circuit judge, 
1838-53 ; professor of law in Indiana university, 
1841-.')3; and was the defeated Whig candidate 
for judge of the supreme court in 1852, although 
recovering 5000 more votes that any other candi- 
didate on the ticket. He practised law in In- 
dianapolis, 1863-64; became a member of the 
M.E. church in 1854 ; and declined the presidency 
of Indiana Ashury university and the honorary 
degree of LL.D., offered by the Indiana uni- 
versity in 1856, on the ground that he had not re- 
ceived a collegiate education. He was judge of 
the U.S. district court for Indiana, 1864-68. He 
was the author of : IfcDonaM's Treatise, and of 
opinions in " Bissell's Reports of the U.S. Courts 
for the Seventh Circuit." He died in Indiana- 
polis, Ind., Aug. 26, 1860. 

MocDONALD, Junes fUdUon, clergyman, 
was born in Limerick, Maine, May 23, 1812 ; eon 
of Haj. John HacDonald, an officer of the war of 
1B13. He matriculated at Bowdoin in the class 



MacDONALD 



McDonnell 



of 1882 and was graduated from Union college, 
N.T., 1832, and from Yale Theological seminary 
in 1885. He was pastor of Congregational 
churches at Berlin and New London, Conn., 1835- 
40; at Jamaica. N.Y., 1841-50; in New York 
city, 1850-53 and at Princeton, N. J., 1853-76. 
The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on 
him by Union in 1854. He lectured on homiletics 
in Boston university in 1874. He is the author of : 
Credvdity as Illustrated by Successful Impostures 
in Science, Superstition and Fanaticism (1848); 
A Key to the Book of Revelation (1846); History 
of the Presbyterian Church of Jamaica^ Long 
Island (IS47); My Father's House {IS^o); Book of 
Ecdesiastes Explained (1856): Life and Writings 
of St. John, published posthumously (1879). He 
died in Princeton, N.J., April 19, 1876. 

MacDONALDy John Louis, representative, was 
born in Glasgow, Scotland, Feb. 22, 1838 ; son of 
Dr. John and Margery (McKinley) Macdonald. 
He came with his parents to the United States in 
1847, and settled in Pittsburg, Pa. In 1855 he re- 
moved with his parents to St. Paul, Minn., and 
thence to Belle Plaine, Scott county, Minn. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1859 ; was judge of 
the probate court of Scott county, 1860-61, and 
also county superintendent of schools and prose- 
cuting attorney for that county. He was mar- 
ried, June 22, 1861, to Mary, daughter of P. Hen- 
nessy of Belle Plaine, Minn. He edited the Belle 
Plaine Enquirer, 1860-61 ; and removed to Shako- 
pee, Minn., in 1861, where he established the Argus 
and edited and published it until 1862. During 
the civil war he was commissioned to enlist and 
muster in volunteers for the Federal army. He 
was prosecuting attorney of Scott county, 1863-64 ; 
representative in the state legislature, 1869-70, 
and a state senator in 1871 and 1873-77. He was 
the Democratic candidate for attorney-general, 
1872 ; and judge of the eighth judicial district of 
Minnesota, 1876-86. He resigned in 1886 and re- 
presented the third Minnesota district in the 50th 
congress, 1887-89. He practised law in St. Paul, 
Minn., 1889-97, and then removed to Kansas City, 
Mo., where he continued to practice law. 

McDonald, Joseph Bwing« senator, was 
bom in Butler county, Ohio, Aug. 29, 1819. His 
father died in 1820 and he received his early train- 
ing from his mother, who removed to Indiana in 
1826. He was an apprentice to a saddler, 1881-37 ; 
a student in Wabash college, Crawfordsville, Ind., 
1888-39 ; taught school and attended Asbury uni- 
versity, 1840-42, and studied Uw, 1842-44. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1848 and practised in 
Crawfordsville, 1843-59, serving as prosecuting 
attorney for the county, 1844-47 ; representative 
in the 81st congress, 1849-57, and attorney-gen- 
eral, 1856-60. He removed to Indianapolis in 
1859. where he continued the practice of his pro- 



fession ; was the unsuccessful candidate for gov- 
ernor of the state against Oliver P. Morton in 
1864 ; chairman of the Democratic state conven- 
tion, 1872-76, and U.S. senator, 1875-81. He was 
a member of the select committee appointed to 
visit Louisiana in 1877, and he made the principal 
argument before the electoral commission in op- 
position to the count of the electoral vote as re- 
turned. He was a member of the committee on 
the judiciary and supported hard money and a 
protective tariff. At the close of his senatorial 
term he resumed the practice of law in Indianap- 
olis, Ind., where he died, June 21, 1891. 

McDON ALD» Moses* representative, was bom 
in Limerick, Maine, April 8, 1814 ; son of Maj. 
John McDonald, an officer of the war of 1812. 
He matriculated at Bowdoin college in the class 
of 1834, but did not graduate ; was admitted to 
the bar in 1887, and practised in Biddeford, Maine, 
1837-^51 ; at Portland, Maine, 1851-61, and at Saco, 
Maine, 1861-69. He was a representative in the 
state legislature, 1841-45 ; was speaker in 1845 ; 
state treasurer, 1847-49 ; was a Democratic rep- 
resentative in the 82d and 38d congresses, 1851- 
55, and collector of customs at Portland, 1857-61. 
He died in Saco, Maine, Oct. 18, 1869. 

MacDONALD* Wllllaiii, educator, was born in 
Providence, R.I., July 81, 1863 ; son of William 
and Frances (Jordan) MacDonald. Ho attended 
the Newton, Mass., high school ; was graduated 
from the New England Conservatory of Music, 
Boston, Mass., 1884, and was dean of the depart- 
ment of music at the University of Kansas, 1884- 
90. He was married, Nov. 24, 1887, to Harriet 
Bliss Haskell, of Lawrence, Kan. He was grad- 
uated from Harvard, A.B., 1892 ; was professor of 
history and economics at Worcester, Mass., Poly- 
technic Institute, 1892-98 ; professor of history and 
political science at Bowdoin college, 1893^1901, and 
in September, 1901, became prof essor of history in 
Brown university. He was elected a member 
of the American Historical association ; the Maine 
Historical society ; the Kansas Historical society ; 
the National Qeographic society, and president 
of the Pejepscot Historical society, Brunswick, 
Maine. He is the author of: Select Documents 
Illustrative of the History of the United States, 
1776-1861 (1898); Select Charters and other Docu- 
ments Illustrative of American History, 1606-1776 
(1899); edited "Johnson's High School History 
of the United States" (1901), and contributed 
numerous articles to periodicals. 

McDonnell, Charles Edward, R.C. bishop, 
was born in New York city, Feb. 1, 1854. He 
studied under the Christian Brothers and the 
Jesuits, and was graduated at the College of St. 
Francis Xavier in 1872. Having been accepted 
by Cardinal McCloskey for the archdiocese of 
New York, he went to Rome in 1872 and was 



McDONNOLD 

graduated from the American college, D.D., in 
ISTS. He was ordained priest b; BUhop Chatard 
of Indiana, at the American collie in Rome, 
May 19, 1878 ; was assistant at St. Mary's church. 
New York city, 1878-T9 ; St. Stephen's in 18T9, 
and in May, 1879, he was appointed by Cardinal 
McCLoskey master of ceremonies at St. Patrick's 
cathedral, New York city. He was appointed 
secretary to Cardinal McCloakey in 18S4, and un- 
der Archbishop Corrigan he filled the additional 
office of chancellor. He went to Rome and in 
June, 1690, was appointed by Pope Leo XIII. one 
of bis private chaniberLains with the title of very 
reverend monsignor. He was appointed spiritual 
director of tlie Catholic club. New York city, in 
October, 1890 ; was elected bishop of Brooklyn in 
1893, as successor to Bishop Loughlin, deceased, 
and was consecrated in St. Patrick's cathedral, 
April 25, 1893, by Archbishop Corrigan, assisted 
by Bishops McQuaid and Chatard. 

McDONNOLD, Ben]uiila Wilbuni, educator, 
was born in Overton county, Tenn., March 37, 
1837 ; son of Thomas K. and Martha (Bates) Mc- 
Oonnotd and grandson of John McDonnold, who 
came from county Ubter, Ireland, in 1790, and 



settled in North Carolina, and of Henderson and 
Sally (Oentry) Bates. He was graduated at 
Cumberland college, Princeton, Ky., in 1849. He 
was an instructor in Bethel college, Teon,, 1849- 
51 ; was ordained to the ministry, and served as 
pastor of the Cumberland Presbyterian cliurch at 
Philadelphia, Pa., 18SI-52. He was married, July 
23, 1853, to Albiua, daughter of Thomas G. and 
Nancy (Dyer) Watkins. He engaged in teaching 
iu Bethel college, 1854-59 ; travelled for the pur- 
pose of increasing the endowment fund of Cum- 
berland university, 1859-60, and was pastor of the 
church at Lebanon, 1800-63. He served as chap- 
Iain in the Confederate army, 1863-65, and was 
again pastor of the church at Lebanon, 1860-07. 
He was professor of mathematics at Cumberland 
university, 1865-fi7 ; professor of be 1 lea-let trea 
and mental and moral science there, 1867-73, and 
president of the university, 1866-73. He travelled 
as an evangelist throughout Ihe bounds of the 



MACDONOUGH 

Cumberland Presbyterian church, 1873-75, and 
preached in nearly all the soutliern stat«s and in 
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, luwa, MJasoun 
and California. He was a member of the Amer- 
ican Bible society, and received the honorary de- 
grees of D,D. and LL.D, He contributed to vari- 
ous periodicals, and is the author of the History 
of the Cumberland Preabylerian Church (1888). 
He died in Lebanon, Tenn., Feb. 37, 1889. 

McDONOOH, John, pliilanthropist, was bom 
in Baltimore. Md., Dec. 39, 1779 ; son of John and 
Elizabeth (Wilkins) McDonogh. His father, a 
native of York county. Pa., served under General 
Braddock in his unfortunate expedition of 1775, 
and under Washington in the Revolutionary war, 
after which he removed to Baltimore and engaged 
in the manufacture of bricks. John was em- 
ployed in the mercantile house of William Taylor, 
where he attained a high position. He went to 
New Orleans in 1800 as Mr. Taylor's representa- 
tive, and in 1801 formed a partnership with W. 
O. Payne which continued until 1802, when the 
financial depression of the year caused the disso- 
lution of the partnership and the forming of new 
ones under the name of J. HcDonogh. Jr., and 
Sheppard, Brown 3c Co. In 1803tbesaleof Louis- 
iana brought great wealth to HcDonogh, and he 
purchased large tracts of land in Florida and 
Louisiana. He resided in New Orleans. 1803-17, 
entertaining lavishly, but in 1817 he suddenly re- 
moved to one of his plantations, now McDonogh- 
Tille, where he lived in simple style and devoted 
himself to the education of his slaves, devising a 
scheme by which they became Liberian colonists. 
His bequests included $100,000 for the orphan 
asylum of New Orleans, $100,000 to the coloniza- 
tion society, and $1,500,000 to be divided between 
Baltimore and New Orleans for the education of 
poor boys. The portion that fell to New Orleans 
was used to erect free schools, and in 1899 thirty 
hod been established ; and Baltimore's share was 
used to establish a farm-school for boys and 
youths. McDonogh institute was founded at Mc- 
Donogh, Md., in 1873. A monument to his mem- 
ory, the work of Attilio Picirili of New York, 
was unveiled in Lafayette square. New Orleans, 
in 1898, the gift of the school chilJren of the city. 
He died in McDonogh vi lie, La., Oct. SQ, 1850. 

MACDONOUaH, Thomas, naval ofiicer, was 
born in New Castle. Del., Dec. 33. 1783; son of 
Dr. Thomas Maodonough, an eminent physician. 
He entered the U.S. navy as midshipman in 1800 
and was attached to the frigate Philadelphia in 
August, 1803, when she captured the Moorish 
frigate Meshoda off Cape de Oatt. He was left at 
Gibraltar with the prize, thus escaping the long 
imprisonment suffered by the oflicers r.nd crew of 
the Philadelphia. He served onboard the Enter- 
prise under Commodore Decatur, and in the attac!: 



MACDONOUGH 

on Tripoli in I8D4; and was a member of the 
party that re-captured and burned the Philadel- 
phia, Feb. 16, 1804. He was promoted lieutenant 
in 1807 ; master commandant in 1813, and was 
appointed to the command of the naval forces in 
Flattsbutg bay. Lake 
Champlain, OnSun- 
day, Sept. 11, 1814, 
the British fleet, 
under Commodore 
Thomas Downie, 

sailed up the lake and 
took position op- 
posite Commodore 
Hacdonough's fleet, 
which at once opened 
fire, Maodonough, 
with his own hand, 
firing the first heavy 
^^ . shot from his flag- 

y^/i% i»*.airrut^^ ahip, the Saratoga, 

across the bow of the 
British flagship. The fire was not returned by 
Downie until the Confidence had anchored 800 
yards from the Saratoga, when the broadside 
came from guns double shotted and aimed directly 
at the portholes of the Saratoga. It did fearful 
damage and half the men on deck fell. This led 
to a general engagement, and a. shot from the 
Saratoga killed Commodore Downie. The entire 
exposed battery of the Saratoga was disabled, 
and the British brig Linnet gained a position that 
enabled her to rake the Saratoga. This position 
obliged Commodore Mscdonough to wind his 
ship, an emergency that he bad provided for by 
kedging, and to the astonishment of the British 
fleet the Saratoga swung around until her bow 
pointed to the south, which brought her port 
broadside into play. The Confidence, in her at- 
tempt to execute the same mancsun-e, was 
caught when half warped, and thus exposed to 
the Saratoga's fire was obliged to strike her 
colers. The action lasted for two hours and 
twenty minutes without intermission, the oppos- 
ing forces being equally matched in numbers of 
men and weight of metal. Commodore Mao- 
donough served his favorite gun throughout the 
engagement and was injured by the falling of a 
apar. The British loss was 300 ofBcers and men 
and the American 112, killed and wounded. This 
victory saved New York from invasion and once 
more turned the fortunes of war in favor of the 
United States. For his services in this engage- 
ment Hacdonough was promoted captain and re- 
ceived a gold medal from congress and civic 
honors from various towns and cities. The state 
of Vermont presented him with an estate at 
Cumberland Head overlooking tb-^ scene of the 
engagement. He was subsequently in command 



Mac DOUG ALL 

of the Mediterranean squadron, and be died on 
board a trading ship which hod been sent by the 
U.S. government to bring him home. His wife, 
a Miss Shaler, died in the spring of 1825. The 
date of his death is Nov. 16, 1825. 

JHACDOUGALL, Alexander, soldier, wasbom 
on the island of Islay, Scotland ; son of Richard 
Macdougall, who immigrated to New York in 
1755 and engaged in dairy farming on Manhattan 
island. Alexander worked on the farm for a 
short time, went to sea, and was engaged in the 
French and Indian war 1750-^ as commander of 
the privateers Barrington and Kger. After the 
war he settled in New Yoik city and engaged in 
mercantile business. In ITTO he issued an ad- 
dress entitled " A Son of Liberty to theBetrayed 
Inhabitants of the Colony," for which he was ar- 
rested as "an infamous and seditious libeller" 
and imprisoned for twenty-three weeks, the first 
of the patriots so treated. He presided at a meet- 
ing of the revolutionists who assembled July 6, 
1774, " in the fields" adjoining the city of New 
York preparatory to the election of delegates to 
the first Continental congress, and it was here 
that Alexander Hamilton made his first public 
oration. Macdougall was appointed colonel of 
the Ist New York regiment, June 30, 1T76 ; brig- 
adier-general, Aug. Q, 1776, and major-general, 
Oct. 
He 



Flail 
in 1 
atP 
N.Y 

1777 

he retreated before a superior force of Brit- 
ish under General Howe, He also participated 
in the battles of White Marsh and German- 
town, Pa. He was a delegate to the Continental 
congress, 1780-82 and 1784-65; was elected 
minister of marine, but resigned from congress 
in 1785 to resume his duties in the army. He 
was a member of the state senate, 1782-86, and 
first president of the State Society of the Cincin- 
nati. He died in New York city, June 8, 1780. 

MacDOUQALL. Cbarlea, sui^^n, was born 
in Ross county, Ohio, about 1807. He practised 
medicine in Indiana, and in 1882 was appointed 
assistant surgeon and served with the mounted 
rangers in the Black Hawk war in 1833. He was 
promoted major and surgeon, July 7, 1838 ; served 
in the Florida war with the Seminole Indians in 
1841 : was at the U.S. Military academy, 1846-48 ; 
and served on frontier duty in the west, 1848-61. 
At the breaking out of the civil war he was 
appointed medical director of the Army of the 



MacDOUGALL 



Mcdowell 



Tennessee and served till September, 1863, when 
he was ordered to take charge of the medical 
directors' office, New York city. He was bre- 
vetted colonel, Nov. 29, 1864, and brigadier-general 
March 13, 1865, for faithful and meritorious serv- 
ices during the war. He was promoted lieuten- 
ant-colonel and assistant medical purveyor, July 
28, 1866, and was retired Feb. 22, 1869. He died 
in Fairfield, Clark county, Va., July 25, 1885. 

MacDOUOALL, Clinton Dugald* representa- 
tive, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, June 14, 
1839 ; son of Dugald and Margaret (MacKendrick) 
MacDougall ; grandson of Dugald MacDougall, and 
a descendant of MacDougall of Lome. He immi- 
grated with his parents to the United States in 
1842. He was graduated from Jordan academy 
in 1853, studied law and engaged in the banking 
business in Auburn, N.Y., 1856-70. In 1861 he 
raised a company attached to the 75th New York 
volunteer regiment, was commissioned captain, 
and accompanied the regiment to Florida. He 
was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 111th 
New York volunteers in August, 1862, and colonel 
in January, 1868. He commanded his regiment in 
the 3d brigade, 3d division, 2d army corps in the 
Army of the Potomac at Grettysburg, July 1-3, 
1863, and finally the brigade after Willard and 
Sherrill were killed, and he was wounded in the 
battle. At Cold Harbor he commanded the 3d bri- 
gade, 1st division, Hancock's corps, and in the 
advance on Petersburg and Richmond and at 
Appomattox he commanded the 8d brigade. Miles' 
1st division, Humphrey's 2d corps. He was bre* 
vetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallantry 
in February, 1765. He was wounded four times 
in all and had six horses shot under him. He was 
postmaster of Auburn, N.Y., 1869-73 ; and was a 
Republican representative in the 43d and 44th 
congresses, 1873-77. In June, 1876, he declined 
the appointment of U.S. treasurer, as he also did 
the office of commissioner of internal revenues 
and commissioner of patents, in July, 1876. He 
was U.S. marshal for the northern judicial dis- 
trict of New York, 1877-85 ; and a presidential 
elector in 1888. He established in Auburn, N.Y., 
a large concern for the manufacture of agricul- 
tural implements, and became its president. In 
January, 1901, President McKinley appointed him 
again U.S. marshal for the northern district of 
New York. 

McDOUQALL* David, naval officer, was bom 
in Ross county, Ohio, Sept. 27, 1809 ; son of John 
McDougall, state representative, 1813-15. He was 
warranted midshipman in the U.S. navy in 1828 ; 
promoted passed midshipman in 1834, lieutenant 
in 1841, commander in 1857, captain in 1864, 
commodore in 1869 and rear-admiral on the retired 
list in 1873. He was in command of the Wyoming^ 
Asiatic squadron, 1861-64, and while stationed at 




Shimonoseki, Japan, July 16, 1863, he engaged 
and silenced six batteries and three vessels of 
war belonging to the Japanese government. 
He commanded 
the Mare Island 
navy yard, Cali- 
fornia, 1865-66 ; 
the steam-sloop 
PowJiatan, 1868- 
69 ; the south 
squadron of the 
Pacific fleet in "•*•*• «vvom.^«. 

1870. He died in San Francisco, Cal., Aug. 7, 1882. 

McDOUQALLt James Alexandert senator, 
was bom in Bethlehem, N.Y., Nov. 19, 1817. He 
attended the grammar school of Albany, studied 
law, and removed to Pike county, 111., in 1837, 
where he was admitted to practice. He was 
attorney-general of Illinois, 1842-46 ; engaged in 
engineering, and originated and accompanied an 
exploring expedition through New Mexico and 
Arizona to California. He settled in San Fran- 
cisco, where he practised law, was attorney-gen- 
eral of California, 1850-52 ; a representative in the 
state legislature for several terms, a Democratic 
representative in the 32d congress, 1851-58, and 
U.S. senator, 1861-67, where he served as chair- 
man of the committee on the Pacific railroad. 
He was a delegate from California to the Demo- 
cratic national convention at Chicago, Aug. 29, 
1864. At the close of his senatorial term he re- 
tired to Albany, N.Y., where he died Sept. 3, 1867. 

McDOUOALLt John* governor of California, 
was born in Ross county, Ohio, in 1818 ; son of 
John McDougall, representative in the state 
legislature, 1813-15, who removed to Indianapolis, 
Ind., about 1820. He attended school there, 
participated in the Black Hawk war in 1832 and 
was superintendent of the Indiana State prison 
in 1846. He rendered distinguished service in the 
war with Mexico, 1846-47. He removed to Cali- 
fornia in 1849, was a member of the state con- 
stitutional convention, was lieutenant-governor 
of the state, 1849-dl, and upon the resignation of 
Governor Burnett, Jan. 9, 1851, he succeeded 
to the office and served out the term. During his 
administration the famous San Francisco vigi- 
lance committee was organized. He was subse- 
quently elected to the state senate. He died in 
San Francisco, Cal., March 30, 1866. 

McDowell, Charles, patriot, was bom in 
Winchester, Va. , in 1743 ; son of Joseph McDowell, 
who emigrated from Ireland in 1730 and settled 
first in Pennsylvania, then in Winchester, Va.. 
and finally at Quaker Meadows, on the Catawba 
river, N.C. Charles enlisted in the Revolutionary 
army in 1775, and commanded a large district of 
North Carolina. The organized troops erected 
fortifications, and in June, 1780, he attacked the 



Mcdowell 

BritiHh force od the Paoolet river, and compelled 
them to surrender. He was also victorious at 
Muscove Hill and Cave Creek. HU armj was 
disbanded in September, 1780, and be resigned his 
commission, but continued to aid the patriots by- 
manufacturing ponder with the help of his wife, 
and secretly carrying it to the army for use at 
the battle of King's Mountain, Oct. T, 17B0. where 
bis brother Joseph commanded the North Carolina 
militia. He was a member of the state senate, 
1783-88, and of the house of commons, 1809-11. 
He was married to Grace (Oreenlee) Bowman, 
widow of Captain Bowman of the patriot army, 
who was killed at the battle of Kamseur'a Mill. 
She was a nurse on the battlefield after the battle 
of King's Mountain, a brave defender of her home, 
and mother of a large family. Charles McDowell, 
died in Burke county, N.C., March 21, 1815. 

AUcDOWELL, Edward Alexander, composer, 
was born in New York city, Deo. 18, 1861 : son of 
Thomas F. and Frances M. (Knapp) MacDowell 
and grandson of Alexander MaoDoweli and of 
Darius Knapp. He studied the piano under sev- 
eral masters and in 
1876 went to Paris, 
France, where he con- 
tinued hia studies 
under Marmontel. He 
studied composition 
under Savard in Paris 
and Joachim Raff in 
Germany. He re- 
sided in Frankfort- 
OD-the-Hain, Ger- 
many, 187B-^1, and 
devoted himself to 
composition and 

teaching the piano 
in Wiesbaden, 1884- 
88 ; was a teacher of 
tliepianointhe Darmstadt conservatory, 1881-84, 
and in 1688 returned to America, settling in Bos- 
ton as u teacher and concert pianist. He subse- 
quently made several visits to Germany. He was 
appointed professor of music in Columbia univer- 
sity, N.T., in 1896. He appeared frequently as 
soloist with the Boston Symphony orchestra and 
other well-known musical organizations. He was 
elected to the presidency of the Society of Ameri- 
can Musicians and Composers. New York, in 1890, 
holding it one year, and was director of the Men- 
delssohn Glee club, 1896-98. Princeton univer- 
sity conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of Mus. Doc. in 1896. His compositions include 
several symphonic poems for orchestra, concertos 
for piano and orchestra, suites for orchestra 
including Indian Suite, and numerous notable 
songs and piano works, among the latter two 
Boitei and four sonatas. 



Mcdowell 

McDowell, Ephraim, surgeon, was bom in 
Rockbridge county, Va., Nov. 11, 1771 ; son of 
Samuel and Mary (McClung) McDowell and 
grandson of Ephraim McDowell, who, with his 
brothers James and John, emigrated from Ireland 
to Pennsylvania. Ephraim and John settled in 
Kookhridge county, Va., in 1737. He removed 
with his parents to Danville in 1T88 ; attended a 
classical school at Georgetown, Va. , and studied 
medicine under Dr. Humphreys of Staunton, Va., 
and at the University of Edinburgh, 1793-94. 
He practised medicine and surgery in Danville, 
Va., 1785-1830. He was married in 1802 to Sallie, 
daughter of Governor Isaac Shelby of Kentucky. 
He was elected a member of the Medical Society 
of Philadelphia in 1817. The honorary degree of 
M.D. was conferred on him by the Univeraity of 
Maryland in 1825. He was the first surgeon suc- 
cessfully to perform the operation known aa 
ovariotomy, and a description of his first cases was 
published in the Eclectic Bepertory and Analytic 
Review, Philadelphia, 1817. His successful opera- 
tions appeared incredible at the time, and he be- 
came known among the profession as the " father 
of ovariotomy." He was one of the founders of 
Centre college at Danville and an original trustee, 
1819-23. In 1879 a monument to his memory was 
erected in McDowell Park by the State Medical 
society. He died in Danville, Ky., June 30, 1830. 

Mcdowell, Irvin, soldier, was born in Frank- 
lin county, Ohio, Oct. 15, 1818 ; son of Abram and 
Eliza (Lord) McDowell. The McDowells, shortly 
after the siege of Londonderry. 1689, in which 
they took part, immigrated to America, locating 
first in Pennsylvania 
and then in the val- 
ley of Virginia, and 
members of the fam- 
ily removed thence 
to Kentucky about 
1790, where Abram 
McDowell enlisted in 
the war of 1812, his 
uncle commanding a 
regimen t of Ke ntucky 
volunteers, in which 
he served, and at the 
close of the war 

he removed to New <Sft*i?*--«6' 
Columbus, Ohio, and ww.**^ ^*--«0/ 
settled there. Irvin 

attended the college of Troyes, France, and 
was graduated from the U.S. Military aca- 
demy in 1888. He served on frontier duty dur- 
ing the Canadian border disturbances in 1838; 
on the Maine frontier, 1838-41; was assistant 
instructor of infantry tactics of the U.S. Military 
academy in 1841, and was promoted lat lieutenant, 
Oct. 7, 1842. He served in the war with Mexico 



Mcdowell 



Mcdowell 



and was brevetted captain for Buena Vista, Feb. 
23, 1847. He was assistant adjutant-general to 
General Wool's division, ** Army of Occupation," 
1847-48, and assistant adjutant-general in the war 
department at New York city, Washington and 
Texas, 1848-^1. He was married in 1849 to Helen 
Burden, of Troy, N. Y. He was brevetted major of 
staff and assistant-adjutant-general, March 31, 
1856, and in 1861 he organized and mustered 
volunteers into service at Washington, D.C., 
was in command of the military district of Wash- 
ington, was promoted brigadier-general, U.S.A., 
May 14, 1861, and commanded the department of 
N.E. Virginia, and the defences of Washington, 
south of the Potomac. He commanded the 
Federal army at the first battle of Bull Run, July 
21, 1861 ; was in command of the army of the 
Potomac in the defence of Washington, 1861-62 ; 
was transferred to the command of the 1st corps, 
Army of the Potomac in 1862, and was promoted 
major-general of U.S. volunteers, March 14, 1862. 
He commanded the army of the Rappahannock, 
April 4 to Aug. 12, 1862 ; the 3d corps, Pope*s 
Army of Virginia, Aug. 12 to Sept. 6, 1862, taking 
part in the battles of Cedar Mountain, Aug. 9, 
Rappahannock Station, Aug. 25, and Manassas, 
Aug. 29. He was retired from active duty, Sept. 6, 
1862. He was president of the court for investi- 
gating alleged cotton frauds, May to July, 1868, 
and president of the board for retiring disabled 
officers at Wilmington, Del., 1863-64. He was in 
command of the Department of the Pacific, 1864- 
65; the Department of California, 1865-68; the 
Department of the East, 1868-72, and of the Divi- 
sion of the South in 1872. He was promoted 
major-general, U.S.A., Nov. 25, 1872, having re- 
ceived that rank by brevet, March 13, 1865, for 
Cedar Mountain, Va., Aug. 9, 1862. He was re- 
tired from active service, Oct. 15, 1882, and resided 
in San Francisco, Cal., where he died, May 5, 1885. 
McDowell* James* governor of Virginia, 
was born in Cherry Grove, Rockbridge county, 
Va., Oct. 11, 1795 ; son of James and Sarah (Pres- 
ton) McDowell and grandson of John McDowell, 
who, with his brother Ephraim, emigrated from 
Ireland to America about 1730, and settled in 
Pennsylvania ; removed to Rockbridge county, 
Va., in 1737, and was killed by the Indians, Dec. 
25, 1742. He attended Yale college and was gradu- 
ated from the College of New Jersey, A.B., 1816, 
A.M., 1819. He studied law under Chapman 
Johnson, at Staunton, Va. He was elected a 
representative in the state legislature in 1831, 
where he advocated state rights, the gradual 
abolition of slavery and legislative appropriations 
for internal improvement and for public schools. 
He was governor of Virginia, 1843-45 ; was a 
Democratic representative in the 29th, 80th and 
81st congresses, 1845-51, and his speech in con- 



gress in favor of the admission of California as a 
free state, Sept. 3, 1850, gained him recognition 
in the house as an able anti-slavery advocate. 
He received the honorary degree of LIi.D. from 
the College of New Jersey in 1846. He died on 
his plantation near Lexington, Va., Aug. 24, 1851- 

McDowell* John, educator, was born in 
Monaghan, Pa., in 1751 ; son of William and 
Mary (Maxwell) McDowell. He was graduated 
from the University of Pennsylvania in 1771; 
was a tutor there, 1769-82 ; professor of mathe- 
matics at St. 
John*s col- 
lege, Anna- 
polis, Md., 
in 1789, and 
was princi- 
pal of the 
college, 1790 
-1806. Mc- 
Dowell HaU, 
the principal 
building of 
St. John's 
college, was 
named in his 
honor. He 
was profes- 
sor of nat- 
ural phil- 
osophy at ^4 
the Univer- ^ 
sity of Pennsylvania, 1806-10, and provost of the 
university, 1807-10. He resigned both liis offices in 
1810 on account of ill health. The honorary degree 
of LL.D. tvas conferred on him by the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1807. He was a member of the 
American Philosophical society. He presented to 
the University of Pennsylvania his large lib- 
rary, each volume containing liis autograph. He 
died in Franklin county, Va., Dec. 18, 1820. 

McDowell* John* clergyman, was born in 
Bedminster, N.J., Sept. 10, 1780. He was grad- 
uated from the College of New Jersey, A.B., 
1801, A.M., 1804; studied theology under Dr. 
John Woodhull, at Freehold, N.J. ; was installed 
pastor of the Presbyterian church, at Elizabeth- 
town, N.J., Dec. 26, 1804, and during his pas- 
torate the first Sunday school in the town was 
established in 1814, and he prepared for it the 
first Bible-class question-book used. He remained 
at Elizabeth town till 1833, when he removed to 
Philadelphia, Pa., on account of ill health and 
was in charge of the New Central church, 183^ 
45. He established the Spring Garden church, 
Philadelphia, and was installed its pastor, Feb. 3, 
1846. where he remained until his death. During 
his ministry, 1317 persons joined the churches 
over which he was pastor on confession of faith, 




/Mi«»ewveLi. HAI.I., 



Mcdowell 



Mcdowell 



in addition to the large number by letter. He 
was a trustee of the College of New Jersey, 1814- 
6$, and a founder and charter director of Prince- 
ion Theological seminary, 1812-68. The honorary 
degree of D.D. was conferred on him by Union 
college in 1818. He was moderator of the general 
assembly of the Presbyterian church in 1820, and 
served as stated clerk, 1886-40. He is the author 
of: Bible clctss Questiona (1814); Questions on the 
BMefor Use in Schools (1819); A System of The- 
ology (1826); and Human Depravity and its 
Remedy (1830). A memoir by the Rev. William 
B. Sprague was published in 1864. He died in 
Philadelphia, Pa., in February, 1863. 

McDOWBLL» John AndersoOt representative, 
was born in Killbuck, Holmes county, Ohio, 
Sept. 25, 1853 ; son of James C!k>leville and Sarah 
(Anderson) McDowell ; grandson of Matthew and 
Nancy (Hutchinson) McDowell, and a descend- 
ant of John McDowell of Washington county, 
Pa. He removed with his parents to Monroe 
township, Ohio, where he resided on a farm and 
attended the district school. The family subse- 
quently returned to Killbuck and he was em- 
ployed in his father's store, and attended the 
village school, the Millersburg high school and 
Lebanon Normal university. He was married, 
Aug. 21, 1879, to Esther E., daughter of Lemuel 
Hole of Damascus, Ohio. He was graduated 
from Mount Union college, Alliance, Ohio, in 
1887. He was principal of the Millersburg high 
school for two years, superintendent of Millers- 
burg schools for seventeen years, and engaged at 
different times as instructor in teachers* insti- 
tutes in several counties of Ohio and as instructor 
ill the summer school of Wooster university. He 
was a Democratic representative from the seven- 
teenth Ohio district in the 55th and 56th con- 
gresses, 1897-1901. 

McDowell* Joseph* representative, was 
born in Winchester, Va., Feb. 25, 1756 ; son of 
Joseph McDowell, who emigrated from Ireland 
about 1730. To distinguish him from his cousin 
Joseph, son of John, he was known as *' Quaker 
Meadow Joe." He served against the Indians on 
the frontier and in the patriot army under his 
brother. Gen. CHiarles McDowell. In the battle of 
King's Mountain he commanded the militia of 
North Carolina, having the rank of major, and 
before the close of the war he had attained the 
rank of general of militia. He was a member of 
the house of commons of North Carolina, 1787- 
92, was a delegate to the state constitutional con- 
vention in 1788 and was the leader of the faction 
that opposed the adoption of the Federal Consti- 
tution. He was a representative in the 2d and 
3d congresses, 1791-94, and was a commissioner 
to settle the North Carolina and Tennessee bound- 
ary. He died in Burke county, N.C.,in 1801. 



McDOWBLLy Joseph Jefferson, representa- 
tive, was born in Burke county, N.C., Nov. 18, 
1800 ; son of Joseph (q. v.) and Margaret (Mof- 
fett) McDowell of Quaker Meadow, and a descend- 
ant of Ephraim McDowell, who left Ireland, May 
20, 1729, arrived in America in August, 1829, and 
settled, with other hardy pioneers from Ireland, 
in Augusta county, Va., between 1780 and 1740, 
and married Margaret Irvine. Joseph J. was 
married to Sally Allen, daughter of the Rev. 
John and Elizabeth (Allen) McCue. He engaged 
in agriculture, removed to Kentucky, and thence 
to Highland county, Ohio, and was a representa- 
tive in the Ohio legislature, 1832 ; state senator, 
1833-85; was made brigadier-general of the state 
militia in 1834 ; in 1835 was admitted to the bar, 
and practised in Hillsboro. He was a Demo- 
cratic representative from the seventh Ohio dis- 
trict in the 28th and 29th congresses, 1843-47. 
He died in Hillsboro, Ohio, Jan. 17, 1877. 

McDOWBLL» Katharine Sherwood (Bonner), 
author, was born in Holly Springs, Miss., Feb. 
26, 1849. She attended seminaries in Mississippi 
and Alabama. In 1872 she removed to Boston, 
Mass., and became private secretary to Henry 
W. Longfellow, who encouraged her in her liter- 
ary pursuits. She is the author of " The Radical 
Club,*' a poem, in which she ridiculed that organ- 
ization and which is said to have eventually 
killed it. She returned to Holly Springs in 1878, 
at the height of an epidemic of yellow fever, to 
nurse her father and brother, who were stricken. 
She was married in 1870, to Edward McDowell, 
of Holly Springs, Miss. Under the pen name 
'* Sherwood Bonner," she wrote Like unto Like 
(1881); and Dialect Tales (1884). She died in 
Holly Springs, Miss., July 22, 1884. 

McDowell, Samuel* jurist, was bom in 
Pennsylvania, Oct. 27, 1735 ; son of Ephraim and 
Margaret (Irvine) McDowell. In the French and 
Indian war he was a member of Captain Lewis's 
Virginia militia, and took part in the skirmish 
which led to Braddock's defeat, July 9, 1755, 
and he was a witness of Cornwallls's surrender at 
Yorktown, Oct. 17, 1781. He was a member of 
the Virginia house of burgesses ; commissioner 
in 1782 to settle the Kentucky claims ; removed 
to Danville, Ky., the next year, where he organ- 
ized the first civil court in the territory, holding 
the court in a log house in Danville ; was presi- 
dent of the first state constitutional convention 
held in Danville, April 19, 1T92 ; was judge of the 
circuit court of Kentucky, 1792-1812, and a 
representative in the Kentucky legislature. He 
died in Danville, Ky., Oct. 25, 1817. 

McDowell* WllHam Fniser, educator, was 
born in Millersburg, Ohio, Feb. 4, 1858 ; son 
of David and Rebecca (Fraser) McDowell and 
grandson of Matthew McDowell and of William 



Mcduffie 

Eraser. He was graduated from the Ohio Wes- 
lej^D university, A.B., 1670, and from Boston 
University School of Theology, 8.T.B., 1883 ; en- 
tered the North Ohio conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal church in 188S, and was stationed euc- 
CPBsively at Lodi, 1882-83 ; Oberlin, 1888-85, and 
Tiffin, 1885-90. He was chancellor of the Uni- 
veraity of Denver, Col., 1890-89, and a member of 
the Colorado state board of charities and correc- 
tions, 1895-99. He received the honorary degrees 
Ph,D. in 18B8 and 8.T.D. in 1894, from Ohio 
Weeleyan university. He was founder and first 
editor of Phi Oamma Delta Quarterly; was 
elected correaponding secretary of the Board of 
Education of the Methodist Episcopal church in 
Hay, 1899, and re-elected to the same office by 
the general conference of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church in May, 1900. 

McIHJFFIB, Qeorge, governor of South Caro- 
lina, was bom in Columbia county, Oa., Aug. 10, 
1790 1 Bon of John and Jane McDuffie, natives of 
Scotland, who came to Georgia soon after the 
dose of the B«volutiou. As a boy he obtained 
employment in a 
mercantile house in 
Augusta, Qa. Sub- 
sequently, through 
the benefaction of 
William Calhoun, he 
was sent to the Eev, 
Dr. Moses Waddell's 
school in Willing- 
ton, S.C., and was 
graduated from South 
Carolina college with 
first honors in 181S. 
He was admitted to 
the bar, in May, 
^fc* .-^'^«^i*^ 1814, and practised 
first in Pendleton 
and then in Edgefield, S.O. He was a represent- 
ative in the South Carolina legislature, 1818-31 ; 
and was a representative in the 17th^3d con- 
gresses, 1831-31, resigning in 1834. In congress 
he favored nullification ; had a political contro- 
versy with William Cumming of Georgia, wliich 
resulted in a series of duels, in one of which he 
was badly wounded ; opposed congressional ap- 
propriations for internal improvements, and as 
chairman of the ways and means committee be 
advocated the policy of maintaining the U.S. 
bank and opposed the' protective tariff. He waa 
married in 1830 to a Miss Singleton, who died 
soon after, leaving one daughter who afterward 
became the wife of Gen. Wade Hampton. He 
was attorney for the prosecution in the impeach- 
ment trial of Judge James H. Peck in December, 
1880. He served in the state militia, holding the 
Dommiaaion of major-genenl. In December, 



MACE 

1884, he was elected governor of South Carolina 
and major-general of the state militia. At the 
oiose of bis administration as governor in 1880 
he retired to private life. He was appointed by 
Governor Hammond to fill the unexpired term 
caused by the resignation of William C. Preston 
in 1842 from the U.S. senate, and in 1848 he waa 
elected for a full senatorial term, but resigned in 
1847 and was succeeded by A. P. Butler. He 
was the author of the address to the people of the 
United States issued by the South Carolina nutli- 
fioation convention of 1833 ; Eulogy on Robert V. 
Hayne (1840), and notable addresses on Agrtcui- 
titre. He died at Cherry Hill, Sumter district, 
S.C., March 11, 1851. 

MACG, Daniel, lepreeantative, was bom in 
Pickaway county, Ohio, Sept. 5, 1811. He wa» 
brought up on a farm ; removed to Indiana in 
1882, studied law there, and settled in practice in 
I^fayette. He was a representative in the state- 
legislature, 1836 ; clerk of the state house of rep- 
resentatives in 1837, and U.S. attorney for the 
district of Indiana during Polk's administration, 
1849-53. He was a representative from Indiana- 
in the 32d, 88d and 34th oongressee, 1B51-S7, 
serving as chairman of the committee on poet 
offices and post roads. He was originally a 
Democrat and joined the Republican party in 
1654, and in 1801 was appointed postmaster of 
Lafayette by President Lincoln. He died by bis- 
own hand at Lafayette, Ind., July 2fl, 1867. 

MACG, William Harrison, educator, was bom 
in Lexington, Ind., Nov. 37, 1853 ; son of Ira and 
Nancy (Johnson) Mace; grandson of Benjamin,. 
Jr., and Mary (Ross) Maoe, and of David and 
Margaret Johnson, and a descendant of Ben- 
jamin Mace, St., of Tewksbury, Mass. He at- 
tended the graded school at Lexington ; taught 
school 1872-73, and was graduated from tiie- 
Indiana State Normal school, Terre Haute, in 
1876. He was principal of the Ward school at 
Logansport, Ind., 1876-77 ; superintendent of 
public schools at Winamac, Ind., 1877-79, and 
was graduated M.A. from the University of 
Michigan in 1883. He was married in 1S78 to Ida, 
daughter of John and Rosa (Jenkins) Dodson. 
He was superintendent of public schools at Mc- 
Gregor, Iowa, 1883-85 ; professor of history at 
De Pauw University normal school, Greencastle, 
Ind., 1885-90 ; a graduate student in history and 
philosophy at Indiana university, 1888-89, at 
Cornell university, 1890-91. and at Jena and Ber- 
lin universities, 1896-97, receiving the degree of 
Ph.D. from Jena, 1897. He was elected professor of 
history and political science at Syracuse univer- 
sity in 1691. He opened the first nniveraity ex- 
tension centre under the ttaipices of the regents- 
of the University of the State of New York at 
Watortown, N.T., Jan. 15, 1891, and oonducte<l 



McBLLIOOTT 

other extension centres at Poughkeepeie, Albion, 
Rochester, Skaneateles, Binghamton, and Lock- 
port, N.Y. In 1893 he oonduoted three oentrea 
under the auspices of the UniTereitf of Chicago 
uid four in 1899 for the American Society of 
Philadelphia. He was elected a member of the 
American Historical aseooiation and of the 
American Aoademjr of Political and 8ocial 
Science. He delivered courses of lectures on 
methods of teaching history hefore the teachers' 
institutes in Iowa, Indiana and Pennsylvania and 
wrote numerous articles on the subject for educa- 
tional journals. He also lectured on " The Com- 
parison of the American and British Constitu- 
tions," at the summer meeting of Cambridge uni- 
veisitj, England, in August, 180S, and gave 
courses upon American history in the great hall 
of Cooper union, New York, He is the author 
of : A Working Manital of American History 
{1895); Method in HUtory (1897); Dea alteren 
Pitt Beziehvngen zur amerikaaischen RevottUion " 
(thesis for Ph.D.), and The Central Defect* of 
the Normal School (1901). 

McELLIOOTT, Jamea Napoleon, educator, 
was born in Richmond, Ta., Oct. 13, 1812. His 
ancestors came from the north of Ireland and 
settled in Virginia. He matriculated at the 
University of the City of New York, but left 
before completing his course to study theology, 
and wns a candidate for orders in the Protestant 
Episcopal church in 1887, but was not admitted. 
He was successively instructor, assistant prin- 
cipal and principa- of the Society of Heclianics 
and Tradesmen of New York, 1887-49. He 
opened a private cUasical school in New York 
city in 1849, which he managed until his death. 
He was a zealous laborer among the poor and 
unfortunate, and an active worker in the Epiph- 
any Protestant Episcopal mission church and 
raised a fund for its support. He served as 
president of the State Teachers' association. 
He received the honorary degree of A.M. from 
Yale in 1849, and that of LL.D. from Harroda- 
burg Female college, Kentucky, in 1852. He 
edited 7^ Teachers' Advocate in 1848, and is 
the author of ; ManuiU, Analytical, and Synthet- 
ical, of Orthography and Definition (1846) ; The 
Young Analyzer (laii) ; The H-umorous Speaker 
(1853) ; The American Debater (1855), besides 
series of I^tin, Greek and Hebrew text books. 
He died In Now York city, Oct. 88, 1866. 

McELRATH, Thomaa, publisher, was bom at 
Williamsport, Pa., May 1, 1897. He served an 
apprenticeship as printer at Harrisburg and 
Philsdelphia, studied law at WilliamHport and 
then removed to New York city where he became 
a proof-reader and subeequently head salesman 
in the Methodist Book Concern. He engaged in 
publishing school and religious books with Lem- 



MCELROY 

uel Bangs in 1835. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1838 and practised in New York city in part- 
nership with William Bloomfleld and Charles P. 
Daly. He was elected a Whig member of the 
state assembly in 1888, and was appointed a 
master in chancery for the city of New York by 
Governor Seward in 1840. He was appointed 
state director of the Bank of America by (Governor 
Seward in 1841 and formed a partnership with 
Horace Greeley the same year under the firm 
name of Oreeley Sl MoElrath, and as businesa 
manager of the Trittune placed the unprofitable 
venture on a secure foundation. He was alder- 
man of the city of New York, 1845-46, and re- 
signed bis business connection with the Tribune 
in 1857, on being elected corresponding secretary 
of the American institute, whose state annual 
reports he edited until 1861, when he wsa 
appointed appraiser-general for the New York 
district by President Lincoln. He resigned from 
this office in 1864, returned to the Tribune aa 
business manager, and in 1866 was appointed 
chief appraiser of foreign merchandiBe at the port 
of New York. He was U.S. commissioner to the 
Paris exposition in 1867 ; U.S. commissioner to 
the Vienna exhibition in 1873, where, with John 
Jay, he was a special commissioner to adjust and 
superintend the American department, and was 
secretary and general executive officer of the 
New York state commission at the Centennial 
exhibition, Philadelphia, in 1876. He acted as 
legal adviaer to the Park national bank in New 
York city up to the time of his death. He was 
married to Elizabeth Price of New York city. 
He is the author of Dictionary of Words and 
Phrases Used in Commerce (1878). He died in 
New York city, June 6, 1888. 

McELROV, Qeorge B«ainteh, educator, was 
born in Pittsburg. Pa., June 5. 1884 ; son of 
Samuel and Anne (Beamish) McElroy, who came 
from Ireland in 1881 and settled in Pittsburg, 
Pa., and were among the founders of the First 
Methodist Protestant church in that city. In 



1840 he began to study for the ministry under the 
Rev. George Brown. He was licensed to preach, 
June 5, 1843, and was ordained deacon and elder 
in 1845. He was married, July 38, 1851, to Mary 
Good of Johnstown, Pa., where he wae then sta- 
tioned. In 1852 he was elected instructor in the 



Mcelroy 



McENERY 



preparatory department, Madison college, Union- 
town, Pa., where he pursued a full classical 
course and was graduated A.B. and A.M. in 1853. 
In 1853 he was elected to the chair of natural 
science and mathematics, resigning the next 
year, but resuming the chair under the presidency 
of the Rev. (Jeorge Brown. He was principal of 
the North Illinois institute, Henry, 111., 1857-62 ; 
county superintendent and principal of city 
schools, Henry, 111., 1863-64 ; principal of Alle- 
glieny seminary, Sharpsburg, Pa., 1864-66 ; pro- 
fessor of nuithematics and astronomy at Adrian 
college, Mich., 1866-98 ; vice-president of the 
college, 1867-71 ; president, 1873-79 ; Amos pro- 
fessor of systematic theology, 1877-98 ; president 
pro tempore^ 1879-81, and dean of the school of 
theology, 1882-98. He was elected secretary of 
the board of trustees of Adrian college in 1867 
and a trustee in 1870, and was made professor 
emeritus of mathematics in 1898. He attended 
the ecumenical conference of Methodism, Lon- 
don, England, in 1881. 

McELROVy John* educator, was born in 
Brookeborough, Ireland, May 11, 1783. He re- 
ceived a limited education in his own country, 
and before he reached manhood he came to the 
United States and was a merchant's clerk in 
(Georgetown, D.C. He became bookkeeper at 
Georgetown college ; gained a good knowledge of 
Latin with the assistance of a sjtudent ; entered 
the Society of Jesus as a lay brother in 1806, and 
on May 31, 1817, was ordained priest by Arch- 
bishop Neale. He commenced his labors in Trin- 
ity church, Georgetown, D.C, and in 1822 went 
to Frederick, Md., where he built St. John's 
church, the corner-stone being laid March 19, 
1833, and it was consecrated by Archbishop Ek>- 
deston, April 2, 1837. He also built St. John's 
Literary Institution, an academy, an orphan 
asylum, and the first free public school in Fred- 
erick, Md. He was returned to Trinity church, 
Georgetown, D.C, in 1845, and in 1846 was 
chosen, with Father Anthony Rey, chaplain to 
the Irish soldiers in General Taylor's army in the 
Mexican war. He took charge of pastoral work 
at St. Mary's, Boston, Mass., in 1848 ; with three 
sisters from Cincinnati founded Notre Dame 
convent and academy in 1849 ; acted as theologi- 
cal adviser to Bishop O'Reilly, of Hartford, 
Conn., at the first plenary council at Baltimore, 
Md., in 1852 ; in 1854 helped in founding St. Pat- 
rick's academy for girls at Lowell, Mass. , and in 
1858 founded Boston college, which was opened 
in 1860. He also built the Church of the Immac- 
ulate Conception, serving as rector and as presi- 
dent of Boston college, 1861-62. He was a mem- 
ber of the Society of Jesus for seventy-one years. 
He became blind in 1872. and retired to Fred- 
erick, Md., where he died Sept. 12, 1877. 



Mcelroy, John George Reppller, educator, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pa., July 30, 1842 $ son 
of Archibald and Sophia Maria (Repplier) Mo- 
Elroy. He was graduated from the University 
of Pennsylvania, A.B., 1862, A.M., 1865 ; was a 
teacher at Rittenhouse academy, Philadelphia, 
1862-66, and at Chicago high school. 111., 1866- 
67. He was assistant professor of rhetoric and 
history at the University of Pennsylvania. 1867- 
69 ; adjunct professor of Oreek and history, 1869- 
76, and professor of rhetoric and English lan- 
guage, 1876-90. He was a member of the Modem 
Language association of America. He was mar- 
ried to Anna Baldwin, daughter of John and Anna 
Clayton, of Cape May, N.J. He is the author of : 
A System of Punctuation, The Structure of Eng- 
lish Prose, Essential Lessons in English Etymol- 
ogy, and many contributions to periodicals. He 
died in Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 26, 1890. 

McENBRYy John, governor of Louisiana, was 
bom in Petersburg, Va., March 81, 1888 ; son of 
Henry O'Neil and Caroline (Douglas) McEnery ; 
grandson of Mathew McEnery, who resided in 
Baltimore, Md., and a descendant of John Mc- 
Enery, of Ireland, to whom 
James II. of England made 
large g^rants of lands. Henry 
O'Neil McEnery was a tobac- 
co manufacturer, who re- 
moved his family to Louisiana 
in 1835 and was appointed by 
President Tyler register of 
land office at Monroe. John McEnery was a student 
at Hanover college, Ind., in the class of 1847, but 
did not graduate. He assisted his father in the 
land office, studied law, and practised at Monroe, 
La. , 1 854-57. He was register of the land office at 
Monroe by appointment of President Buchanan, 
1857-61, and in 1861 organized the Ouachita 
Blues, and his command became part of the 4th 
Louisiana battalion, of which he was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel. He served in western Vir- 
ginia in the campaign under Gen. Robert E. Lee, 
1861 ; on the coast of North and South Carolina 
and Georgia, 1862-68, and with the Army of 
Tennessee, 1863-65. He commanded the advance 
posts on Skid way Island, Ga., and participated 
in the battle of James Island, S.C, June 16, 1862, 
driving the Federals from the fort. He served 
under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston at Vicksburg 
and in the battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 19-20, 
1863, where he was severe! v wounded, and also 
at the battle of Resaca, May 13-15, 1864, where 
he was again wounded and disabled for more 
than a year. He returned to Monroe, La., re- 
sumed the practice of law, and engaged in culti- 
vating cotton. He was elected judge of the dis- 
trict court, composed of the parishes of Ouachita, 
Franklin, CaldweU and others, in 1865, but was 




McENERY 



McEWAN 



not permitted to fill the position owing to the 
appointment of a military commander for that 
department. He was a representative in the 
Louisiana legislature, 1865-67, and was chairman 
of the committee on public improvements. He 
was a delegate to the Democratic national con- 
vention at New York, July 4, 1868, and was 
elected governor of Louisiana in 1873, but was 
unseated by order of the President, his Republi- 
can opponent, William Pitt Kellogg, being seated. 
For four years Governor McEnery endeavored to 
gain possession of the government, and the po- 
litical controversy brought about an armed col- 
lision in the streets of New Orleans, Sept. 14, 
1874, but the Kellogg government, owing to fed- 
eral support, continued to hold the state offices. 
He was recorder of mortgages for New Orleans, 
1877-81 ; a delegate-at-large from Louisiana to 
the Democratic national convention at Cincin- 
nati» June 22, 1880, and was also appointed in 
1880 agent to locate and survey the swamp lands 
claimed by the state, his compensation being 
fixed at one-half the swamp lands recovered. 
He practised law at New Orleans, La., and at 
Washington, D.C., until his death. He died at 
New Orleans, La., March 28, 1891. 

McENERY* Samuel Douglas* senator, was 
born in Monroe, La., May 28, 1837 ; son of Henry 
O'Neil and Caroline (Douglas) McEnery. He at- 
tended Spring Hill college, near Mobile, Ala., the 
U.S. Naval academy, Annapolis, Md., and the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, and was graduated from the 

State and National 
Law school, Pough- 
keepsie, N.Y., in 1859. 
He entered the Con- 
federate army with 
the first company of 
volunteers formed at 
Monroe, La., and 
served as lieutenant 
throughout the war. 
He returned to his 
native town in 
1865 ; taught school ; 
studied the Louisiana 
system of law, and 
settled in practice 
as an attorney. He 
took a leading part as a Democrat in all the po- 
litical movements in northern Louisiana. He was 
married June 27, 1878, to Elizabeth, daughter of 
C. W. Phillips, a cotton planter in Ouachita par- 
ish. La. He was elected lieutenant-governor, 
with Louis A. Wiltz as governor, for the term 
1880-^, and when Oovernor Wiltz died in Octo- 
ber, 1881, he filled out his unexpired term as gov- 
ernor and was elected for the term 1884-^. 
During his administration of over six years he 




</f ^^r7u^$i.M-^ 



rebuilt the levees, re-established in a great meas- 
ure the fiscal credit of the state, improved the 
public-school system, and organized the farmers 
for the protection and advancement of agricul- 
tural interests. He was defeated for re-nomina- 
tion in 1888 by Francis I. Nicholls, who as 
governor appointed him associate justice 
of the supreme court of Louisiana, in which 
office he served 1888-97. He was nominated for 
governor at the regular Democratic state con- 
vention in 1891, but the ticket was defeated by 
the Anti-Lottery party. He was elected U.S. 
senator in 1896 for the term expiring March 8, 
1903, taking his seat March 4, 1897, and on May 
22, 1900, he was unanimously elected to be his 
own successor for the term ending March 4, 
1909. 

McENTEE» Jeryis, painter, was bom in Ron- 
dout, N.Y., July 14, 1828. He received his early 
education at Clinton Liberal institute, N.Y. He 
evinced ability as an artist, and was instructed 
in painting by Frederic E. Church, of New York 
city, 1850-51. He engaged in mercantile pursuits 
in Rondout, 1851-55 ; visited the Catskills on 
sketching tours, and in 1858 opened a studio in 
New York city. His first exhibit was at the Na- 
tional Academy of Design in 1853 ; and he was 
elected an associate academician in 1860, and an 
academician in 1861. He visited Europe in 1869, 
studied in the principal art galleries on the con- 
tinent, and sketched in Italy and Switzerland. 
Up to 1860 he had devoted himself wholly to 
landscape, but from that year gave much atten- 
tion to figure painting. He was married in 1851 
to Gertrude, daughter of tlie Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Jefferson and Caroline Mehetable (Fisher) Sawyer 
(q.v.). Among his principal pictures are: The 
Melancholy Days Have Come (1860), owned by the 
National Academy ; Indian Summer (1861); Late 
Autumn (1863); Virginia in 186S (1867), in the 
Paris Exposition of 1872; Octjiber Snoio (1870); 
Venice (1870); Scribner's MiU (1871); Sea from 
Shore (1873); Autumn, Old MiU in Wiyiter, 
Autumn Day, Wood Path, and Cape Ann (1874); 
A Song of Summer (1876); Winter in the Moun- 
tains (1878); Clouds (1879); The Edge of a Wood 
and November (1880); Kaatskill River (1881); 
Autumn Memory (1888); Shadows of Atitumn, 
The Kaatshills in W^inter and Yellow Autumn 
Woods (1884); Christmas Eve and Sundown in 
Winter (1885); Winter Morning (1886), and A 
Cliff in the CatskUls ( 1888). He died in Rondout, 
N.Y., Jan. 27, 1891. 

McEWAN, Thomas, representative, was born 
in Paterson, N.J., Feb. 26, 1854 ; son of Thomas 
and Hannah (Ledget) McEwan, and grandson of 
John and Janet (Parke) McEwan, and of Isaac 
and Elizabeth (Grant) Ledget of county Down, 
Ireland. He attended the public schools of 



McFADDEN 



MACFARLANE 



Patenon and became a civil engineer. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1875 and practised in Jer- 
sey City, N.J.y and in New York city. He was 
U.S. assessor of the 4th district, 1886-^7 ; U.S. 
commissioner and chief supervisor of elections, 
1892-93 ; secretary of the Hudson county Repub- 
lican general committee, 1878-98, and a delegate 
to every Republican convention of Jersey City 
and Hudson county and to every state conven- 
tion, 1877-92. He was a delegate to the Repub- 
lican national conventions of 1892 and 1896, and 
was a member of assembly in the state legislature 
in 1894, being chosen Republican leader of the 
house, an unusual honor for one serving his first 
term in the house. He was a Republican repre- 
sentative from the fifth New Jersey district in 
the 54th and 55th congresses, 1895-99. 

McFADDEN* Obadiah B., representative, was 
bom in Washington county, Pa., in 1817. He 
was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar in 1888; 
was a representative in the Pennsylvania legisla- 
ture in 1848, and was elected prothonotary for 
the court of common pleas of Washington county, 
Pa., in 1845. He removed to Oregon Territory, 
and was appointed associate justice of the terri- 
torial supreme court in 185S, and on the organiza- 
tion of Washington Territory by act of March 2, 
1853, was transferred to the supreme court of the 
new territory. He was chief justice of that court, 
1858-61. He represented his district in the legis- 
lative council of the territory ; was a Demo- 
cratic delegate to the 43d congress, 1873-75, and 
was re-elected to the 44th congress, but before 
taking his seat he died in Olympia, Wash. Ty., 
June 25, 1875. 

McFARLAND, Francis Patrick, R.C. bishop, 
was born in Franklin, Pa., April 16, 1819. He 
was educated for the priesthood at Mount St. 
Mary's college, Emmitsburg, Md., was ordained 
priest in New York city by Bishop Hughes, May 
18, 1845 ; was a member of the faculty of St. 
John's college, Fordham, N.Y., 1845-46; was in 
charge of St. Patrick's mission, Watertown, N.Y., 
1846-51, and rector of St. John's church, Utica, 
N.Y., 1851-58. He was elected bishop of Hart- 
ford, Conn., Jan. 9, 1858, and was consecrated at 
Providence, R.I., March 14, 1858, by Bishop 
Hughes, assisted by Bishops Timon and Fitz- 
patrick. He made his residence at Providence, 
R.I., until 1872, following the custom of the two 
precedings bishops, but in that year, on the erec- 
tion of the new see of Providence, he made Hart- 
ford, Conn., the see city of the diocese, and directed 
the building of St. Joseph's cathedral, a bishop's 
house and Mount St. Joseph's Convent of Mercy. 
He died in Hartford, Conn., Oct. 12, 1874. 

McFARLAND, Robert White, educator, was 
bom near Urbana, Ohio, June 16, 1825; son of 
Robert and Eunice (Dorsey) McFarland ; grand- 



son of William (a Revolutionary soldier) and 
Rebecca (White) McFftrland, and of Charles (who 
served four years in the Revolution) and Eliza- 
beth (Anchors) Dorsey, and great-grandson of 
Robert McFarland, who was bom in county 
Tyrone, Ireland, 1708 ; landed in Philadelphia, 
1746, and removed a few years later to Rockbridge 
county, Va. , where he died in 1796. His maternal 
great-grandfather, Aquila Dorsey, served in the 
Maryland line in the Revolutionary war, and was 
in Braddock's campaign in 1775. Robert White 
McFarland was graduated from the Ohio Wesiey- 
an university, A.B., 1847, A.M., 1850; was prin- 
cipal of Berkshire academy in 1848; taught in 
Qreenfield academy, 1849-^1 ; Chillicothe Union 
school in 1852 ; was professor of mathematics at 
Madison college, 1853-56 ; and professor of mathe- 
matics and astronomy at Miami university, 1856- 
73. During the civil war he served as captain in 
and lieuteDant-colonel of the 86th Ohio volun- 
teers, 1862-64, and was in Burnside's expedition 
in East Tennessee. He was professor of mathe- 
matics and civil engineering at Ohio State uni- 
versity, 1873-75; state inspector of railvrays, 
1881-85 ; president of Miami university, 1885-88, 
and was a civil and mining engineer in Com- 
ing, Ohio, 1888-99. The honorary degree of LL.D. 
was conferred on him by Ohio Wesleyan univer- 
sity in 1881. He edited six books of Virgil's 
"iEneid"(1840). 

MACFARLANB* Alexander, educator, was 
bom in Blairgowrie, Scotland, April 21, 1851 ; son 
of Daniel and Ann (Small) Macfarlane ; grand- 
son of Alexander and Janet (Steele) Macfarlane 
and of Peter and Barbara (MacDonald) Small, of 
Highland ancestry. He was prepared for college 
at the Free Church school at Blairgowrie, and 
was graduated at the University of Edinburgh, 
M.A., 1875, and D.Sc., 1878. He was instructor 
in physics at that university, 1874-76, and exam- 
iner in mathematics, 1881-84. He removed to 
the United States in 1885, and was professor 
of physics in the University of Texas, 1885-95, 
when he was made lecturer on mathematical 
physics in Lehigh university. South Bethlehem, 
Pa. He was married, April 8, 1885, to Helen, 
daughter of Patrick Henry and Mary (Toland) 
Swearingen of San Antonio, Texas. In 1900 he 
delivered a special course of lectures on space- 
analysis at the University of Pennsylvania. He 
was made a fellow of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh, 1878 ; a corresponding member of the 
Scientific Society of Mexico, 1893 ; a member of 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
1892, of the Circolo Matematicodi Palermo, Italy, 
1894, and non-resident member of the Washing- 
ton Academy of Science, 1900. He was elected 
vice-president of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science in 1899, and general 



McFAUL 



McFERRIN 



aecretaiy of the International Association for 
Promoting Quaternions and Allied Mathematios 
in 1879. He directed his work as a physicist 
mainly to electricity and as a mathematician 
principally to space-analysis. He received the 
degree of LL.D. from the University of Michigan 
in 1887. He is the author of: Algdmi of Logic 
(1879); Physical Anthmetic (1885); Mathematical 
Tables (1889); Papers on Space- Analysis (1894); 
Chapter en Quaternions and Vector- Analysis 
<1886). 

McFAUL» James Augustine* R.C. bishop, was 
bom in Lame, Ireland, June 6, 1850. He came 
to the United States with his parents in in- 
fancy and they located first in New York city, 
4md later at Weston, N.J. He was a student 

at St. Vincent's col- 
lege, Beatty, Pa., 
1868-71 , at the College 
of St. Francis Xavier, 
New York city, 1871- 
72, and was grad- 
uated from Seton 
Hall, South Orange, 
N.J., in 1878. He 
was educated for the 
priesthood at the 
theological seminary 
at Seton Hall, and 
was ordained by 
Bishop Ck)rrigan, May 
26, 1877. He was 
at first temporarily 
dgned to churches at Orange and Pater- 
«on, N.J., and later filled permanent positions 
at St. Patrick's, Jersey City ; St. Patrick's cathe- 
<lral, Newark, N.J., and St. Peter's, New Bruns- 
wick, N.J. In 1879 he was appointed assistant 
to Vicar-General Anthony Smith, and served as 
Secretary to Bishop O'Farrell of Trenton, N.J., 
1882-84. He was rector of St. Mary's Star of the 
4Sea, Long Branch, N.J., and of the mission 
^church of St. Michael's, West End, Long Branch, 
N.J., which he built, 1888-90. He was appointed 
•chancellor of the diocese and rector of St. Mary's 
cathedral, Trenton, by Bishop O'Farrell in 1890, 
▼icar-general in 1892, and July 20, 1894, was ap- 
pointed bishop of Trenton, by Leo XIII., as 
•successor to Bishop O'Farrell. After the death 
•of Bishop O'Farrell, April 2, 1894, he was admin, 
istrator of Trenton until his appointment as 
bishop, and was consecrated in St. Mary's cathe- 
dral, Trenton, Oct. 18, 1894, by Archbishop M. A. 
Corrigan, assisted by Bishops McQuaid of Roches- 
ter and McDonnell of Brooklyn. He was the 
4urbiter in the re-organization of the Ancient 
Order of Hibernians and took a prominent part 
in the movement for the federation of Catholic 
societies throughout the United States in 1901. 




K-^-y' 



^4Ufu^ jf. elt^^iujC 



In behalf of this movement he contributed vari- 
ous articles to magazines and papers, notably to 
the North American Review on " Catholics and 
American Citizenship " and to the American Ec- 
clesiastical Review on " Catholic Grievances— 
their Remedy." His Alma Mater conferred upon 
him the degree of LL.D. in 1898. 

MACFBELY, Robert, soldier, was bora in 
Pennsylvania, July 8, 1820. He was graduated 
from the U.S. Military academy in 1850, was pro- 
moted 2d lieutenant, 4th infantry, July 13, 1852 ; 
was in command of the escort for the Pacific 
Railroad exploration, 1853-54, and served on the 
Yakima expedition in 1855. He was promoted 
1st lieutenant, Feb. 3, 1855 ; took part in the 
Rogue River expedition, March to June, 1856; 
was made quartermaster of the 4th infantry, 
Sept. 10, 1856. In 1861 he served respectively 
on mustering duty at Frederick, Md. ; as commis- 
sary to the state of Indiana ; in the western Vir- 
ginia campaign, and as commissariat at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. He was promoted captain of staff 
and commissary of subsistence. May 11, 1861. 
He was chief of the commissariat of the Army 
of the Ohio in 1862, and chief of the commis- 
sariat with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, 15th 
army corps, January to April, 1863, and of the 
Department and Army of the Tennessee, April, 
1868, to September, 1864, where he was engaged 
in the Vicksburg campaign and the campaign 
from Chattanooga to Atlanta. He was promoted 
major of staff in the commissary subsistence de- 
partment, Feb. 9, 1863 ; served as assistant to the 
commissary-general at Washingon, D.C., October 
to November, 1864 ; as purchasing and depot com- 
missary, and chief of the commissariat of the 
Department of the Ohio, at Cincinnati ; and was 
in general charge of the subsistence depart- 
ment in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois from Decem- 
ber, 1864, to September, 1866. He was brevetted 
lieutenant-colonel and colonel, March 13, 1865, 
for faithful and meritorious services during the 
war ; later served as chief commissary of the De- 
partment of the Ijakes, and purchasing and depot 
commissary at Detroit, Mich., and was promoted 
commissary-general of subsistence with rank of 
brigadier-general, April 14, 1875, which office he 
held until his retirement, July 8, 1890. He 
thereafter resided in Washington, D.C., until his 
death, which occurred, Feb. 21, 1901. 

McFERRIN* John Berry » clergyman, was 
bom in Rutherford county, Tenn., June 15, 1807 ; 
son of the Rev. James and Jane Campbell 
(Berry) McFerrin ; grandson of William McFerrin, 
a farmer and soldier in the Revolution, and a 
descendant of Scotch-Irish ancestors, who came to 
America about 1740, and settled in York county, 
Pa. His father, originally Presbyterian, joined 
the Methodist church in 1820, and was a circuit 



MACOAHAN 



McGARVEY 



preacher until his death in 1840. John received 
his education at home and in the schools of 
Tennessee, and worked on his father's farm. He 
was appointed a class leader by the Methodist 
conference in 1823, and was licensed as an ez- 
horter in 1834. He joined the Tennessee confer- 
ence in 1825, became a preacher, and travelled 
various circuits in Alabama and Tennessee, 
1 82^-38. He was a missionary to the Cherokee 
Indians, 1828-30, stationed as pastor of several 
churches, 1830-36, and was presiding elder of the 
districts of Florence, Ala., and Cumberland, 
Tenn.. 1836-39. He was editor of the Christian 
Advocate at Nashville, Tenn., 1840-58 : agent for 
the Methodist Book Concern, 1858-66, and again 
1878-87 ; missionary to the Army of Tennessee, 
1861-66, and secretary of the board of missions, 
1866-78. He was a delegate to the ecumenical 
conference of the Methodist church in London, 
England, in 1881, and to the centennial confer- 
ence in Baltimore, Md., in 1884. He was mar- 
ried, Sept. 18, 1833, to Almira Avery, daughter of 
William V. and Sarah (Johnson) Probart of 
Nashville, Tenn., and secondly, Nov. 12, 1855, 
to Cynthia Tennessee, daughter of John Mo- 
Gavock of Nashville, Tenn. He received the de- 
gree of D.D. from Randolph-Macon college and 
La Grange college in 1847. He is the author of a 
History of Methodism in Tennessee (3 vols., 1870- 
72) ; sermons, and contributions to periodicals. 
He died in Nashville, Tenn., May 10, 1887. 

MACOAHAN* Januarius Aloysius* journalist, 
was born near New Lexington, Ohio, June 12, 
1844. After his father's death in 1851, he began 
to work upon the farm and attend the public 
school. He removed to Huntington, 111., where 
he taught school, 1860-62, and engaged as a book- 
keeper there, 1862-64, and in St. Louis, Mo., 
1864-68. During this time he studied law, con- 
tributed to the Huntington Democrat, and gave 
public readings from Charles Dickens. He visited 
London and Paris and took up the study of civil 
and international law in Belgium in 1869 ; was 
war correspondent of the New York Herald in 
the Franco-Prussian war, 1870-71, and in Paris, 
as the only foreign correspondent there, during 
the occupation of Paris by the German troops. 
While there his intimacy with Dombrovsky 
and other communist leaders caused his arrest 
by the French government, but he was released 
through the influence of U.S. Minister Elihu B. 
Washburne. He visited southern Russia in 1871, 
and was the St. Petersburg correspondent of the 
New York Herald, 1871-72. He reported the 
proceedings of the Geneva tribunal of arbitra- 
tion, December, 1871, and travelled through 
Caucasus with Gen. William T. Sherman, 1872. 
He was married in Jzuiuary, 1873, to a Russian 
lady of rank, was ordered to join the expedition 



against Khiva by the Herald in 1873, and upon 
being refused permission by the Russian govern- 
ment, he travelled alone over the Central Asian 
desert, overtook the Russian army before Khiva, 
witnessed the fall of the city, and gained the 
friendship of Col. Skobeleff. He reported the 
operations of the Carlist insurrectionists in Spain, 
1874-75, was captured during the campaign by 
the imperial authorities while wearing a Carlist 
uniform, and was sentenced to be shot, but 
claiming American citizenship, was saved 
through the American consul-general. He ac- 
companied the exi)edition of Sir Allan Young to 
the Polar seas, in June, 1875, and in June, 1876, re- 
ceived a special commission from the London. 
Daily News to investigate alleged Turkish bar- 
barities in Bulgaria. His reports brought about 
Russian armed intervention, and when he re- 
turned with the Russian army, men, women and 
children kissed his bridle, spurs and even the 
horse he rode, and regarded him as their deliv- 
erer. He reported the conferences of the foreign 
ambassadors in Constantinople in the following- 
winter. He accompanied the Russian army from 
the capture of Shipka Pass, in July, 1877, to the 
peace of San Stefano, concluded in March, 1878,. 
and while the negotiations of peace were pro- 
ceeding he remained at Pera, to nurse a friend 
ill with typhus fever, and fell a victim to the 
disease. He was buried at Scutari, Turkey in 
Asia, and the body was afterward removed to 
New Lexington, Ohio. Masses are said in every 
Bulgarian church for the repose of his soul on 
each recurring anniversary of his death. He 
is the author of : Campaigning on the Oxus and 
the Fall of Khiva (1874); Under the Northern 
lAghts (1876); and Turkish Atrocities in Bulgaria 
(1876). He died in Pera, Turkey, June 9, 1878. 

McQANN, Lawrence Edward* representative, 
was bom in Ireland, Feb. 2, 1852. His father 
died in 1854 and Lawrence immigrated with his 
mother to the United States in 1855, and settled 
in Milford, Mass. He attended the public schools 
and in 1865 removed to Chicago, 111., where 
he engaged in the boot and shoe trade. 1865-79. 
He was employed as a clerk in the city service « 
1879-85; was superintendent of streets. 1885-91. 
and was a Democratic representative in the 52d, 
53d and 54th congresses, 1891-97. He was com- 
missioner of public works, Chicago, 1897-1901, 
and in 1901 was elected comptroller of the city 
of Chicago. 

McQARVEY, John William, educator, was 
born in Hopkinville, Ky., March 1, 1829 ; son of 
John and Sallie Anne (Thomson) McGarvey. His 
paternal ancestors came from the north of Ire- 
land, and his mother's ancestors were Scotch. 
He was graduated from Bethany college, Va.» 
A.B., 1850, A.M., 1853, and was pastor at Eayette» 



McGAUGHEY 

Mo., 1851-58, at Dover, Mo., 1853-63, aad at Lex- 
ioglOQ, Ky. ,1863-81. He was made professor of 
sacred hiatorj in the College of the Bible, Lez- 
ington, Kj., a department of Kentucky univer- 
sity, in 1665, and president of that department in 
18». He was nmmed, March 33, 1833, to Ottie, 
danghter of Bird Hlx of Fayette, Mo. He edited 
the Apoatolie Timea, 1869-76, and was connected 
with other religious papers as correspondent and 
editor for over forty years. He received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. from Bethany in 18T0. 
He is the author of ; A Commtntary on Actt of 
Apotlles (1863); Commentary on the Ooapels of 
Matthew and Mark (1876); Lands of the Bible 
(1880); T«xt and Canon of New Testament (ISSfi); 
Credibility and Inspiration of New Testament 
(1891); Jesus and Jonah (1S06). 

McQAUaHEV. Edward W.. representative, 
was born near Oreencastle, Ind., Jan. 16, 1817 ; 
eon of Arthur 0. and Sarah (Bell) McQaughey. 
His father, bom March 8, 1788, at Johnstown, 
I^., removed to Putnam county, Ind., with a 
company of settlers. At an early age he became 
deputy to his father, who was clerk of the county 
court for twenty-four years, and he nas admitted 
to the bar in 1885. He was married at Oreen- 
castle, Jan. 18, 1838, to Mai^aret Matlock. He 
was elected state senator in 1842, and resigned in 
1643 to accept nomination for representative to 
the 28th congress, but was defeated by Joseph A. 
Wright by three votes. He was a Whig repre- 
sentative from the fifth district of Indiana in the 
29th congress, 1845-47 ; removed to Eockville, 
Parke county, in 1848, where he practised law 
with Gov. Joseph A. Wright ; was a represent- 
ative in the 81st congress, 1840-Sl, and was de- 
feated for the S3d congress in 1890 by John O. 
Davis, Democrat. President Taylor nominated 
him governor of Minnesota Territory in 1S49, but 
the senate failed to confirm the nomination. He 
went to California in 1853 by way of the Isthmus 
of Panama, where be contracted the fever from 
which he died while a guest at Jones's hotel in 
San Francisco, Cal., Aug. 6, 1853. 

McQAVlCK, Alexander Joseph, R.C. bishop, 
was born at Foi Lake, III., Aug. 3. 1863 ; son of 
James and Catherine (Watt) McGavick, who 
came to America from county Antrim, Ireland, 
in 1840. He prepared for collega in the public 
schools ; entered St. Viateur's college, Kankakee, 
ni., in 1879, and was graduated A.B., 1884, A.M., 
1886. Ha was ordained priest in Chicago in 1887 ; 
vraa curate to All Saints' church, 1887-98 ; pastor 
of St. John's church, 1808-1900 ; and became 
pastor of Holy Angels' church in 1900. He was 
elected auxiliary bishop of Chicago in 1899 and 
was consecrated titular bishop of Norcopolis and 
auxiliary bishop of Chicago at the Cathedral of 
the Holy Name, Hay 1, 1899, twelve bishops and 



MCGE2 

nearly three hundred visiting priests being pres- 
ent. Archbishop Feehan acting as consecrator 
and celebrant of the pontifical high mass, and 
Bishop Spalding of Peoria preaching tlie sermon. 
In addition to his duties as auxiliary bishop he 
continued those as pastor of Holy Angels' 
church. 

McOEE, Anita Newcomb, surgeon, was born 
in Washington, D.C., Nov. 4, 1864 ; daughter of 
Simon and Mary Caroline (Hassler) Newcomb, 
and granddaughter of John Burton and Emily 
(Prince) Newcomb and of Charles Augustus and 
Anna Joseph (Nourse) Hassler. She was a 
descendant of Elder 
William Brewster, of 
Gen. John Bull of the 
Continental army, 
and of Ferdinand 
Rudolph Hassler, first 
superintendent of the 
coast survey. She 
attended private 

schools in Washing- 
ton, D.C., and spent 
three years in Eu- 
rope, taking courses 
at Newnham col- 
lege, Cambridge, 
Eng., the Univer- 
sity of Geneva, and 

at Berlin, Germany, 1883-86. She was graduated 
from the medical department of Columbian 
university, Washington, D.C., H.D., 1803, and 
took a post-graduate course at Johns Hopkins 
hospital, Baltimore, Md., in 1892. She practised 
medicine at Washington, D.C., 1898-96, and was 
attending physician of the Woman's hospital and 
dispensary. She was surgeon -general of the 
National Society of the Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Bevdlution, 1804-06 ; librarian-general, 
1806-07 ; vice-president-general, 1898-99, and 
organized and directed the " Daughtei-s ot the 
American Revolution Hospital Corps," which 
selected the women trained nurses who were 
appointed in the army and navy during the Span- 
ish-American war. She was appointed acting 
assistant surgeon in the U.S. army, Aug. 39, 1808, 
and was placed in charge of tlie army nurse 
corps division of the surgeon general's office, 
war department. She organized the " nurse 
corps " and visited hospitals and camps In the 
United States and Cuba. She was elected a 
member of the American AsE^ociation for the 
Advancement of Science in 1888. was afterward 
elected fellow, and was secretary of the section 
of anthropology in 3897 ; joined the Woman's 
Anthropological society of America in 1888, and 
served hb its secretary, 1P89-90 : was elected to 
the Anthropological society of Washington, D.C., 



MoGIFFERT 



-McGILL 



in 1898, being the second woman admitted to 
membership ; entered the Medical association of 
the District of Columbia in 1893, and the Medical 
aociety of the District of Ck>lumbia in 1894 ; was 
•elected an honorary member of the British Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science for the 
year 1897, and was made honorary member of the 
Association of Military Surgeons of the United 
State! in 1899. She was married, Feb. 14, 1888, 
to W. J. McGee, the geologist and anthropologist. 

McOlFFERT, Arthur Cushman, educator, 
was born in Sauquoit, N.Y., March 4, 1861 ; son 
of Joseph Nelson and Harriet Whiting (Cushman) 
McGiffert ; grandson of James and Martha (Nel- 
son) McGiffert and of Ralph and Sophia 
(Moseley) Cushman, and a descendant of Robert 
Cushman, who came to Plymouth in the Fortune^ 
and of Isaac AUerton, who came in the Mayflower, 
He was graduated from Western Reserve univer- 
sity, A.B., 1882, A.M., 1885, and from Union 
Theological seminary, New York, in 1885. He 
studied at the University of Berlin, 1885-86 ; at 
the University of Marburg, 1886-87, and in Paris 
and Rome, 1887-88. He was ordained by the 
presbytery of Cleveland, Sept. 10, 1888 ; was in- 
structor in church history at the Lane Theological 
seminary, Cincinnati, 1888-90, professor, 1890- 
93, and became professor of church history at 
Union Theological seminary in 1898. In 1898 the 
general assembly of the Presbyterian church pre- 
ferred charges against him based on his book, 
** A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age,** 
which they claimed to be heretical. The assem- 
bly requested him to reconsider his views, and if 
he felt unable to renounce them to leave the 
church voluntarily. This he declined to do, on 
the ground that his teachings were not inconsist- 
ent with the underlying principles of the Pres- 
byterian church. In December, 1899, the New 
Tork presbytery voted that the best interests of 
the church required the presbytery to disavow Dr. 
McGiffert's teachings but to pursue no further 
action against him, and in April, 1900, he entered 
the Congregational church. He took the degree 
of Ph.D. at the University of Marburg in 1888 and 
the honorary degree of D.D. was conferred upon 
him by Adelbert college in 1892. He is the author 
of: A Dialogue between a Chrittian and a Jew 
(1889); The Church History of Eusebius (1890); 
Primitive and Catholic Christianity (1893); A 
History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age 
(1897); History and Theology (1898); The Problem 
of Christian Creeds as Affected by Modem Thought 
(1901), and numerous contributions to magazines 
and reviews. 

McOILL* Alexaniler Taggart, educator, was 
bom in Canonsburg, Pa., Feb. 24, 1807 ; son of 
John and Mary (Taggart) McGill ; grandson of 
Hugh McGill, and a descendant of Daniel McGill. 



He was graduated from JeflPerson college, Pa., 
A.B., 1826, A.M., 1829, and served as tutor in 
mathematics. He studied law in Georgia, 1826- 
80, was admitted to the bar in Milledgeville, 1830, 
and by appointment from the Georgia legislature 
surveyed and made a map of the northwest sec- 
tion of the state in 1831. He studied theology in 
the Associate Presbyterian seminary, Canons- 
burg, Pa., 1831-34; was ordained by the pres- 
bytery of Carlisle in 1835, and was pastor in 
Cumberland, Perry and York counties, 1835-38. 
He was married May 15, 1837, to Eleanor A., 
daughter of the Hon. George McCuUough, and 
after her death to Catherine B., daughter of the 
Rev. Charles Hodge, D.D., of Princeton, N.J. 
He connected himself with the old school Pres- 
byterian church in 1838 ; was pastor of the Sec- 
ond Presbyterian church, Carlisle, Pa., 1888-42 ; 
professor of ecclesiastical history and church gov- 
ernment at Western Theological seminary, Alle- 
gheny, Pa., 1842-^2, and professor in the Pres- 
byterian Theological seminary at Columbia, S.C., 
1852-53. He returned to his chair at Western 
Theological seminary in 1853, and in 1854 was 
transferred to Princeton Theological seminary, 
where he was professor of pastoral theology, 
church government and the composition and 
delivery of sermons, 1854-59 ; of church history 
and practical theology, 1859-60 ; of ecclesiastical 
history and church government, 1860-61 ; of ec- 
clesiastical, homiletic and pastoral theology, 1861- 
83, and was emeritus professor, 1883-89. He was 
moderator of the general assembly of the Presby- 
terian church in 1848 ; permanent clerk of the gen- 
eral assembly, 1850-62, and stated clerk, 1862-70. 
He received the degrees, D.D. from Marshall 
college. Pa., 1842, and LL.D. from the College of 
New Jersey, 1868. He contributed to reviews 
and is the author of : Church Oovemment, and 
The Ordinances of the Presbyterian Church. He 
died in Princeton, N. J., Jan. 13, 1889. 

McQlLLt Alexander Taggart* jurist, was bom 
in Allegheny, Pa., Oct. 20, 1843; son of Alex- 
ander Taggart and Eleanor A. (McCullough) 
McGill, and grandson of John and Mary (Taggart) 
McGill and of the Hon. George McCullough. He 
removed to Princeton, N.J., with his parents, on 
his father's appointment to a professorship in 
Princeton Theological seminary in 1854, was 
graduated from the College of New Jersey, A.B., 
1864, A.M., 1867, and from the Columbia Law- 
school, New York city, A.B., 1866, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1867. He settled in practice 
in Jersey City, N.J., in 1867 ; was counsel for the 
city of Bayonne, N.J., 1874-76; a representative 
in the state assembly from Hudson county, 1874- 
76 ; prosecutor of the pleas of Hudson county, 
1878-83 ; and president of the county courts 
1883-87. He was appointed chancellor of the 



state of New Jersey hj Oovernor Oreen, M&roh 
39. 1887rW(t8 re-appointed bj OuTemor Werte in 
1894, and unanimously confirmed bj the senate, 
and served until his death. He was the Dem- 
ocratic candidate for governor in 189S, but was 
defeated by John W. Griggs. He received the 
degree of LL.D. from Princeton in 1891. He died 
in Jersey city, N.J,, April 21, 1900. 

McQILL, Andrew Ryan, governor of Hinne- 
aota, was born in Crawford county, Pa., Feb. 19, 
1840 ; son of Charles Dillon and Angeline (Martin) 
MoOill ; grandson of Patrick and Anne (Baird) 
HoQill and of Ariuand and Mary (Ryan) Martin, 
and great-grandson 
of Qen. Charlee Mar- 
tin, of John Ryan and 
of Simon Himrod, 
soldiers in the Revo 
,lutionary war. An- 
drew Kyan McGill 
spent his boyhood on 
his father's farm, re- 
ceived his education 
in the public sohoola 
and the village acad- 
emy, and taught 
school in Kentucky, 
1659-60. He removed 
to Minnesota in June, 
18S1, and resumed 
teiiching. In August, 1862, he enlisted in the »th 
Miiiiiesotii volunteers, served one year, and 
-was discharged en account of failing health. He 
■WHS editor and publisher of the St. Peter TVidime, 
1H63-06 : county superintendent of schools ; clerk 
of tlie district court, 1866-70 ; was admitted to 
the bar in 1868 ; was private secretary for Gov- 
ernor Austin, 1869-78, and insurance commis- 
sioner for the state, 1873-86. In 1886 he was 
nominated by the Republicans aa their candidate 
for governor and was elected for the term which 
ended Jan. 9, 1889. He was elected to the state 
senate in 1897, and in June, 1900, was appointed 
postmaster at St. Paul by President McKinley. 

McQILL, John, R. C. bishop, was bom in 
Philadelphia, Fa. , Nov. 4, 1609. His parents were 
natives of Ireland, who came to America before 
their marriage and settled in Philadelphia and in 
1818 removed to Bardstown, Ky. He was grad- 
uated from the CoU^e of St. Joseph in 1628 ; 
was admitted to the bar in 1880 and practised at 
Bardstown. He studied for the priesthood in the 
seminary at Bardstown ; at St. Mary's Seminary, 
Baltimore, Md., and was ordained priest at 
Bardstown, Ey., June IS, 1885, by Bishop David. 
He was pastor of St. Peter's, Iiexington, Ky., 
and waa appointed assistant at St. Louis Ber- 
trand's, Louisville, Ky., in the latter part of 18S6, 
And in 1838 visited England on a mission for 
TH-lO 



MCQINNIS 

Bishop Chabrat. He was editor of the Catholic 
AdvooaU, 1838-46, and won a reputation as a de- 
fender of the dogmas of his church. He also, 
with Vicac-Oeneral Spalding, engaged in contro- 
versy with the Protestant Lieague of Louisville, 
Ky. He was vicar- 
general of the diocese 
of Louisville. 1648-60, 
and was consecrated 
bishop of Richmond, 
Va., in St. Joseph'! 
church, Bardstown, 
Ky., by Archbishop 
Kenrick of St. Louis, 
Nov. 10, 1850, assisted 
by Bishops Miles and 
St. Palais. Bishop 
McGill found in the 
diocese of Richmond 
only ten churches 
and eight priests, 
and the cathedral, 

bishop's residence, and sisters' house, all 
loaded with debt. He laid the (xtmer-stune 
for churches at Fredericksburg and Fairfax 
stations in 16SS, the comer-stone of St. Patrick's 
church, Richmond, in June, 18S9, and churches 
at "Warrenton, Harper's Ferry, Old Point Com- 
fort, Martinsburg, Grafton, Fort Monroe and 
Norfolk were subsequently built. He went to 
Rome in 1854 to take part in the convention to 
decide upon the definition of the doctrine of the 
immaculate conception ; was present at theeighth 
provincial council at Baltimore, Md. ; was 
present at the ninth provincial council of Balti- 
more, in May, 18S8, and visited Rome to join in 
the deliberations of the Vatican council in 1669. 
During the civil war he devoted himself to the 
care of the sick and established a hospital in 
Richmond. He built the Convent and Academy 
of Visitation Monte Maria, in Richmond, Va., in 
1866, and introduced several other sisterhoods. 
He also built fourteen parochial schools during 
his bishopric. Bishop McGill wrote a criticism of 
Macaulay's " History of England " ; translated 
Auditt's "Life of Calvin" (1647), and is the 
author of a series of controversisl letters ad' 
dressed to Robert Ridgway ; Tfie True Church 
Indicated to the Inquirer and Our Faith the Vic- 
tory. He died in Richmond, Va., Jan. 14, 1872. 
McQINNlS, Qeorge Fraacto, soldier, was born 
in Boston, Mass., March 10, 1826 ; son of Alexander 
and Hannah (Smith) McUinnis. He removed to 
Maine and subsequently to Ohio. He served in tha 
Mexican war as lieutenant and captain of Ohio 
volunteers, and in the civil war he was commis- 
sioned lieutenant colonel of the 11th Indiana reg- 
iment under Col. Lew Wallace. He was pro- 
moted colonel in September, 1B61, commanded 



McGLYNN 



McGOWAN 



his regiment in the capture of Fort Donelson, 
where he distinguished himself in the assault on 
the Confederate advance in which his regiment 
regained the lost g^und and drove the Confed- 
erates within their works, and in the 1st brigade, 
3d division, at the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1863. 
He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, 
Nov. 29, 1862, and had his rank confirmed by the 
senate early in 1863. With a part of his regiment 
he took part in the Yazoo Pass expedition in 
February, 1863. He commanded the 1st brigade, 
12th division, 13th army corps, Army of the Ten- 
nessee, in the Vicksburg campaign. May 1-July 
4, 1863, and served in the west till the close of 
the war. He was mustered out of service, Aug. 
24, 1865, and settled in Indianapolis, Ind. He 
was auditor for Marion county, Ind., 1867-71, and 
in 1897 was appointed postmaster at Indianapolis, 
Ind. 

McQLYNNy Edwardy clergyman and reformer, 
was bom in New York city, Sept. 27, 1837. He 
attended the public school and the New York 
Free Academy ; in 1851 was sent by Archbishop 
Hughes to Rome, and was graduated with the 
degree of D.D. at the Urban college in 1859. He 
was assistant to the provisional rector of the 
North American college in Rome in 1859-60, and 
was ordained priest, March 25, 1860. On his 
return to New York, he was successively as- 
sistant at St. Stephen's, acting rector of St. 
Brigid's, assistant at St. James's, and in 1862 
became rector of St. Ann's, which position he 
resigned to accept the military chaplaincy of 
the Central Park hospital, holding this position, 
1862-65. He became assistant at St. Stephen's in 
1865, and on the death of the Rev. Dr. Cunnings, 
Jan. 4, 1866, he succeeded to the rectorship. Un- 
der his direction, St. Stephen's became one of the 
most influential of the Roman Catholic churches 
of New York city. Father McGlynn held that 
religious education would be better maintained 
by the multiplication of churches than by in- 
creasing parochial schools and refusing to Cath- 
olic youth the broader educational advantages of 
the public schools. For his views he was severely 
censured by the Propaganda on the ground that 
his policy would take the religious instruction 
of Roman Catholic children out of the control of 
the church. Father McGlynn also upheld the 
economic teachings of Henry George and sup- 
ported him actively in the mayoralty canvass of 
1886, disregarding the refusal of the Archbishop 
of New York to allow him to participate in the 
debates incident to the canvass. Father Mc- 
Glynn defended his position on the ground of his 
rights as a citizen of the municipality. Exagger- 
ated reports of his action reached Rome and he 
was ordered to abjure his doctrines and report in 
person to the pope. Through Arclibishop Corri- 



gan he asked to have the objectionable doctrines 
defined and gave reasonable excuses for declining 
immediately to visit Rome. Thereupon he wa» 
peremptorily ordered to report within sixty days 
in person on pain of excommunication. In Jan- 
uary, 1887, he was ejected from his church and 
failing to appear at Rome, he was excommuni- 
cated in July, 1887. He at once organized the Anti- 
Poverty society, was elected its president and 
began a series of public Sunday evening lectures 
in the Academy of Music, extending his lectures 
to various cities in the United States. In 189^ 
the pope delegated Cardinal SatoUi to visit the 
United States and clothed him with full power 
to investigate the action of the deposed priest. 
At his request Dr. McGlynn and Henry Gtoorge 
furnished an exhaustive statement of their doc^ 
trines and SatoUi submitted the same to five 
Roman Catholic theologians, then included in the 
faculty of the University at Washington, who 
decided that these doctrines contained nothing 
contrary to the teachings of the church and on 
Dec. 24, 189d, Cardinal SatoUi, after endorsing^ 
the decision, absolved Dr. McGlynn and restored 
him to his priestly function. Dr. McGlynn said 
mass in the diocese of Brooklyn under the direc- 
tion of Bishop McDonneU (q.v.), 1893-94, and in 
December, 1894, the Archbishop of New York 
acceded to his demand to be received in his own 
diocese and he was appointed rector of St. Mary's. 
Newburgh, N.Y., with the understanding that 
on the occasion of a vacancy in a New York city 
church he should be returned to the metropolis,, 
which gratification was never accorded him. 
He died in Newburgh, N.Y., Jan. 2, 1900. 

McQOVERNt Thomas, R. C. bishop, was bom 
in Swanlinbar, county Cavan, Ireland, in ApriU 
1882. He was brought to the United States in 
his infancy by his parents, who settled in 
Pennsylvania. He was graduated from Mount 
St. Mary's college, Emmitsburg, Md., A.B., 1859, 
A.M., 1862, studied theology at the seminary of 
St. Charles Borromeo, Overbrook, Pa., was or- 
dained priest, Dec. 27, 1861, at Philadelphia by 
Bishop Wood, and was rector of St. Joseph s 
church, Danville, Pa., for more than twenty 
years. He was consecrated bishop of Harrisburg^ 
March 11, 1888, at St. Patrick's pro-cathedral, by 
Bishop O'Hara, assisted by Bishops Gilmour and 
Watterson, and retained the office tUl his death » 
which occurred in Harrisburg, Pa., July 25, 1898. 

McQOWAN, John, naval officer, was bom in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 8, 1805. He went to sea 
in 1818 and was appointed 8d lieutenant in the 
U.S. revenue service. May 14, 1881. He was pro- 
moted 2d lieutenant, July 11, 1834; 1st Ueuten- 
ant, Feb. 17, 1841, and captain, Deo. 8, 1852. He 
served on the revenue cutter Jackson during the 
Seminole war, 1836, and was chief executive and 



MCGOWAN 



commaDdingofflceror the revenue cutterFortmrd 

during the war with Mexico, participating in the 

attack on Tobasco. He resigned his oommiBsion 

in the navy ia 1853 and commanded one of George 

Law's merohant vesaels trading between Panama 

' 3an Fran- 

Upon the 

ak of the 

anded the 
merchant 
;r Star of 
!«t andwas 

THe STAB at t «EST ^ *^ ^Tld 

proTiaions for 
Hajor Anderson's command at Fort Sumter. He 
arriTed at Charleston bar, Jan. Q, I86I, at 1.30 
a.m., but was unable to make a landing on 
account of the estieme darkness. Confeder- 
ate vessels were sent ^[ainst him at day- 
break and he continued his course up the channel. 
When opposite Fort Moultrie a masked batterj 
on Morris Idland under Capt. George D. James 
opened flre, and as he received no support from 
Fort Sumter he was obliged to head to sea to 
avoid capture. This was the first shot fired in the 
civil war. He re-entered the U.S. naval service 
with his former rank of captain, Aug. 21, 1861, 
held several important comotands and organized 
and directed the Mosquito fleet In Chesapeake 
baj-. After the war he was connected with the 
treasury department until his retirement in 1671. 
He died in Elizabeth, N.J., Jan. 18, 1891. 

McQOWAN, Jonaa Hartzell, representative, 
was bom in Smithtown. Ohio, April 9, 1837 ; son 
of Samuel and Susan (Hartzell) McOowan. His 
paternal ancestors were Scotch-Irish and his 
mother was of German descent. His father was 
an early abolitionist, and his house was for 
several years a depot on the " underground rail- 
road." He removed with his parents to Orland, 
Jnd., in 1854, and was graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 6.S., 1861, M.S., 186S. He 
was married in 1863 to Josephine Pruden. He 
taught school at Ootdwater, Hioh., 1661-62. and 
then enlisted in the Sth Michigan cavalry volun- 
teers as a private, subsequently transferred to the 
Vth Michigan cavalry, in whioh regiment he rose 
to the rank of captain. He was severely injured 
at the first engagement of that regiment in the 
capture of the Confederate raider, John Morgan, 
at Salineville, Ohio, In February, 1864, be re- 
signed his commission and returned to Coldwater, 
where he studied law with the Hon. C. D. Han- 
dall. He was graduated from the University of 
Michigan, LL.B., in 1866, and was admitted to 
the bar. He was director of the school beard of 
Coldwater for six years ; justice of the peace, 
186S-67 ; state senator, 1673-74 ; a regent of the 



MoGRAW 

University of Michigan, 1870-77, and a represent- 
ative in the 4dth and 46th congresses, 1877-61. 
He then settled in the practice of law in Wash- 
ington, D.C. He received the honorary degree 
of LL.D. from the University of Michigan in 1901. 

McQOWAN, Samuel, soldier, was born in 
Laurens district, S.C., Aug. S, 1619. He joined 
the U.S. army as a private in 1846 to take part in 
the war with Mexico, and he gained the rank of 
captain for his services, 1846-47. He n-ns a law- 
yer in Abbeville, and represented the district in 
the state legislature. 1848-60. When Soutii Caro- 
lina seceded in 1860 he joined the provisional 
army of the state, and was. given the rank of 
brigadier-general by Governor Pickens. He 
joined the Army of Northern Virginia in 186S 
as colonel of the 14th S.C. regiment, and 
waa attached to Gen. Mazoy Gregg's brigade, 
A. P. Hill's light division, Jackson's corps, 
at the battle of Manassas, Aug. 29-80, 1862, 
where he Was badly wounded. He rejoined 
his regiment in December, and was presentatthe 
battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 18, 1862. In the 
battle of Chancellorville, May 2-4, 1868, where he 
commanded a brigade in Gen. A. P. Hill's light 
division, Jackson's corpe, he was severely wounded 
a second time. In the battles at Spottsylvania, 
May 8-^1, 1664, he commanded his brigade in 
Wilcox's division, A. P. Hill's 8d army corps, and 
took part in the hand-to-hand fight at the bloody 
angle. He fought at Cold Harbor, May 31-June 
12. 1864 ; at Petersburg, June 16, 1804- April 8, 
1865, and surrendered at Appomattox, April Q, 
1665. He was a member of the state recon- 
struction convention, and was elected a repre- 
sentative to the 89th congress, but was denied 
admission. He was justice of the supreme court 
of South Carolina, 1679-93. He died in Abbe- 
ville, 8.C., Aug. 9, 1897. 

McGRAW, John, philanthropist, was bom in 
Dryden, N.Y.,May 22, 181B. He removed to New 
Hudson, Mich., in 1840, and was a lumber mer- 
chant in Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa. He re- 
moved to New York city in 1650 and to Ithaca, 
N.Y., in 1861. He was a trustee of Cornell uni- 
versity, 1865-77, and In 1869-70 caused to be 
erected at a cost of |150,000 a building for a 
library and museum, which he presented to the 
univerBity, and it became the McGraw Building. 
He was married to Rhoda Charlotte, daughter of 
John Southworth, and after her death to her sis- 
ter, Nancy Amelia Southworth. His daughter 
Jennie was married to Prof. Daniel Willard 
Fiske (q.v.), and at her death in 1861 she be- 
queathed to Cornell as a library fund the bulk of 
her property amounting to about $1,800,000. 
Her will was contested by her husband, who re- 
covered most of the bequest. John McGraw died 
in Ithaca, N.Y., May 4, 1677. 



McGREGORY 



McGUIRE 



McQRBQORY, Joseph Frank, educator, was 
born in Wilbraham, Mass., April 11, 1855 ; son of 
Joseph and Emeline (Fuller) MoGregory, and 
grandson of Joseph and Ruth (Billings) Mc- 
Gregory and of Henry Clinton and Dorothy 
(Clark) Fuller, and a descendant of Gov. William 
Bradford, and of Dr. Silas Fuller, a Pilgrim 
father. He attended the common schools at 
Wilbraham and prepared for college at Wesleyan 
academy, Wilbraham, Mass. He was graduated 
from Amherst college, A.B., 1880, A.M., 1888, and 
did graduate work at the Universities of Gottin- 
gen and Heidelberg, Germany, 1880-81, 1883-84 
and 1890-96. He was instructor in chemistry at 
Amherst college, 1881-83, and was elected pro- 
fessor of chemistry and mineralogy at Colgate 
university in 1883. He was married, July 12, 
1888, to Emma E. J. Hodgkins. He was elected 
a member of the German Chemical society in 
1883, the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science in 1886, the American Chemical 
society in 1893 and the London Chemical society 
in 1893. He is the author of : Lecture Notes on 
General Chemistry (1894); Qualitative Analysis 
(1899) , and published a number of short papers 
on various subjects in different journals. 

McQRBW, James Clark* representative, was 
bom in Monongalia county, Virginia, Sept. 14, 
1813; son of James and Isabella (Clark) Mc- 
Grew ; grandson of Patrick McGrew, and 
great-grandson of Ian (John) McGrew, a High- 
land Scotchman. He was brought up on his 
father's farm, received a practical English edu- 
cation, and in 1833 engaged in merchandising, 
which he followed successfully until the civil 
war began. He was a delegate to the Virginia 
convention which met in the city of Richmond 
in February, 1861, and was one of the ** fifty- 
five '' who voted against the ordinance of seces- 
sion passed by that body. With eleven other 
delegates from western Virginia he was expelled 
from the convention for his active opposition to 
secession. He was active in organizing the new 
state of West Virginia, and was a member of its 
legislature, 1863-65. He engaged in banking in 
Kingwood in 1865, and was a representative from 
West Virginia in the 41st and 42d congres8es,1869- 
73 ; a director of the West Virginia hospital 
for the insane, 1863-70, and one of the trus- 
tees of the Ohio Wesleyan university for a num- 
ber of years. He was sent as a lay delegate 
to the First Methodist CEk^umenical conference, 
which met in London, England, in September. 

1881. 
McQUPFBY, William Holmes, educator, was 

bom in Washington county. Pa., Sept. 23, 1800; 

son of Alexander and Anna (Holmes) McGuffey. 

His parents removed to Trumbull county, Ohio, 

about 1810, and he was graduated from Washing- 



ton college, Pa., in 1826. He was professor of 
Latin, Greek and Hebrew at Miami university, 
Ohio, 1826-^2 ; was licensed to preach by the 
presbytery of Oxford in 1829 ; was profesfisor of 
mental philosophy, philology and general criti- 
cism at Miami university, 1834-36 ; president of 
Cincinnati college, 1886-39, and of Ohio univer- 
sity, 1839-43 ; professor in the Woodward High 
school, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1848-45, and professor 
of mental and moral philosophy in the University 
of Virginia, 1845-73. He was twice married, 
first in April, 1827, to Harriet Speninty of Day- 
ton, Ohio, and secondly, in 1851, to Laura Howard. 
He received the degree of D.D. from Washington 
college in 1842, and that of LL.D. elsewhere. He 
is the author of McGuffey *s eclectic readers and 
spelling books. He died at the University of 
Virginia, Charlotteville, Va., May 4, 1873. 

McQUIREv Hunter Holmes, surgeon, was bom 
in Winchester, Va., Oct. 11, 1835 ; son of Dr. Hugh 
Holmes and Anne Eliza (Moss) McGuire, and a 
descendant of Thomas mor MoGuire, Lord of 
Fermanagh, Ireland, 1400-80. He attended Win- 
chester academy was graduated at Winchester 
Medical college in 1855, and attended the medical 
department of the University of Pennsylvania in 
1856. He was professor of anatomy in Winches- 
ter Medical college, 1857-58, settled in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., in 1858, where he practised his profes- 
sion and attended lectures at Jefferson Medical 
college until 1859. He was graduated at the 
Virginia Medical college in 1860, and studied 
medicine in New Orleans, La., until 1861, when 
he entered the Confederate army. He was ap- 
pointed medical director of the Army of the 
Shenandoah and brigade surgeon under Gen. 
Thomas J. Jackson in 1861. He also served as 
medical director of the Array of the Valley, 1861- 
62, and of the 2d corps. Army of Northern Virginia, 
1861-65. He was married Deo. 19, 1866, to Mary, 
daughter of Gen. A. H. H. Stuart of Staunton, 
Va. He was professor of surgery in the Virginia 
Medical college, 186<V-85, and professor emeritus, 
1885-1900. He engaged in surgical practice, or- 
ganized St. Luke's home for the sick, with a train- 
ing school for nurses, and served as chief surgeon. 
He was president of the Association of Medical 
Ofiicers of the Confederate States in 1875, vice- 
president of the International Medical congress 
in 1876, of the American Medical association in 
1881 ; president of the American Surgical associa- 
tion in 1887, and president of the American Med- 
ical association in 1892. He was elected president 
of the University College of Medicine at Rich- 
mond, Va., in 1869, and held the office until his 
death. He received the degree LL.D. from the 
University of North Carolina in 1887, and from 
Jefferson Medical college, Philadelphia, in 1889. 
He contributed frequently to medical journals. 



McOURK 

and to John Ashhurst's " IntematioD^I Cfclop»- 
diftof Surgery" (1884), William Pepper's " Sjb- 
tem of Hediciae" (1885-87), And the American 
edition of Holmes' " Surgery," He also published 
an account of the circumBtauces ot the death of 
Oen. T. J. Jackson, whom he attended. He died 
in Richmond, Va., Sept. 1», 1900. 

McQURK, Edward A., educator, was bom in 
New York city, Oct. 6, 1841, His parents were 
natives of Ireland. He pursued the classical 
course at St. Joseph's college, Philadelphia, and 
became a member of the Society of Jesus, July 
ao, I8.')7. He was professor of olaesica at Holy 

-■■HOLV C«W)SS COLU6E." 



Cross ooitege, Worcester, Mass., 18S1-66 ; studied 
philosophy and theology at Georgetown univer- 
sity, Washington, D.C.. and Woodstock college, 
Md. , 1866-72 ; was ordained priest, June 29, 1872, 
by Cardinal Gibbons, then bishop of Richmond ; 
was professor of belles-lettres in Boston college 
and Holy Cross college, 1872-77, and was made 
president of Lozola college, Baltimore. Md., Oct, 
10, 1877 : of Oonzaga college, Washington, D.G., 
Ai]g. 21, 1885. and of Holy Cross college, Worces- 
ter, July 3, 1898. He was relieved of oiBce on 
account ot ill health, July 6, 1895, and died in the 
Boston Collefte Villa, Mass,, July 3. 1896. 

MACHEBBUF, Jos«|rii Projectiu. R.C. bishop, 
was bom at Riom, Puy-de-Dome, Clermont, 
France, Aug. 11, 1813. He attended the schools 
of Riom and was graduated from Riom col- 
lege, and in theology from the Sulpician seminary 
of Montferran in 1836 ; was ordained priest by 
Mgr. Louis Charles Teron, at Clermont, France, 
Dec. 31, 1838. He engaged in missionary work in 
France, 1836-80, and then came to the United 
States at the request of Bishop Purcell, of Cincin- 
nati, and assisted him in his diooeee. He was pas- 
tor of a church at Sandusky, Ohio, 1840-S3 ; served 
in New Mexico, 1852-60, part of the time as vicar- 
general. He went to Colorado in 1860, where he 
was thrown from hia carriage and crippled for 
life. He was appointed vicar-general of the ter- 
ritory and built the first church in Denver, Col. 
He established Tillages, built churches to the 
number of eighteen and supplied priests for them, 
also founded the Convent of the Sisters of Loretto 
and a school for boys in Denver before the eatab- 



McHENRY 

liahment of the t«rritory as a vicarat«-apostoUo, 
1868. He was consecrated titular bishop of 
Epiphania and vicar-apostolic of Colorado and 
Utah, Aug. 16, 1868, at Cincinnati, Ohio, by 
Archbishop Purcell, assisted by Bishops Rappe 
and doesbriand. He was promoted bishop of 
Denver, on the erection of that see in 1887, He 
died in Denver, Col., Aug. 10, 1889, 

MACHBN, Wlllts BensOQ, senator, was bom 
in Caldwell county, Ky., April B, 1810; son of 
Henry and Nancy (Tarrant) Machen. He was a 
student at Cumberland college, Princeton, Ey., 
and settled in Eddyville, Ky., where he engaged 
in farming. He was murried to Margaret A., 
daughter of Chittendeu mid granddaughter of 
Col. Matthew Lyon. He was a delegate to the 
state constitutional convention, 1849-50 ; a stula 
senator. 1854-55; and a state representative, 1856- 
67 and 1880-61. Ha was a representative from 
Kentucky in the 1st and 3d Confederate con- 
gresses. February, 1862, to April, 1865. He was ap- 
pointed U.S. senator by Governor Leslie to All 
the vacancy caused by the death of Garrett Davis 
in 1873, and took his seat, Dec. 3, 1873, serving 
out the term of Senator Davis which expired 
March 8, 1873. He then resumed farming. In 
the Democratic national convention at Baltimore, 
July 9, 1873, his name was presented by tha 
delegates from Kentucky tor the nomination for 
Vice-President of the United States and in the 
election in 1678 he received one electoral vote for 
the office. He was made a member of the Ken- 
tucky railroad commission in 1680 and served the 
full term. He was joint owner of several iron 
furnaces in Lyon county and it was at one of his 
furnaces that William Kelly invented the process 
of making steel rails. He died in Eddyville, 
Lyon county, Ky., Sept. 39,1893. 

McHENRY, James, delegate, was bom la 
Ballymena, county Antrim, Ireland, Nov. 16, 
1758 ; son of Daniel and Agnee McHenry. He 
received a lim- 
ited olassioal 
education in 
Dublin, and in 
1771 visited 
America for his 
health and de- 
cided to remain. 
His father and 
younger brother 
John followed ' 
him in a short ^ 
time and estab- 
lished them- 
selves in busi- 
ness in Baltimore. James attended Newark aca- 
demy, Delaware, in 1772. and then studied medi- 
cine under Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia, P& 



Mchenry 



Mchenry 



He joined the Continental army under Washing- 
ton in the latter part of 1775, as an assistant sur- 
geon, and in January, 1776, was in attendance at 
the American hospital, Cambridge, Mass. He was 
commissioned by congress medical director ; was 
made surgeon of the 5th Pennsylvania battalion, 
Col. Robert Magaw, Aug. 10, 1776, and was recom- 
mended by cougress, Oct. 26, 1776, to an appoint- 
ment to the first vacancy in a surgeon's berth in 
any of the government hospitals. He was taken' 
prisoner upon the capture of Fort Washington, 
N.Y., in November, 1776, was released on parole, 
Jan. 27, 1777, and was exchanged March 5, 1778. 
He served as a secretary on the staff of Gen. 
Washington from May 15, 1778, until August, 
1780, when he was assigned to the staff of Gen. 
Lafayette, as aide-de-camp, and served until the 
close of the war. He was with Lafayette when 
Arnold's treason was discovered, and made Wash- 
ington's apologies to Mrs. Arnold for delaying 
breakfast on the morning of Sept. 24, 1780, when 
Arnold was riding to reach the British line. He 
was promoted major. May 30, 1781, his commis- 
sion to date from October, 1780. He was a mem- 
ber of the Maryland senate, 1781-86; delegate 
from Maryland to the Continental congress, 1783- 
86, and to the convention that framed the consti- 
tution of the United States in 1787, and a member 
of the Maryland convention which ratified the 
constitution in April, 1788. He was a member of 
tlie house of delegates of Maryland, 1788-91 ; state 
senator, 1791-96, and was appointed by President 
Washington in January, 1796, secretary of war 
to fill the vacancy caused by the promotion of 
Timothy Pickering to the office of secretary of 
state. He placed the country in readiness for 
war during his secretaryship, w^hich extended 
into Piesident Adams's administration by 
building frigates, armories and arsenals, and by 
establishing the U.S. Military academy at West 
Point, N.Y. He resigned the secretaryship in 
May, 1800, and retired from public life. Fort 
McHenry, commanding Baltimore harbor, was 
named in his honor. He was married, Jan. 8, 1784, 
to Margaret, daughter of David Caldwell of 
Philadelphia, Pa. He was president of the Mary- 
land Bible society in 1813. He published: A 
Directory of the City of Baltimore^ Md, (1807), 
and TJie Three Patriots (1811), which portrayed 
the characters of Jefferson, Madison and Monroe. 
He died in Baltimore, Md., May 3, 1816. 

McHBNRYy James, author, was born in Larne, 
county Antrim, Ireland, Dec. 20, 1785. His 
father, a merchant, died when James was a boy. 
He was graduated from the University of Dublin 
and received a diploma from the college at Glas- 
gow, Scotland. He settled in tlie practice of 
medicine in Larne, Ireland, and from there re- 
moved to Belfast. He immigrated to the United 



States with his w^fe and family and was in Balti- 
more, Md., 1818; Butler county, Pa., 1819-24; 
Pittsburg, Pa., 1824-26, and settled in Philadel- 
phia, where he practised medicine and carried on 
a dry -goods business, which was superintended 
by his wife, 1826-40. He was U.S. consul at 
Londonderry, 1842-45. After 1848 he devoted 
himself to literary work, and his residence 
at 36 South Second street, Philadelphia, was tlie 
haunt of literary men. He edited the American 
Monthly Magazine, for which he wrote " O'Hal- 
loran or the Insurgent, a Romance of the Irish 
Rebellion." He is the author of : The Pleasure 
of Friendship, poems (1823); Waltham, an Amer- 
ican Revolutionary Tale in Three Cantos (1823); 
Jackson's Wreath, poem (1829) ; The Antedilu- 
vians, or the World Destroyed, a narrative poem 
(1840) ; Tlie Wilderness, or Braddock's Times, a 
Tale of the West (2 vols., 1823); A Spectre of 
the Forest, or Annals of the Housatonic, (2 vols., 
1823); Tlie Hearts of Steel, an Irish Historical 
Tale of the Last Century (2 vols., 1826); The 
Betrothed of Wyoming (2d ed., 1880); Meredith, 
or the Mystery of the Mescheanza, a Tale of the 
i2evoZu^ton(1831); and The Usurper, an Irish his- 
torical tragedy in five acts (1829). He died in 
Philadelphia, Pa., July 21, 1845. 

McHENRYt John Hardin, representative, wan 
bom in Washington county, Ky., Oct. 13, 1797 ; 
son of the Rev. Barnabas and Sarah (Hardin) 
McHenry, and grandson of the Rev. Francis Mc- 
Henry, who came from Ireland, settled in New 
Jersey and preached in Virginia, and of Col. John 
and Jane (Daviess) Hardin. He was educated 
for the law and became prominent at the bar ; 
was a member of the state legislature from Ohio 
county, 1840, and a Whig representative from 
the second Kentucky district in the 28th and 
29th congresses, 1843-47. He also represented 
Ohio and Hancock counties in the state constitu- 
tional convention in 1849. His eldest son, Henry 
D. McHenry, was a representative from his 
county in the state legislature ; a member of the 
state senate ; a representative in the42d congress, 
1871-73, and a member of the state constitutional 
convention of 1891. He was also district delegate 
to several Democratic national conventions, and 
for a number of years a member of the national 
executive committee. Another son, Col. John 
Hardin McHenry, commanded the 17th Kentucky 
volunteers in the U.S. army, 1861-62, gaining 
distinction at the battle of Fort Donelson, and 
was dismissed from the U.S. service, Dec. 9, 
1862, for issuing an order returning slaves to their 
masters from his camp in violation of an addi- 
tional article of war. A third son, W. Estell 
McHenry, represented Daviess county in the Ken> 
tucky legislature. John Hardin McHenry died 
in Owensboro, Ky., Nov. 1, 1871. 



McILHENKEY 

MclLHENNEY, CbarlM Mortan, artist, was 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., April 4, 1858; son of 
James L. andMargaretMcIlhennej, and grandson 
of Dr. Joseph E. and Eliza Mcllhenney. He was 
educated in the public schools of Philadelphia, 
and then turned his attention to art, studying 
peiDting under Frank Briscoe, and anatomy in 
the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts in 1877. 
He was on a sketching tour in the South Pacific, 
1878-iJl. andon his return settled in Netv York 
city. He was married, April 34, 1888, to Ada, 
daughter of Jamas and Emeline Ingersoll, of 
Shrub Oak, N.Y. He was elected an associate of 
the National Academy of Design, and was a reg- 
ular exhibitor there from 1883. He was also a 
member of the American Water-Color society 
And a contributor to its annual exhibitions, r»> 
«eiving the W. T. Evans prize in 1892. He re- 
oeived the flrst Hallgarten prize from the Na- 
tional Academy in 1603, and medals at tlie 
World's Columbian exhibition in 1898. Among 
his pictures are: Old Friendi (1891)! On ths 
Beach {1891}; Grey Morning [X%92)\ September in 
the MoTshet (1893). 

McILVAlNE, Abrahun RobinBOn, represent- 
ative, was born in Crum Creek, Del., Aug. 14, 
18M ; son of James and Mary (Robinson) Uoll- 
vaine; grandson of John and Lydia (Barnard) 
Hcllvaino and of Abraham Robinson of Naaman's 
Creek, Del., and great grandson of Jamea Mcll- 
T&ine, a native of Antrim, Ireland, who settled 
in Delaware about 1740, of Thomas and Sarah 
(Penrose) Robinson, and of Richard Barnard of 
Chester county, Pa. He was given a practical 
«ducaCion and became a farmer on the Brandy- 
wine river. Pa., in 1883. Hewasa representative 
in the state legislature, 1837-38 ; a Whig presi- 
dential elector in 1840 ; a representative in the 
asth, 3Bth and 80th conKiesses, 1843-40, where he 
opposed the annexation of Texas, and was the 
first representative to vote against an appropria- 
tion for the military occupation of the disputed 
territory already incurred by the act of the Pres- 
ident, and he declined to vote on the act declar- 
ing war with Mexico, and voted against every 
appropriation for the prosecution of the war. He 
celired to his farm in 1849 •md served as presi- 
dent of the Agricultural society of Chester and 
Delaware counties. He was married to Anna 
Garrison, daughter of Peter and Elizabeth (Cal- 
vert) Hulvaney of Belmont county. Ohio. He 
died at " Springton," his farm, in Chester county. 
Fa., August. 1B63. 

McILVAlNE, Charles PettK, second bishop of 
Ohio and 38th in succession in the American 
episcopate, was bom in Burlington, N.J., Jan. 18, 
1790; son of Joseph (q.v.) and Maria (Reed) Mo- 
Ilvnine. He was graduated at the College of 
New Jersey, A.B., 1810, A.M., 1819; studied at 



McILVAlNE 

thePrincetonTheological seminary, 1817-18; was 
ordered deacon at St. Peter's church. Philadel- 
phia, June 28, 1830, and was advanced to the 
priestliood by Bishop Kemp in St. Paul's church, 
Baltimore, Md., March 20, 1821. He .was rector 
of Christ church, 
Qeorgetown, D.C., 
1820-25 ;; professor of 
ethics and chaplain 
of the U.S. Military 
academy, WestPoint, 
N.Y., 1825-37 ; rector 
of St. Ann's church, 
Brooklyn, N.Y., 1827 
-83, and professor of 
evidences of revealed ' 
religion in the Uni- 
versity of the City of 
New York, 1883-38. 
He waselected bishop 

of Ohio to succeed C r^ ^ 5%ls— „*- 
the Rt. Hev. Philan- 
der Chase, who resigned in 1831, and was con- 
secrated Oct. 81, 1832, in St. Paul's chapel, 
New Yorkcity, by Bishops White, Oriswold and 
Meade. He also succeeded Bishop Chase as pres- 
ident of Kenyon college, serving 1832-40, and was 
the head of Bexley Hall, the Theological school 
of Kenyon college, by virtue of his office as bishop 
of the diocese. He was a member of the U.S. 
sanitary- commission, 1861-65, and was sent to 
Europe with Thurlow Weed and Bishop John 
Hughes on a mission for the government during 
the civil war. He also attended the Pan-Angli- 
can council in London, England, in 1867. He 
was given a coadjutor in the person of the Rt. 
Rev. (Gregory T. Bedell, consecrated Oct. 13, 1859. 
He visited Europe, 1873-73, for the benefit of his 
health, and died while abroad and was succeeded 
by Bishop Bedell. He received the honorary de- 
gree of D.D. from the College of New Jersey and 
from Brown university in 1832; D.C.L. from 
Oxford in 1653 ; and LL.D. from Cambridge in 
1858 and from Oxford in 1867. He is the 
author of: Tht Evidencet of Christianits in 
their Extertial or HUtorical Division (1833); 
Oxford Divinity Compared with that of the 
Romish and Anglican Churches (1841) ; The Holy 
Catholic Oiurch (1844) ; No Priest, no Altar, 
no Sacrifice but Chi-iat (1846); Tlte Sinner's 
Justification before God (1851); Valedictory 
Offerings (1853); Tlie Truth and the Life{\SrA); 
The True Temple (1881); The Work of Preaching 
Christ (1884) ; Righteousness by Faith (1864). He 
died in Florence, Italy, March 13, 1873. 

McILVAlNE, Joseph, senator, was born in 
Bristol, Pa., in 1765 ; son of Joseph Mcllvaine, a 
colonel in the Re volution sry service, and grand- 
son of William and Anne (Emerson) Mcllvaine 



McILVAINE 



McINDOE 



of Scotland, who eame to America and settled in 
Pennsylvania. Joseph attended the local acad- 
emy, studied law, settled in practice in Buriing- 
ton in 1791, was clerk of the courts of Bur- 
lington coMnty, 1800-23, and was appointed U.S. 
attorney for the district of New Jersey by Presi- 
dent. Jefferson, serving, 1801-20. He , was ap- 
pointed judge of the superior court of New Jersey 
in 1818, but declined the appointment and was 
elected to the U.S. senate from New Jersey as 
a Democrat to take the place of Samuel L. South- 
ard, who had resigned, and he served from Dec. 
1, 1828, until his death. He became a captain in 
McPherson's Regiment of Blues in 1798, and aide- 
de-camp to Gov. Joseph Bloomfield in 1804. He 
was married to Maria, daughter of Bowes Reed 
of Philadelphia, Pa. He died in Burlington, N.J., 
Aug. 19. 1826. 

McILVAINE, Joshua Hall» educator, was born 
in Lewes, Del., March 4, 1815. He was prepared 
for college at Wilmington, Del., matriculated at 
Lafayette with the class of 1887, changed to 
Princeton, and was graduated from the College 
of New Jersey, A.B., 1837, and from Princeton 
Theological seminary in 1840. He was licensed 
to preach in 1889. He served as stated supply 
at the Second church, Freehold, N.J., and the 
First church, Paterson, N.J., and was pastor at 
Little Falls, N.Y., 1841-42. He was ordained by 
the presbytery of Albany, June 28, 1842, removed 
to Utica, N.Y., in 1843, and organized the West- 
minster Presbyterian church, the first of that 
name in the United States, and the first organ- 
ized with a rotary eldership in the Presbyterian 
denomination. He ministered there until 1848. 
He was pastor of the 1st Presbyterian church, 
Rochester, N.Y., 1848-00; was professor of belles- 
lettres at the College of New Jersey, 1860-70 ; 
pastor of the High Street church, Newark, N.J., 
1870-87; founded Evel3m college for girls at 
Princeton, N.J., in 1887, and was president of the 
institution, 1888-97. He delivered a course of 
lectures on comparative philology and ethnology 
at the Smithsonian Institution in 1859, and a 
course on social science in Philadelphia under the 
auspices of the University of Pennsylvania in 
1869. He declined the professorship of social 
science in the University of Pennsylvania in 1869. 
He was a member of the American Oriental so- 
ciety, and received the degree D.D. from the 
University of Rochester, N.Y., in 1854. He con- 
tributed to the Princeton Review and other 
periodicals and is the author of : The Tree of the 
Knowledge of Chod and Evil (1854); Elocution^ 
the Source and Elements of its Pomer (1870) ; The 
Wisdom of Holy Scripture^ with Reference to 
Sceptical Objections (1883) ; The Wisdom of the 
Apocalypse (IS^) , and various magazine articles. 
He died in Rochester, N.Y., Jan. 30, 1897. 



McILWAINB, Richard, educator, was bom 
in Petersburg, Va., May 20, 1834 ; son of Archi- 
bald Graham and Martha (Dunn) Mcllwaine, and 
grandson of Richard and Jane (Graham) Mcll- 
waine and of Robert and Ann (Strawbridge) 
Dunn. He attended the Petersburg Classical 
institute and was graduated from Hampden-Sid- 
ney college, A.B., 1853, A.M., 1856, and in moral 
philosophy and German at the University of Vir- 
ginia, 1855. He was a student at the Union 
Theological Seminary of Virginia, 1856-57, and 
at the Free Church college at Edinburgh, Soot- 
land, 1857-58. He was licensed to preach by the 
East Hanover presbytery, Va., in April, 1857, 
and was ordained pastor of Amelia church in 
December, 1858. He was lieutenant and chap- 
lain of the 44th Virginia volunteers, 1861-62 ; 
pastor of the Farmville church, Va., 1863-70; 
pastor of the First Presbyterian church at Lynch- 
burg, 1870-72; secretary and treasurer of the 
home and foreign missions of the Southern Pres- 
byterian church, 1872-83, and a member of the 
constitutional convention of the state of Virginia 
of 1901, representing Prince Edward county. He 
was elected president of Hampden-Sidney college, 
in 1883, which position he stiU held in 1901. The 
honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on him 
by Stuart college, Tennessee, in 1873, and LL.D. 
by Davidson college, N.C., in 1900. He was mar- 
ried May 14, 1857, to Elizabeth Read. His sons, 
Archibald G. and Clement R., practised law at 
Tyler, Texas, and Knoxville, Tenn., respectively. 

McINDOEt Walter Duncant representative, 
was born in Dumbartonshire, Scotland, March SO, 
1819 ; son of Hugh and Catharine (McCrae) Mc- 
Indoe. He attended school in Dumbartonshire 
until 1886, when he removed to New York, where 
he was a bookkeeper until 1840. He followed the 
same pursuit in Virginia and Charleston, S.C., 
1840-42, and in St. Louis, Mo., 1842-46. He 
was married, Feb. 20, 1845, to Catherine H. Tay- 
lor, of Florisant, Mo. In the fall of 1845 he re- 
moved to Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., where 
he engaged in lumbering. He represented his 
district in the state legislature in 1850 and 
1854r^55, and was an unsuccessful candidate for 
governor of Wisconsin in 1857. He was elected 
a Republican representative to the 37th congress 
to All the vacancy caused by the death of Luther 
Hanchett in December, 1862, and was re-elected 
to the 38th and 39th congresses, serving from 
Jan. 26, 1863, till March 3, 1867. He was chair- 
man of the committee on Revolutionary pensions 
in the 39th congress. He was a presidential elec- 
tor on the Fremont and Dayton ticket in 1856 ; 
the Lincoln and Hamlin ticket in 1860, and the 
Grant and Colfax ticket in 1872, and a delegate to 
the Philadelphia ** Loyalists* convention " of 1866. 
He died at Wausau, Wis., Aug. 22, 1872. 



McINTIRB 

McINTIRE. Rufiu, representative, was bom 
in York, Maine, Deo. 19, 1T84. He tAught scliool ; 
attended the South Berwick academj ; was 
graduated from Dartmouth in 1809, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1812. He was a captain in 
the Uaasachusette militia, serred on the frontier 
throughout the war of ltiI3, and in leiG returned 
to the practice of hia profession in York, Maine. 
He was a delegate to the Brunswick convention ; 
a representative in the state legislature at its 
first asaemblf ; conotf attorney, and a represent- 
ative from Maine in the 20th-33d congreeses, 
1837-85. He was appointed a boundary oommis- 
aioner in 1826 ; served as laud agent, 1839-41, and 
was U.S. marshal for Maine and surveyor of the 
port of Portsmouth for four years. Ha was an 
overseer of Bowdoiu college, 1621-60. Be died 
in Parsonsfield, Maine, April 2», 1866. 

MclNTOSH, James McKay, naval officer, was 
born in Mcintosh oounty, Oa., in 17U2 ; son of 

Lachlan and (Stuart) Mcintosh ; grand' 

son of Col. William and Mary (MacEay) Mcin- 
tosh, and great-grandson of John Mohr and Mar- 
jory (Fnuier) Mcintosh. He was appointed mid- 
ehipman in the U.S. navy, Sept. 1, 1811, and 
served through the war of 1812, participating in 
the engagement between the Enterprise and ^he 
Boxer in December, 1813. He was promoted 
lieutenant, April 1, 1818 ; was attached to the ex- 
pedition to the West Indies against pirates in 
1820. and was captured by l^&tt«, and only es- 
caped being burned at the stake by the interven- 
tion of the pirates themselves when he refused to 
carry an order of the pirate chieftain to his com- 
mander. He was promoted commander, Feb. 28, 
1838 ; captain, Sept. S. 1849 ; commanded the U.S. 
frigate Congreia, of the Brazil squadron, 1851-S3, 
and was transferred to the home squadron as flag 
officer in 1SS7. While serving with the home 
squadron in the Oulf of Mexico he prevented the 
British fleet from continuing to board and search 
U.S. vessels, and he received the thanks of con- 
gress for this service in 1858. He died in War- 
rington, Fla., Sept. 1, I860. 

MclNTOSH, JunM McQaeen, soldier, was 
born at Tampa, Fla., in 1828 ; son of Col. James 
Simmons Mcintosh (q. v.). He was graduated 
from the U.S. Military academy and brevetted 
2d lieutenant, 1st infantry, July 1, 1849. He 
served on frontier duty at Fort Duncan, Texas, 
and in escorting Col. Albert Sidney Johnston's 
topographical party, 1849-63 ; was promoted 2d 
lieutenant in the 8tb infantry, May 15, 1851; 
served at Fort Chadbourne, Fort Clark, Fort 
Bliss and in the escort of the commanding gen- 
eral of the department of Texas, 1852-55. He 
was transferred from Fort Bliss to Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kan., 1855 ; was promoted 1st lieutenant, 
iBt cavalry, March 0, 1865 ; served in the Sioux ex- 



McINTOSH 

pedition and in quelliug the Kansas disturbances, 
1855-66, and on recruiting service, 1856-57. He 
was promoted captain of the 1st cavalry, Jan. 
16, 1857 ; participated in the Cheyenne expedi- 
tion, and in the combat with the Indians at Sol- 
omon's Fork, July 
29, 1857. He was sta- 
tioned at Fort Riley, 
Kan., in 1866, and 
ordered to Fort Ar- 
buckle, Ind. Ty.. to 
which he marched 
by the way of Fort 
Kearny, Neb. He was 
ordered to Fort Cobb, 
Ind. Ty., in 1859, and 
participated in the < 
Kiowa and Comanche 
expeditions in 1860. 
He was in garrison 
at Fort Jefferson, 
Mo., in 1860; on 

frontier duty at Fort Smith, Ark., 1860-61, and 
on leave of absence in 1861. He resigned 
from the U.S. army. May 7, 1861, and joined the 
Confederate forces in Missouri as colonel of the 
2d Arkansas mounted riflemen and was attached 
to McCulloch's brigade at the battle of Wilson's 
Creek, Aug. 10, 1861. He was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general and commanded the 
cavalry brigade of McCulloch's division, made up 
of Arkansas and Texas troops, in the battle of 
Pea Ridge, March 7, 1662, and he fell with the 
commander of his division while leading in the 
assault on Oal«rhaua's division, supported by two 
batteries. He died on the battle-field of Pea 
Ridge (Elkhom Tavern). March 7, 1863. 

MclNTOSH, JamM Simmons, soldier, was 
bom in Liberty county, Oa., June 19, 1787 ; son 
of Oen. John (q. v.) and Sarah (Swinton) Mc- 
intosh. He was appointed from Georgia 2d lieu- 
tenant in a rifle regiment Nov. 13,1813; was pro- 
moted Ist lieiitenant, Dec. 21, 181S, and served in 
the Creek war, being seriously wounded at Black 
Rock in 1814. His regiment was disbanded June 
15, 1616, and he was reinstated in the U.S. army 
Dec. 2, 1815. He was promoted captain March 
8, 1817 ; was transferred to the ordnance depart- 
ment, Sept. 11, 1816, and to the 4th infantry 
June 1, 1831. He was promoted major and trans- 
ferred to the 7th infantry, Sept. 21. 1836, and 
lieutenant-colonel, and transferred to the 5th in- 
fantry, July 1, 1889. In the Mexican war he was 
in the battle of Palo Alto ; was severely wounded 
at Resaca de la Palma ; commanded a brigade in 
the valley of Mexico, and was mortally wounded 
at the attack on Molino del Key while leadiag 
his men. Hp was brevetted major March 8. 1827, 
for ten years' faithful service in one grade, and 



Mcintosh 



Mcintosh 



colonel May 9, 1846, for gallant and distinguished 
service at Palo Alto and Besaca de la Palma. He 
died in the city of Mexico, Sept. 26, 1847. 

MclNTOSH, John, soldier, was born in Mc- 
intosh county, Ga., in 1755; son of Col. Will- 
iam and Mary (Mackay) Mcintosh, and grand- 
son of John Mohr and Marjory (Eraser) Mcin- 
tosh. John Mohr Mcintosh came to Georgia 
from Scotland about 1735. John Mcintosh was 
made an officer in the Georgia line in 1775, 
and as lieutenant-colonel defended Fort Morris 
at Sunbury, Liberty county, Ga., from the Brit- 
ish in November, 1778. He served with distinc- 
tion at the battle of Brier Creek, Ga., March 8, 
1779, where he held his position until forced to 
surrender. He removed with his family to Flor- 
ida about 1793 and settled on the banks of the St. 
Johns river. He was arrested by Governor Juan 
Nepomuceno de Quesada and imprisoned in the 
fort of St. Augustine on suspicion of having de- 
signs against the Spanish government, and was 
placed in Morro Castle, Havana. Washington 
used his private influence, which, together with 
that of Mrs. Mcintosh, who appealed to the Span- 
ish government, was effective in securing his re- 
lease after a year's imprisonment, and he returned 
to Georgia. He served during the last few 
months of the war of 1813 as major-general of 
militia under General Jackson at Mobile, Ala. 
He was married during the Revolutionary war to 
Sarah S win ton, of South Carolina ; she died on 
St. Simon Island, Ga., in 1789. General Mcin- 
tosh died in Mcintosh county, Ga., Nov. 12, 1826. 

Mcintosh, John Balllie, soldier, was born 
at Tampa, Fla., June 6, 1829 ; son of Col. James 
Simmons Mcintosh, U.S.A. (q. v.). He attended 
school at Lawrenceville, N.J.,and at Sing Sing, 
N.Y. He was warranted midshipman in the 
U.S. navy, April 27, 1848, and resigned. May 24, 
1850. At the outbreak of the civil war he en- 
tered the U.S. army, was appointed 2d lieutenant, 
2d cavalry, June 8, 1861, and transferred to the 
5th cavalry, Aug. 3, 1861. He served in the Shen- 
andoah valley and in the defences of Washing- 
ton, D.C., until March, 1862, and was promoted 
Ist lieutenant, 5th U.S. cavalry, June 27, 1862. 
He engaged in the operations of the Army of the 
Potomac on the peninsula, 1862, and was brevet- 
ted major Aug. 5, 1862, for gallant and meritori- 
ous services in the battle of White Oak Swamp. 
He was also with McClellan at South Mountain 
and Antietam. He was given command of the 
8d Pennsylvania cavalry, Nov. 15, 1862, and com- 
manded the 2d brigade, 2d division, Stoneman's 
cavalry corps, in the Chancellors ville campaign. 
He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, July 8. 1883, 
for gallant and meritorious services in the battle 
of Gettysburg, where he commanded the Ist 
brigade, 2d division, Pleasanton*s cavalry corps. 



He was severely injured by a fall of his horse in 
September, 1868, and was promoted captain of 
the 5th U.S. cavalry, Dec. 7, 1863. In Grant's 
campaign against Richmond he commanded the 
1st brigade, Wilson's 3d division, Sheridan's 
corps, which he led in Sheridan's raid at Trevil- 
ion station. May and June, 1864, including the 
battle of Ashland, June 1, 1864, for which he was 
brevetted colonel U.S.A. and made brigadier- 
general U.S.V. At the battle of Opequon, or 
Winchester, Sept. 19, 1864, he lost his leg, and 
on his recovery was placed on court-martial duty. 
He was brevetted major-general of volunteers 
March 18, 1865, for gallantry and good manage- 
ment at Opequon ; brigadier-general U.S.A. for 
gallantry at Winchester, and major-general 
U.S.A. for gallant and meritorious services in 
the field during the war. He was mustered out 
of the volunteer service April 30, 1866, and pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel and transferred to the 
42d U.S. infantry, July 28, 1866. He was gover- 
nor of the Soldiers' Home, Washington, D.C., 
186S-69 ; served as a member of the retiring 
board of New York city, and was retired with the 
rank of brigadier-general July 30, 1870. He died 
in New Brunswick, N.J., June 29, 1888. 

MclNTOSH, Lachlan, soldier, was born in 
Scotland, March 17, 1725 ; son of John Mohr and 
Marjory (Fraser) Mcintosh ; grandson of Lachlan 

and Mary (Lockhart) Mcintosh, and of 

Fraser, of Garthmore, Scotland. He sailed from. 
Inverness, Scotland, 
on the Prince of 
Wales in October, 
1783, with his father 
and 130 Highlanders 
under Oglethorpe and 
settled at Inverness, 
afterward named 
Darien, Ga., about 
1785. His father serv- 
ed under Gov. James 
E. Oglethorpe as cap* 
tain in the Spanish 
war in 1740, and 
was captured with 
his kinsman. Lieu- 
tenant Kenneth Bail- 
lie, and sent to Spain. After two years' im- 
prisonment, he escaped to England, and then re- 
turned to Georgia, where he died about 1745. 
Lachlan received a limited education, and in 
1742 became a clerk in the counting-house of 
Henry Laurens, of Charleston, S.C., with whom 
he lived for several years. When he returned to 
Georgia he engaged in surveying, studied math- 
ematics with the assistance of Governor Ogle- 
thorpe, and also studied military tactics and 
civil engineering. He was appointed colonel of 




-g^*^>'<^:^x: 



Mcintosh 



McIVER 



the battalion raised for the protection of Geor- 
gia, Jan. 7, 1776 ; commanded the troops at Yam- 
■acraw Bluff, Ga., in March, 1776, which was the 
first passage-at-arms in that state in the war; 
was appointed brigadier-general in the Conti- 
nental army in September, 1776, and placed in 
command of a regiment which he had raised. 
Tliis occasioned jealousy on the part of Gov. 
Button Gwinnett, who persecuted Mcintosh and 
different members of his family, and after his 
term of office expired, challenged him to a duel. 
The duel was fought May 16, 1777, and both prin- 
cipals were severely wounded, Gwinnett fatally. 
Mcintosh was selected by Washington to com- 
mand the force of 500 men sent to Fort Pitt to 
•defend the frontier of Pennsylvania and Virginia 
from the Indians in 1778. He was about to un- 
•dertake an expedition against Detroit in 1770, 
when he was ordered to join D*£staing in his at- 
tack on Savannah, Ga., where he commanded 
"the 1st and 5th South Carolina regiments, and 
when the city was forced to surrender to the 
British on account of the sudden departure of the 
Prench fleet, he retreated to Charleston, S.C., 
with Gen. Benjamin Lincoln and defended that 
•city until it sun'endered to Gen. Henry Clinton, 
May 12, 1780. On May 15, 1780, the delegates to 
"the Continental congress from Georgia decided 
to dispense with his services as brigadier-general 
until the further order of congress. This act 
waH accomplished by the friends of Button Gwin- 
nett. He retired to Virginia with his family 
until the close of the war, and when he returned 
to Georgia he found that his property had been 
dissipated and ruined. He was a delegate to the 
■Continental congress in 1784 ; served as a com- 
missioner to treat with the Creek and Cherokee 
Indians in 1785, after which he retired to private 
life. He was president of the Georgia branch of 
the S(K;iety of the Cincinnati. He was married 
to Sarah Tlireadcraft. He died Feb. 20, 1806. 

MclNTOSHt Maria Jane» author, was bom in 
^unbury, Ga., in 1803 ; daughter of Lachlan and 

(Stuart) Mcintosh. She was educated 

At home and in Sunbury academy, and at the 
<leath of her father in 1806 removed to New 
York and made her home with her brother, Capt. 
James McKay Mcintosh, U.S.N. She lost her prop- 
erty in 1837. She is the author of Blind Alice 
•(1841), written under the pen name ** Aunt Kitty "; 
Jessie Oraham (1843) ; Florence Amos (1843); 
Grace and Clara (1848) and Ellen Leslie (1843) ; 
^nd these were collected and published in one 
volume, entitled Aunt Kitty's Tales (1847). 
Maoready the tragedian bought the stories for 
his children and procured their re-publication 
in London. She is also the author of: CoU' 
<pie«t and Self-Conquest (1843); Woman an 
Enigma (1844); Praise and Principle (1845) ; 



l\oo Lives, or To Seem and To Be (1847) ; 
Charms and Counter Cliarms (1848); Woman in 
America, Her Work and Her Reward (1850); 
The Lofty and the Lowly (1852) ; Emily Herbert 
(1855); Rose and Lillie Stanhope (1856); Violet, 
or the Cross and Crown (1856) ; Meta Gray (1858); 
Two Pictures (1863). She died in Morristown, 
N.J., Feb. 25, 1878. 

MclNTVRE, Albert Washington, governor 
of Colorado, was born in Pittsburg, Pa., Jan. 15, 
1853 ; son of Joseph Pliillips and Isabella A. 
(Wills) Mclntyre, and grandson of Thomas Mc- 
Intyre, who was engaged in the transportation 
business in Maryland and served as an officer of 
volunteers in the war of 1812. His first ancestor 
in America came from Ayreshire, Scotland, 
about 1745. Albert W. Mclntyre was graduated 
from^Yale, A.B., 1873, LL.B., 1875, and was ad- 
mitted to the Connecticut bar in June, 1875, and 
to the Pittsburg bar, November, 1875. He re- 
moved to Conejos county. Col., in December, 
1876, where he practised law. He established a 
stock ranch in the San Luis valley in 1880. He 
was judge of the county court, 1883-86, and ad- 
judicator of the water rights of the 20th Colorado 
district, 1889-91. He was district judge of the 
12th judicial district of C!olorado, 1891-95, and 
was Republican governor of C!olorado, 1895-97. 
At the close of his gubernatorial term he devoted 
himself to the development of his gold-mining 
interests and to the breeding of fine stock. He 
was married, July 16, 1873, to Florence, daughter 
of William Sydney Johnson, of New York city ; 
and secondly, Jan. 26, 1899, to Dr. Ida Noyes 
Beaver. 

McIVER, Alexander, educator, was bom in 
Moore county, N.C., Feb. 7, 1822: son of Daniel 
and Margaret (McLeoud) Mclver ; grandson of 
Alexander and Effie Mclver, and a descendant of 
Duncan Mclver. He was graduated at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, A.B., 1853, A.M., 1856 ; 
was tutor in mathematics in the university, 1850- 
53; principal of Anson institute, Wadesboro, 
1853 ; law student with Judges Battle, Pearson 
and Phillips, 1854-55 ; lawyer at Carthage, N.C., 
1855-59 ; professor in Davidson college, 1859-69 ; 
professor of mathematics at the University of 
North Carolina, 1869-71 ; state superintendent of 
public instruction, 1871-75 ; principal of the 
Greensboro graded schools, 1875-80, and in 1880 
engaged in farming at Oaks, N.C. He was chair- 
man of the Mecklenburg county board of magis- 
trates and delegate to the state constitutional 
convention of 1865. 

McIVER, Charles Duncan, educator, was born 
in Moore county, N.C, Sept. 27, 1860. He was 
a descendant of Scotch Presbyterians, early 
settlers of Cape Fear district, North Carolina. He 
was graduated at the University of North Caro- 



McIVER 



MACKALL 



Una in 1881, and adopted the profession of teach- 
ing. He assisted in organizing the public schools 
of Durham and Winston, and in 1886 joined 
the faculty of Peace Institute, Raleigh. As state 
institute conductor, elected in 1889 by the state 
board of education, he organized and conducted 
during his three years' term of service, teachers' 
institutes in nearly every county in the state. 
Among the important positions held by him are 
the following : superintendent of summer normal 
schools, president of the North Carolina Teachers* 
Assembly, member of the executive committee of 
the board of trustees of tbe University of North 
Carolina ; chairman of various committees of the 
North Carolina Teachers* Assembly to petition 
the state legislature for improvements in the 
school laws, and chairman of the committee of 
the Teachers' Assembly whose efforts secured 
from the state legislature in 1891 the establish- 
ment of the North Carolina Normal and Indus- 
trial college and an annual appropriation therefor. 
In 1892 he was elected first president of this 
institution, the only college in North Carolina for 
the liberal education of white women receiving 
an annual appropriation from the state. In 
1893 the Universitv of North Carolina conferred 
upon President Mclver the honorary degree of 
Litt. D. 

Mel V BR, Henry, jurist, was bom at Society 
Hill, S.C., Sept. 25, 1826 ; son of Alexander M. and 
Mary (Han ford) Mclver ; grandson of John E. Mc- 
lver and of Enoch Hanford, and a descendant of 
Roderick Mclver of Scotland, who came to the Pee 
Dee section, S.C, shortly after 1746. Henry grad- 
uated from South Carolina college, Columbia, 
A.B., 1846, A.M., 1848; studied law and began 
practice in Cheraw, S.C., in 1848. He was mar- 
ried June 7, 1849, to Caroline H. Powe. He was 
prosecuting attorney for the state, and state 
solicitor, 1858-68, and during the civil war he 
served as an ofiioer in the Confederate army, be- 
ing twice wounded at the battle of Hawes's Shop, 
Va., Xay 28, 1864. He was associate justice of the 
supremi court of South Carolina, 1877-91, and was 
unanimously elected chief-justice, Dec. 10, 1879, 
which office he declined and was chosen chief 
justice, Dec. 1, 1891. He died in Cheraw, S.C,, 
Jan. 12, 1903. 

McJUNKIN* Ebeneaeer* representative, was 
born in Butler county, Pa., March 28, 1819; son 
of David and Elizabeth (Moore) McJunkin ; grand- 
son of William and Mary (Alexander) McJunkin, 
who emigrated from county Donegal, Ireland, 
about 1790, and of Aaron and Elizabeth (Mc- 
Kinstry) Moore, who came to America from 
Scotland about 1790. He was graduated from 
Jefferson college. Pa., in 1841 ; was admitted to 
the bar in 1848, and practised in Butler. He was 
married in July, 1848, to Jane, daughter of the 



Hon. John Bredin. He was deputy attorney-gen* 
eral for Butler county, 1850 ; a delegate to tbe Re- 
publican national convention, 1860 ; a presidential 
elector, 1864, and a representative in the 42d and 
43d congresses, 1871-73, resigning Jan. 1, 1875, for 
the purpose of taking his seat as presiding judge of 
the 17th judicial district, where he served, 1875- 
85, and in 1885 resumed practice in Butler, Pa. 

McKAIQy William McMahon* representative^ 
was born in Cumberland, Md., July 29, 1845 ; son 
of Robert Stuart and Sara Ann (McMahon) Mc- 
Kaig, and grandson of Patrick McKaig and of 
William McMahon. He attended the Carroll 
school and the Alleghany County academy, and 
during the civil war managed his father's coal 
trade by boats over the Chesapeake and Ohio- 
canal from Cumberland to the Washington navy 
yard. He read law with his uncles, Gen..ThomaB 
Jefferson McKaig and William Wallace McKaig,. 
was admitted to the bar of Alleghany county in 
April, 1868, and practised until 1873, when he^ 
removed to Colorado Territory on account of hia 
health and followed cattle ranching. In 1874 he 
was business manager of the Manitou hotel, and 
was located in Denver. He removed to Salt> 
Lake City, Utah, in October, 1874, and subse- 
quently resided in California, where he engaged 
in gold mining. In 1875 he travelled in South. 
America and in Mexico. He returned to Mary- 
land, was the unsuccessful candidate for nom- 
ination on the Democratic ticket for state's- 
attorney of Alleghany county, was city attorney 
of Cumberland, Md., in 1876, a Democratic rep- 
resentative in the state legislature in 1877, was. 
appointed colonel on the personal staff of Gov- 
ernor Hamilton in 1879 and chief of ordnance- 
on the general staff of Gov. Robei*t M. McLane in 
1884, and was reappointed by Governors Lloyd 
and Jackson. He was state senator in 1887;. 
mayor of the city of Cumberland in 1890, and a 
Democratic representative in the 52d and 53d 
congresses, 1891-95, defeating Louis E. McComaa 
in fall of 1890 and George L. Wellington in 1892, 
being the only Democrat elected in the congres- 
sional district after 1876. He retired in 1895, 
never having been defeated for office. 

MACKALL, William Whann, soldier, was: 
born in Cecil county, Md., in 1818. He was grad- 
uated from the U. S. Military academy in 1837, 
and was promoted 2d lieutenant, 1st artillery, 
July 1, 1837. He served in the war against the^ 
Seminole Indians, 1837-39 ; was promoted 1st 
lieutenant, July 9, 1838, and was severely wounded- 
from an ambush in the skirmish at New Inlet, 
Feb. 11, 1839. He participated in the Canada- 
border disturbances as adjutant of 1st artillery, 
1840-41 ; and served on the Maine frontier, 1841- 
43. He was brevetted captain of staff, with the- 
rank of assistant adjutant-general, Dec. 29, 1846» 



HcEAT 

and served throngboat the war with Mexico ; waa 
brevetted captain, Sept. 23, 1846, for gallant and 
meritorious conduct in the several conflicts at 
Monterey, Mexico ; participated in the siege of 
Vera Cruz, the battle of Cerro Gordo, the capture 
of San Antonio ; was promoted captain, and was 
brevetted major, Aug. 30, 1847, for Contreras 
and ChurubuBco, Mexico. Hewaeassistant adju- 
tant-general of Oeneral Butler's volunteer divi- 
sion, 1846-47 ; of General Worth's regular divi- 
sion, 1847-48; of the western division, 1840-AO, 
and of the 3d military department, 1850-51. He 
was treasurer of the Soldiers' Home, a military 
asylum near Washington, D.C., 1851-53, and was 
brevetted major of staff and assistant adjutant- 
general, Aug. 5, 18.^. He was assigned to the 
eastern division and served, 1858-56 ; was on spe- 
cial duty at Washington, D.C., 1855-56, and was 
assistant adjutant- general of the department of 
the Pacific, 1856-61. He was promoted lieuten- 
ant-colonel of staff and aasistant adjutant-general, 
Hay 11, 1861, but declined. He resigned from the 
U. 8. army, Aug. 3, 1861, and on Sept 15, 1861. 
was appointed assistant adjutant-general on the 
staff of Gen. A. S. Johnston with the rank of 
oolonel. He served in camp at Bawling Qreen, 
and when Qen. S. B. Buckner was entrusted with 
the defence of Forts Henry and Donelson he was 
transferred to his staff. He was promoted to the 
rank of brigadier-general, and was placed in 
command of the troops on Madrid Bend, Island 
No. 10. March 29, 1862, where he succeeded Gen. 
John P. McCown, and on the surrender of the 
island, April 8, 1862, he was one of the three gen- 
eral officers who surrendered. He was imprisoned 
in Fort Warren, Boston harbor, until exchanged. 
After his exchange he was assigned to the com- 
mand of a brigade in the department of Tennes- 
eee under Gen. Samuel Jones. In December fol- 
lowing be was given oonunand of the District of 
the Gulf, and in February, 1863, being succeeded 
by Gen. S. B. Buckner, he was assigned to the 
Tvestern division of that district. In April, 1663, 
he was appointed chief of staff to Gen. Braxton 
Bragg, and was relieved at his own request after 
the battle of Chickamauga. In November fol- 
lowing he was assigned to the command of the 
brigades lately under General Hebert, at Smith- 
ville, N.C.,and in November, 1864, was assigned 
to Gen. Joseph E. Johnston as chief of staff, and 
served In the Atlanta campaign from Dalton to 
Atlanta. On April 30, 1863, after tlie surrender 
of General Lee, he joined with Gens. G. W. Smith 
and Howell Cobb in the surrender of Macon, Ga. 
He died at Langley, Va., Aug. 19, 1891. 

McKAY, Donald, shipbuilder, was bom in 
Shelbume, Nova Scotia, Sept. 4, 1810. He learned 
the shipbuilders' trade in New York city, settled 
in Newbnryport, Haw., u a shipbuilder, and in 



MACKAT 

1845 removed bis bnsinees to East Boston, Mass., 
where be conducted a large ship yard. He built 
for Enoch Train several clipper ships for his line 
of Liverpool packets which were celebrated for 
their speed. He also built many of the New 
England clip- 
per ships for 
the California 
and Australian 
trade. He built 
the Oreat Re- ' 
public, of 4556 '■ 
tons, in 18M. ■ 
at the time the 

largest mer- n» •»mt mrusut, 

chantmaa in the world ; the Flying Cloud, that 
made the run from New York to San Francisco 
in eighty-nine days, three days less than the 
Oreat Repubtie ; the Sovereign of the Seal. 2400 
tons, niaking 430 geographical miles in twenty- 
four consecutive hours and Iil44 miles in ten 
consecutive days. He constructed the model of 
a paddle-wheel steamer, exhibited in July, ISSS, 
which he believed would cross the ocean in six 
days. He constructed.! nuniberof U.S. gunboats, 
including tlie ligbt-diaught monitor Nauset and 
the double-end gunboat Aiikuelot, for service in 
the civil war. The last boat of his construction 
was the U.S. sloop-of-wai AdOTM, in 1674. He 
retired to Hamilton, Mass., in 1874, and devoted 
himself to farming. The beauty and speed of 
the dipper ships. Westward Ho, Flying Fith, 
Bald Eagle, Empresa of the Seag, Staghound, 
Star of Empire and Oolden Fleece gave him a 
world-wide reputation as a naval constructor. 
He died in Hamilton, Mass., Sept. 20, 1880. 

McKAY, James J., representative, was bom 
in Bladen county. N.C., in 1703. He became a 
lawyer in his native county ; was a. member of 
the North Carolina senate, 1816-22, 1826 and 
1830, and was U.S. district attorney for North 
Carolina for several years. He was a representa- 
tive in the 22d-30th congresses, 1881-49, and was 
chairman of the committee on ways and means, 
1837-47. At the Democratic national convention 
that met in Baltimore, May 23. 1848, he received 
the vote of the North Carolina delegation as 
their candidate for Vice-President. He died in 
Goldsiwro, N.C.. Sept. 14. 1853. 

MACKAY, Jobn Wllliun, capitalist, was bora 
In Dublin, Ireland, Nov. 38, 1831. His ances- 
tors, who were Scotch, settled in the north of 
Ireland. He came to the United States with his 
parents in 1840 and settled in New York city, 
where his father died in 1843. He attended the 
public schools and learned the trade of shipbuild- 
ing. In 1849 he went to California, where he 
engaged in mining. He began to work the Com- 
^tock lode in Nevada in 1860, aod being hampered 



MACKAYE 



McKEAN 



by lack of capital, he formed a partnership with 
James C. Flood, William S. O'Brien and James 
C. Walker in 1864, and when Mr. Walker retired 
In 1867 James G. Fair took his place in the firm. 
They met with comparatively limited success un- 
til 1872, when the discovery of the Bonanza mines, 
on a ledge of rock in the Sierra Nevadas under 
what is now Virginia City, Nev., made the own- 
ers among the richest men of the world. Mr. 
Mackay owned two-fifths of these mines. In 
1873 the famous silver vein was opened, and from 
one mine Mr. Mackay and James G. Fair, who 
worked as ordinary miners, took $150,000,000 in 
silver and gold. In six years the output from 
the mines was over $300,000,000. With Mr. Flood 
and Mr. Fair he founded the Bank of Nevada in 
San Francisco, Cal., in 1878, and he became its 
president. In 1887 he carried it through a loss of 
$11,000,000, sustained through one of its officers 
speculating in wheat. lie formed a partnership 
with James Gordon Bennett,of the New York Her- 
aid, in 1884, and laid two cables across the At- 
lantic from the United States to England and 
France, and the two men continued the sole 
owners of the Commercial Cable company, of 
which, as well as the Postal Telegraph company, 
he was president. He declined the nomination 
for U.S. senator from Nevada in 1885, was elected 
a director of the Southern Pacific railroad in 
1809, and it was due to his enterprise that the 
Pacific cable from San Francisco to the Philip- 
pine islands was inaugurated. He was married 
in 1867 to the widow of Dr. Bryan, daughter of 
John Hungerford, and they had two children, 
John William Jr., who was accidentally killed in 
Paris in 1895, and Clarence Hungerford, who suc- 
ceeded to the management of the estate after his 
father's death in London, England, July 20, 1902. 
MACKAVEt James Steele, playwright, was 
born in Buffalo, N.Y., in 1844. He early evinced 
a talent for art, and in 1868 went to Paris to study 
painting, but meeting Delsarte he studied dram- 
atic expression. In 1870-71 he lectured in New 
York and Boston on the science and art of ex- 
pression, and devoted the profits to relieve the 
needs of Delsarte, who died in Paris in July, 1871. 
In January, 1872, he opened the St. James theatre. 
New York city, and presented **Monaldi," 
adapted by himself from the French, appearing 
in one of the leading rdles. He was again in 
Europe, 1873-75, studying the drama in Paris and 
England. He appeared as "Hamlet" at the 
Crystal Palace, London, at the instance of Tom 
Taylor, with whom he collaborated in ** Ark- 
wright's Wife " and ** Clancarty *' ; and he also 
wrote "Jealousy" in conjunction with Charles 
Reade. In 1875 his adaptation of '* Rose Michel " 
ran for one hundred and twenty-two nights at 
the Union Square theatre. New York city. Soon 



after returning to America he opened the Ly- 
ceum School of Acting, which subsequently de- 
veloped into the American Academy of Dramatic 
Arts, and among his more noted pupils were 
John McCuUough and Harry Montague. Mr. 
Mackaye was manager of the Madison Square 
theatre for some years, and while holding this 
position he invented and introduced the double- 
elevated stage and the elevated orchestra. In 
1885 he built the Lyceum theatre, in which he 
introduced his inventions of a disappearing or- 
chestra and folding chairs. Among his plays not 
previously mentioned, which were produced in 
America, are: Queen and Woman (1876); Ttcins 
(with A. C. Wheeler, 1876); Won at Last (1877); 
Through the Dark (1878); An Iron Will (1879), 
re-named Hazel Kirke, and produced with phe- 
nomenal success at the Madison Square theatre 
(1880); A FooVa Errand (1881); Dakolar (1884); 
In Spite of AU (1885) ; Rienzi, re- written for Law- 
rence Barrett (1886) ; Anarchy, afterward named 
Paul Kauvar (1887), and Money Mad, adapted 
from Through the Dark (1890). He died at Tim- 
pas, Col., Feb. 25, 1894. 

MACKAY-5MITH, Alexander* clergyman, was 
born in New Haven, Conn. , June 2, 1850 ; son 
of Nathan and Caroline (Bradley) Smith, and 
grandson of U.S. Senator Nathan Smith. He 
was educated at St. PauFs school. Concord, N.H., 
was graduated from Trinity college in 1872, and 
studied in England and (Germany. He was ad- 
mitted to the diaconate of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church in 1876, and was ordained priest in 
1877. He was rector of Grace church. South 
Boston, Mass., 1877-80 ; preacher at St. Thomas's, 
New York city, 1880-86, and declined an election 
as coadjutor bishop of Kansas in 1886. He be- 
came the first archdeacon of New York city in 
1887, and served in that capacity until 1893, 
when he became rector of St. John's parish, 
Washington, D.C., and archdeacon of Washing- 
ton in 1900. He was elected bisliop coadjutor of 
Pennsylvania in 1902, and was consecrated at 
Holy Trinity church, Philadelphia, May 1, 1902, 
by Bishops Doane, Scarborough and Whitehead. 
He received the degree of D.D. from Hobart and 
Trinity college in 1889. 

McKEAN, James Bedell, representative, was 
born in Hoosick, N.Y., Aug. 5, 1821 ; son of the 
Rev. Andrew and Catherine B. McKean, and a 
descendant of Thomas McKean, the signer. His 
father was one of the pioneers of Methodism in 
northeastern New York, and removed to a farm 
at Half moon, N. Y. , in 1828. James Bedell worked 
on his father's farm ; attended the academy at 
Jonesville ; taught there for several terms ; estab- 
lished a select school at Clifton Park, and served 
as superintendent of public schools. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1817 ; practised at Bailston 



UcKEAN 

Spa, and previoual)' to 1853 removed to Saiatoga 
Springs, where be was married to Catherine, 
daughter of Judge William Hay ; she died at 
Salt I^ke, Utah, Jan. 34, 1879. He was colonel 
in the state militia ; countj judge for Saratoga 
county, 1855-S&, and a Republican representative 
from New York in the 36th and 37th congressea, 
1859-61, serving as chairman of the committee 
on expenditures in the state department and of 
the committee on elections. He left his seat in 
congress in 1881, organiEod the 77th New York 
Tolunteers, and commanded hia regiment in the 
8d brigade, 2d division, Sth army corps, in the 
seven days' battle before Richmond, and soon 
after -was forced to leave his command owing to 
ill-health. He was appointed chief justice of 
Utah Tenitory by President Grant in 1873, but 
incurred the displeasure of the Mormons and was 
removed in 1875. He practised law at Salt Lake 
City, Utah, and died there Jan. S, 1879. 

McKEAN, JoMph, educator, vres boni in Ips- 
wich, Mass., April 19, 1776 ; son of William and 
Sajrah (Manning) McKean and grandson of Dr. 
Joseph and Eliza (Boardnian) Manning, of Ips- 
wich. His father, a native of Glasgow, Scotland, 
settled in Boston, Mass., as a tobacconist in 1763, 
removed to Ipswich in 1775, but after the Rev- 
olution returned to Boeton. Joseph attended 
Phillips Andover academy, 1787-90, and was 
graduated from Harvard, A.B., 1794. He taught 
9<*hool in Ipswich, Mass., and studied theology 
under the Rev. Dr. Joseph Dana, 1794-96, the 
Rev. John Thompson, 1796-97, and the Rev. John 
EUliott, of Boston, 17S7. He was also principal 
of the academy at Berwick, 1796-97. He was 
ordained to the Congregational ministry, Nov. 1, 
1797. He was married in Sept«mber, 1799, to 
Amy, daughter of Maj. Joseph Swasey, of Ips- 
wich, a soldier nt Bunker Hill, and hie wife, 
Susanna, daughter of Henry Wise (Harvard, 
1717) and granddaughter of John Wise (Har- 
vard, 1673). He was pastor of the church at 
Hilton, Mass., 1T97-1603, and on account of 
pulmonary trouble, he was obliged to pass the 
following winter in the Barbadoes, and the two 
succeeding winters in North and South Carolina. 
Be formally resigned hia pastorate, (Dot. 3, 1804, 
and when his health improved engaged in teach- 
ing in Boston. He was appointed Hersey pro- 
fessor of mathematics and natural philosophy in 
Harvard in 1800, but declined, having taken up 
the study of law. He was chosen about this 
time to represent Boston in the general court, 
and was re-elected for a second term. He was 
Boylston professor of rhetorio and oratory at 
Harvard, 1809-18, when pulmonary troubles 
again forced him to retire. He spent a short 
time in South Carolina, and from there went to 
Havana, Cuba. He was secretary of the Massa- 



HcK£AN 

chusetts Congregational society ; a member of 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel ; 
corresponding secretary of the Society for the 
Suppression of Intemperance, and of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical society ; and an honorary 
member of the New York. Historical Society 
He received Che degree of LL.D. from the College 
of New Jersey in 1844, and that of S.T.D. from 
Allegheny college. Pa., in 181T. He was the 
founder of the Forcellian olub of Harvard coIlege> 
and the McKean Gate, inscribed in his honor, 
was erected by the club in 1901. He contributed 
additional matter to Wood's continimtion of 
Goldsmith's History of England ; publislied a 
memoir on the Rev. John Eliot, S.T.D., in the 
Hi»torical Collection* of the Massachusetts His- 
torical society, and occasional sermons. He died 
in Havana, Cuba, March 17, 1818. 

McKEAN, Samuel, senator, was born in Hunt- 
ingdon county. Fa., Sept. 19, 1790 ; sou of James 
McKean, a native of Cecil county, Md., who re- 
moved to Huntingdon county. Pa., in 1788, and 
to Burlington, Bradford county. Pa., in 1T9I, 
where he was the first white settler. Samuel at- 
tended the public schools, studied law and repre- 
sented Bradford and Tioga counties in the state 
legislature, 1815-19. He was a Democratic repre- 
sentative from the 19th Pennsylvania district, in 
the 18th, I9th and 20th congresses, 1833-29 ; and a 
member of the state senate in 1829, resigning in 
December, 1820, to accept the ofBce of secretary 
of the commonwealth under Governor Shulze> 
and was U.S. senator frum Pennsylvania, 1833- 
39. He died in BurUngton. Pa„ June 28, 1840. 

McKBAN, Thoniu, signer, was born in Lon- 
donderry, Pa., March 19, 1784 ; son of William 
^and I^etitia (Finney) McKean, both natives of 
Ireland. He was placed under the tuition of the 
Rev. Francis AlHson, 
at Newcastle, Del. \ 
where he nlso studied 
law in office of his 
kinsman David Fin- 
ney ; was engaged as 
clerk to the pro- 
thonotary of the court 
of common pleas ; 
was deputy protho- 
notary and register 
for the probate of 
wills, for Newcastle 
county, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar 
in 1754. He was 
deputy attorney-gen- 
eral of Sussex county, 1756-58; clerk of the 
assembly, 1757'58 ; was appointed by the as- 
sembly, in connection with Csesar Rodney, to 
codify and print the laws of the state passed 



McKEAN 



McKEAN 



previous to the year 1752 ; was a representative 
from Newcastle county to the general assembly, 
1762-^9 ; resided in Philadelphia, 1763-69 ; and 
was one of the trustees of the loan office for New- 
castle county, 1764-76. He was a delegate to 
the stamp act congress which met in New York 
in 1765, where he influenced the according of 
one vote to each state ; was a member of the 
committee which drew the memorial to the lords 
and commons ; with Philip Livingston and John 
Rutledge, revised the minutes of the proceedings 
and had an extraordinary debate with President 
Ruggles, when the latter refused officially to 
sign the memorial of rights and grievances. He 
was appointed sole notary and tabellion public 
for the lower counties on the Delaware, in July, 
1765, and later in the year was commissioned 
Justice of the peace and of the court of quarter 
sessions for the county of Newcastle, in which 
capacity he issued the order for all officers of the 
court to continue using unstamped paper. In 
1769 he was appointed by the assembly as its 
agent to proceed to New York and make copies 
of all papers relating to titles of real estate held 
in Delaware. He was appointed by the crown, 
commissioner of customs, and collector of the 
port of Newcastle in 1771 ; was a delegate to 
the first Continental congress, and was the only 
member of tlie national council to hold office 
continuously from the opening to the closing act. 
He conducted the negotiations of the seci*et com- 
mittee' which procured arms and munition from 
abroad, and when the preliminary vote was taken, 
July 2, 1776, and Delaware declared against the 
Declaration of Independence, as the state had 
three representatives and one was absent, Mc- 
Kean sent a messenger at his own expense to 
summon the absent member thus carrying the 
state in its favor. He was chairman of the con- 
vention of deputies held in Carpenter's Hall, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., in June, 1776; and chairman of 
the committee of safety of Pennsylvania and of 
the committee of inspection for the city of Phil- 
adelphia. He was colonel of a regiment of asso- 
ciated militia and proceeded to Perth Amboy, 
N.J., to support Washington, where he remained 
imtil the flying camp was recruited when he re- 
turned home, resumed his seat in congress, and 
affixed his name to the parchment copy of the 
Declaration of Independence which had been 
signed, Aug. 2, 1776, during his absence in camp. 
He was a member of the convention that framed 
the constitution of the state of Delaware, adopted 
Sept. 20, 1776, and drew up the document. He was 
chief justice of Pennsylvania, 1776-98, and was 
elected president of the state of Delaware in 
1776, thus holding public offices in two states at 
the same time. He resigned his seat in congress, 
Dec. 25, 1780, on account of his inability to per- 



form so many duties satisfactorily, but his resig- 
nation was not accepted and he continued to 
represent his state and on July 10, 1781, he was 
elected president of congress, which office he re- 
signed, Nov. 1, 1781. He was a member of the 
Pennsylvania convention of Dec. 12, 1787, that 
ratified the constitution of the United States, 
was elected governor of the state of Delaware in 
1799, and served till 1808, when he retired from 
public life. He was twice married, first in July, 
1762, to Mary, daughter of Joseph Borden of 
Bordentown, N.J., who died in February, 1773, 
and secondly on Sept. 8, 1774, to Sarah Armitage 
of Newcastle, Del. The honorary degree of 
LL.D. was conferred on him by the College of 
New Jersey in 1781, by Dartmouth in 1782, and by 
the University of Pennsylvania, in 1785. He is 
the joint author with James Wilson of: Com- 
mentaries on the Constitution (1790). He died 
in Philadelphia, Pa., June 24, 1817. 

McKEAN* Thomas Jefferson, soldier, was 
born in Burlington, Pa., Aug. 21, 1810. He was 
graduated from the U.S. Military academy and 
bre vetted 2d lieutenant, 4th infantry, July 1, 
1881. He served in garrison in Louisiana, Missis- 
sippi and Missouri, 1881-84; was promoted 2d 
lieutenant, Sept. 15, 1833, and resigned, March 
31, 1834. He engaged in civil engineering, 1834- 
87 ; served in the Florida war, 1837-38, as adju- 
tant of the 1st Pennsylvania volunteers ; removed 
to Iowa Territory, where he was a delegate to 
the constitutional convention in 1846, and at the 
outbreak of the Mexican war he organized and 
drilled a company of volunteers, with which he 
enlisted as a private in 1847, and was sergeant- 
major in the 15th infantry, 1847-48. He was en- 
gaged in the battle of Contreras ; was wounded 
at Churubusco ; served at Molino del Rey ; at the 
storming of Chapultepec, and in the capture of 
Mexico. He declined the brevet of 2d lieutenant 
of the 1st dragoons, June 28, 1848, and was chief 
engineer of the Dubuque and Keokuk railroad, 
1848-51 ; U.S. deputy surveyor and general assist- 
ant to the surveyor-general of Wisconsin, 1851- 
55 ; commissioner to locate the seat of government 
of Iowa, in 1855; and sheriff of Linn county, 
Iowa, in 1859, where he engaged in farming, 
1848-^1. He was appointed additional pay- 
master of U.S. volunteers, June 1, 1861 ; was 
promoted brigadier-general of U.S. volunteers, 
Nov. 21, 1861 ; commanded Jefferson City and 
the central district of Missouri, December, 1861, 
to March, 1862, and served in the Mississippi cam- 
paign, April to July, 1862. He commanded Ben- 
ton barracks at St. Louis, Mo., July to Septem- 
ber, 1862 ; Corinth, Miss., September to October, 
1862, and was engaged in the battle of Corinth, 
Oct. 3-4, 1862, where he commanded the 6th divi- 
sion. Army of West Tennessee. He commanded 



McK£AN 



McEEE 



the northeast district of Missouri, January to 
June, 1868 ; the district of Nebraska, June, 1863, 
to March, 1864, and the district of South Elansas, 
March to August, 1864. He served as chief of 
cavalry, Department of the Gulf, September 
to October, 1864; was on court-martial duty, 
October to December, 1864 ; in command of the 
district of West Florida, December, 1864, to Feb- 
uary, 1865, the district of Morganiza, La., March 
to April, 1865, and the district of southvvest 
Missouri, June to August, 1865. He was brevet- 
ted major general of volunteers, March 13, 1865, 
for gallant and meritorious services during the 
war, and was mustered out of the volunteer 
-service, Aug. 24, 1865. He settled as a farmer 
near Marion, Iowa, in 1865, was mayor of Marion 
in 1865 and was appointed pension agent for the 
eastern district of the state in 1869, which office 
he declined. He was a delegate to the Republican 
national convention at Chicago, 111., May 20, 
1868. He died in Marion, Iowa, April 19, 1870. 

McKBAN* William Vincent, editor, was born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 15, 1820 ; son of William 
and Helen McKean, and grandson of Donald and 
Anne (Maguire) McKean of Enniskillen. He at- 
tended school until 1833, and in 1836 apprenticed 
himself as a type founder, where he was employed 
for ten years. He was married, Feb. 1, 1841, to 
Hannah Rudolph, daughter of Joseph Rudolph 
and Susan (Pastorius) TuU. He held a govern- 
ment position in Philadelphia, 1846-50, studied 
law under James G. Vandyke, and was associate 
editor with John W. Forney (q.v.) of the Psnn^ 
sylvanian, 1850-53. He was chief clerk and dis- 
bursing officer of the national house of represent- 
atives, 1853-56, was appointed examiner in the 
patent office by President Pierce, but resigned 
upon being appointed secretary to James Bucha- 
nan, Democratic Presidential candidate. He was 
editor-in-chief of the Inquirer ^ 1860-64, and editor- 
in-chief of the Public Ledger, 1864-91 ; and in 
1891 he retired from active life. He was the 
founder of the children's free excursions in 1872 
and chairman of the executive committee for 
three years ; a member and manager of the 
Franklin Institute and of the Moyamensing Liter- 
ary institute, and a member of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, the American Philosophical 
society and the Pennsylvania Historical society. 

McKEAN, William Wlster* naval officer, was 
bom in Huntingdon county. Pa., Sept. 19, 1800 ; 
son of Judge Joseph Borden and Hannah (Miles) 
McKean, and grandson of Thomas and Mary 
(Borden) McKean. His grandfather was the 
signer. He entered the U. S. navy as a midship- 
man, Nov. 30, 1814, and was promoted lieutenant, 
Jan. 13, 1825. He commanded a schooner in 
Com. David D. Porter's squadron in 1823-24, and 
aided in suppressing piracy along the Cuban coast 
VII.- 11 



and among the West India islands. He was pro- 
moted commander, Sept. 18, 1841 ; captain, Sept. 
14, 1855, and in 1860 conveyed the Japanese em- 
bassy to Japan. He was appointed to the command 
of the Western Gulf blockading squadron in 1861, 
and was retired Dec. 27, 1861. He was promoted 
commodore on the retired list July 16, 1862, and 
died near Binghamton, N.Y., April 22, 1865. 

McKEBt Qeorge Colin, representative, was 
born in Joliet, 111., Oct. 2, 1836 or 1837. He at- 
tended the academic department of Knox college 
and took a partial collegiate course at the Illinois 
Liberal institute, 1852-54. He was admitted to 
tiie bar in 1858, practised in Centralia, 111., where 
he also held the office of city attorney, 1858-61. 
He enlisted in April, 1861, in the 11th Illinois 
infantry for three months, and upon the re- 
organization of the regiment for three years' 
service he became captain of a company. He was 
wounded at Fort Donelson, at Shiloh and at 
Vicksburg. At Vicksburg, his regiment in Reed's 
brigade, McArthur's division, McPherson's corps, 
lost heavily, Lieut. -Col. Garrett Nevins, in com- 
mand, being killed. In the Red River campaign 
he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers 
and enrolled and equipped the 1st brigade, corps 
d'Afrique, composed of the 1st, 3d, 12th and 22d 
colored infantry attached to Banks's army. At 
the close of the war he settled in Vicksburg, 
Miss., where he practised law, and engaged in 
planting in Madison county. Miss. He was a 
member of the Mississippi constitutional conven- 
tion in 1867, was register in bankruptcy and was 
elected a representative to the 40th congress, 
1867-69, but the state was refused representation. 
He was a representative from the fifth Mississippi 
district is the 4l8t, 42d and 43d congresses, serv- 
ing from Feb. 23, 1870, to March 4, 1875. He subse- 
quently removed to Jackson, Miss., where he 
practised law and was postmaster. He died in 
Jackson. Miss., Nov. 17, 1890. 

McKBBf James* educator, was born in Raleigh, 
N.C., Jan. 5, 1844; son of Dr. William Henry 
and Susan E. (Battle) McKee. He was prepared 
for college at the Lovejoy school, Raleigh, and 
matriculated at the University of North Carolina. 
The civil war closed the university and he enlisted 
in the Confederate army, joining the Ist North 
Carolina volunteers. He was lieutenant and drill 
master in camps of instruction at Raleigh and 
Morgan town, 1862 ; participated in the action at 
Kinston and Jones Farm, N.C., was assigned to 
the 7th N.C. regiment and took part in the defence 
of Petersburg, Va., 1864; returning with the 
regiment in January, 1865, to North Carolina to 
intercept deserters. After the fall of Richmond 
his regiment escorted President Davis and liis 
family from Danville. Va., to Greensboro, N.C. 
After the war he studied medicine, was graduated 



hcke:e 

at Bellevae Hospital Hedioal college, New York 
city, in 1869, and practiaed in Raleigh. He woa 
married in 1873 to Mildred, daughter of John 
Saseer of Wayne county, N.C. He was elected 
secretary of the North Carolina Medical society ; 
president of the Raleigh Medical academy, and a 
delegate to the American Medical aasooiation. 
He 19 credited with being the flret medical practi- 
tioner in Araerioa syBtemLitically to instruct the 
negro race in medical science. He was elected 
professor in the Leonard Medical college con- 
nected with Shaw uniyersity at Raleigh at its 
foundation, and for several years filled the chair 
of obstetrics and diseases of women and children 
in that inatitutioa. In 1861 he was elected dean 
of the faculty and to him is largely due the suc- 
cess that attended this institution in its pioneer 
efforts to instruct the negroes in the sciences. 
He served also as visiting physician to the Leonard 
Medical College hospital and to St. Agnes hos- 
pital : as local surgeon to the Southern railway 
company ; as visiting surgeon and as trustee of 
the Rex hospital, as a member of the National 
Association of Railway Burgeons ; as superintend- 
ent of healtli for the city of Raleigh and as com- 
piler of the vital statistics of the city. 

McKBEi John, representative, was bom in 
Rockbridge county, Va.; son of John and Esther 
(Houston) McKee ; grandson of Robert McKee 
who oame from Ireland to America about 1738, 
and subsequently settled in Augusta county, Va.; 
and a cousin of Gen. Sam Houston. He was 
stationed in East Mississippi as U.S. agent for 
the Chickasaw Indians in 1813, and in 1818 was 
largely influential in causing the Choctaws and 
Chickasaws to side with the government against 
the Creeks, and he marched with a large force of 
friendly Indians to destroy the Creek town at the 
falls of Tuscaloosa, Ala. Several years later he 
was appointed an ofBcer in the land office at 
Tuscaloosa, and was one of the first settlers of 
Tuscaloosa county. He was a representative 
from Alabama in the leth, 19th and 20th ooQ- 
gresses, 1833-39. In 1839 he was one of the com- 
missioners who negotiated the treaty of Dancing 
Rabbit by which a large tract of land west of the 
Tombigbee was acquired from the Choctaws. 
He died in Greene county, Ala., about 183*. 

McKEGi Samuel, representative, was bom in 
Montgomery county, Ky., Nov. S, 1833. He was 
graduated at Miami university in 18.57, and at the 
Cincinnati Law school in 18.58 ; and practised at 
Mount Sterling. Ky.. ^58-63. In July, 1862, he 
entered the Federal army as captain in tlie Uth 
Kentucky cavalry. On March 32. 1863, he was 
captured and placed in Libby Pris<)n.from where 
he was released. April 30, 18ft4, and mustered out 
otthe service. He w.as a R^ntihlican rpnresent- 
ative from Kentucky in the 3Uth and 4Uth con- 



HcKEEN 

greases, I80r>-60. He wasadolegate tothe Loyal- 
ists' convention at Philadelpliia. 1866, and U.S. 
pension agent at Louisville, Ky., 1869-71. He 
resumed the practice of law in Louisville, Ky.. 
in 1871, and subsequently removed to Dayton, 
Ohio. He died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 11, 18»8. 

McKEE, WlllUm Junes, soldier, was bom in 
Madison, Ind., Dec. 12, 1853; son of Robert S. 
and Celine (Lodge) McKee, and gmndson of 
James and Agnes (McMullen) ftlcKee, and of 
William Johnson and Jlary Grant (Lemon) 
Lodge. He was graduated from the Collegiate and 
Commercial institute, New Haven, Conn., and 
engaged in mercantile pursuits at Indianapolis, 
Ind. He was married, Feb. 20, 1378, to Fannie B. 
McKinney of Indianapolis. He became a mem- 
ber of the national guard oF the state, and in 
May, 1893, was appointed brigadier-general, com- 
manding. At the outbreak of the Spanish- Amer- 
ican war he was appointed brigadier-general 
U.S.y., May 37, 1898, and was successively Id 
command of the 3d brigade, 3d division, Ist arm^ 
corps ; the 2d division, 1st army corps ; the 8d 
brigade, Ist division, 1st army corps and the 2d 
separate brigade, 3d army corps, serving in campa 
at Chickamauga National Park, Qa., Knoxville. 
Tenn., and Macon, Ga. He was honorably div 
charged from the volunteer service, March 15, 
1899, and returned to Indianapolis, Ind., being 
lecom missioned brigadier-general, commanding, 
Indiana national guard, on the same day. 

McKEGN, Joseph, educator, was bora In Lon- 
donderry, N.H., Oct. 16, 17.17; son of Deacon 
John, and grandson of James McKeeo, Scotch 
Presbyterians, who immigrated from London- 
derry, Ireland, about 1718, and settled in New 
Hampshire. Joseph was graduated from Dart- 
mouth, A.B., 1774, A.M., 1777. and taught school 
in his native village, 1771-83. He was a volunteer 
soldierunder Gen. John Sullivan in Rhode Island, 
1776 ; a student at Harvard college, 178ij ; ateacber 



at Phillips Andover academy, 1793-84; studied 
theology, licensed by the presbytery of Londonder- 
ry, and after preaching in Boston a siiort time he 
dissolved his connection with the Presbyterian 
church. In May, 1785, he was ordained pastor 
of the Congregational church. Lower Beverly, 
Mass. He resigned the pastorate early in 1602, 



McKEEVER 

having been elected the Krst president of Bowdoin 
college Id July, 1801. He waa inaugurated in a 
pine grove on the campua, there being no building 
to hold the assemblage, September, 1802, having 
tneantinie visited Harvard, Brown, Yale and 
Williams colleges in company with John Abbot, 
whom he had selected as profeeeor of ancient 
languages and claasioal literature. President 
HcK^en, besides teaching mental and moral phil- 
oeophy, filled the anticipated chairs of mathe- 
matics and of chemiBtry, mineralogy and natural 
philosophy, until 1805, when Parker Cleveland 
was inaugurated as professor of those branches. 
President McKeen held bis first commencement 
in September, 1806, and he had matriculated forty- 
four students and given the bachelor's degree 
toseven besides conferring the bachelor's or mas- 
ter's degree ad eaitdem on fourteen recent grad- 
lutea of Harvard, Yale and Dartmouth. He was 
stricken with painful disease which kept him 
from his college duties the next school year and 
ended his life ; and he was succeeded by the Rev. 
Jesse Appleton. He received the honorary degree 
of D.D. from Dartmouth in 180S. He contributed 
scientific articles to the Transactions of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and pub- 
lished a few sermons. He died in Brunswick, 
Maine. July II!. 1807. 

McKEEVER, Cluuiicey, soldier, was bom in 
Baltimore, Md., Aug. 31, 1829 ; son of Com. Isaac 
and Mary Flower (Gamble) McKeever. He was 
graduated at the U.S. Military academy in July, 
1849, and brevetted 2d lieutenant, 1st artillery. 
He served in Florida, 1649-50 ; was promoted 2d 
lieutenant and assigned to the 8d artillery, July 
27, 1850. He was on leave of absence on his 
father's flagship the Congress in Brazilian waters, 
1850-51 i was assistant professor of mathematics 
in the U.S. Military academy, ISSl-SS; promoted 
let heutenant, Dec. 24, 1858 ; was on frontier 
and garrison duty, 1855-60, and on leave of 
absence, 1860-81. He was instructor in artil- 
lery to Haj. W. T. Sherman's command, Wash- 
ington, D.C., May 28 to June 12, 1861 ; and 
was assistant adjutant-general on the staff of 
Generals Heintzelman and McDowell in the de- 
fence of Washington and the battle of Bull Run, 
and of General Fremont in the western depart- 
ment until Nov. 20, 1861. He was promoted 
captain of ataS, Aug. 8, 1861 ; was mustering 
officer for the District of Columbia, chief of staff 
of the 3d army corps, and served in the Virginia 
peninsular campaign with the Army of the Poto- 
mac. He served in the northern Virginia cam- 
paign, in the defences of Washington, 1863, with 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel and assistant ad- 
jutant-general. U.S. volunteers; and was on 
special duty in the war department and as as- 
sistant in the provost-marshal -general's bureau, 



McKEEVBai 

186S-66. He was promoted major and assistant 
adjutant-general, July 17, 1863, He waaf brevet- 
ted lieutenant-colonel, Sept. 24, 1864, for servioea 
during the war; colonel, March IS, 1865, for 
" diligent, faithful and meritorious services in 
the adjutant-general's department " ; and briga- 
dier-general, March 13, 1865, for " faithful and 
meritorious services during the war." He was 
promoted assistant adjutant-general with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel, March 3, 1875, and 
was assigned to the department of San Francisco. 
He was promoted colonel, Feb. 28, 1887, and was 
retired, Aug. 31, 189S, by operation of law. He 
married Fanny, daughter nf William Chauncey, 
of New York city. She died in Wasliington, 
D.C., in 1900, and left three daughters, two of 
whom accompanied their father to Europe where 
he visited the salt springs for his health. He died 
at Reichenhall, Germany, Sept. 4, 1001. 

McKEEVER, Isaac, naval officer, was bom in 
Philadelphia, Pa., April 6, 1794. He removed to 
New Orleans with his fatlier when quite young 
and entered the U.S. navy as midshipman, Feb. 
1, 1609. He was promoted lieutenant, Dec. 9, 
1814, and commanded one of the five gunboats 
captured by the 
British fieet at 
Lake Borgne, 
La., December, 
1814. He co- 
operated with 
the army in ths 
capture of Pen- 
saoola in 1816. 
and on April 3 
of that year. 
through strategy. 

of the Seminoles, Francis the prophet, 
Hetlis Hojo, and Chief Himollemico, who had 
captured and tortured Lieutenant Scott, and they 
were promptly hanged by General Jackson, April, 
1818. For this service Lieutenant McKeever was 
thanked in general orders. In 1835 he was en- 
gaged against pirates in the West Indies in com- 
mand of the Sea OuU. He was married in 1828 
to Mary Flower Gamble of Philadelphia. He 
was promoted master commandant in 1830 with 
the title of captain. He commanded tlie Lexing- 
ton, Brazil station, and while at Buenos Ayres in 
1833 was made government diplomatic agent, the 
U.S. consul being absent, and he represented the 
U.S. government during the revotutiou of that 
year. While on a cruise in the Pacific in com- 
mand of the Falmouth in 1833 he received the 
commissioQ of captain, and in 1840 was ordered 
home. He commanded the U.S. corvette St. 
Louis in the East India squadron in 1845. and 
when at Kororarcka, New Zealand, he succeeded 
in saving the lives of 160 Christians connected 



U.S.S ST. LOOiS 
be captured two leaders 



McKEEGHAN 



McKENDREE 



with the English mission, taking them on board 
the Falmouth and carrying them to Auckland, for 
which service he received the thanks of Queen 
Victoria. He commanded the Brooklyn navy 
yard, 1847-^ ; was promoted commodore, and 
assigned to the U.S. frigate Congress, flagship of 
the Brazil squadron. On May 10, 1855, he was 
made commandant of the Portsmouth, Va., navy 
yard, and he died there April 1, 1856. 

McKEBQHAN, William Arthur, representa- 
tive, was born in Cumberland county, N.J., 
Jan. 19, 1842. His parents removed to Fulton 
county. 111., in 1848, where he lived on a farm 
and attended the public schools. He served 
throughout the civil war in the 11th Illinois 
cavalry regiment, and in 1865 settled in Pon- 
tiac, 111., where he engaged in agriculture. He 
was one of the organizers of the Farmers' As- 
sociation and was elected vic«-president for the 
eighth congressional district. He removed to 
Nebraska in 1880, and settled on a farm near 
Red Cloud. He was county judge of Webster 
county, 1885-86 ; was the unsuccessful candidate 
for representative in the 50th congress in 1886, 
being defeated by James Laud, Republican, and 
was a Democratic representative in the 52d and 
5dd congresses, 1891-95. 

MACKELLAR* ThomaSy type-founder, was 
born in New York city, Aug. 12, 1812; son of 
Archibald and Henrietta (Andrews) MacKellar. 
His ancestors were among the early settlers of 
New Amsterdam. He received a good education 
and in 1819 he entered the employ of J. & J. 
Harper and was rapidly advanced. He removed 
to Philadelphia in 1833, and entered the type 
foundry of Lawrence Johnson, where he became 
foreman and subsequently a partner of the house, 
which was succeeded by the firm of MacKellar, 
Smith & Jordan. He became well known as a 
writer of hymns, among which are *' In the 
Vineyard of Our Father " ; " Book of Grace and 
Book of Glory " and *' There is a Land Immor- 
tal.'' He was president of the Typefounders' 
Association of the United States, and a member 
of various scientific societies. The University 
of Wooster, Ohio, conferred on him the honorary 
degree of Ph.D. in 1888. He is the author of : 
Tarn's Fortnight Banibles ; Droppings from the 
Heart; Lines for the Oentle and Loving; The 
American Printer, a Manual of Typography 
(1866); Rhymes atween Times (1873); Hymns and 
a feio Metrical Psalms (1887); Hymns and Later 
Poems (published by his executors, 1900). He 
died in Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 29, 1899. 

McKELWAY, St. Clair, journalist, was born 
in Coluiubia, Mo., March 15. 1845; son of Dr. 
Alexander J. and Mary A. (Ryan) McKelway. 
His father was born in Glasgow, Scotland, 
in 1812, came to America in 1817; became med- 



ical director, U.S. volunteers, Army of the Poto- 
mac ; and died in 1885. His mother, a native of 
Philadelphia, Pa., 1818, died in 1899. The family 
removed from Missouri to New Jersey in 1853, 
where St. Clair McKelway was educated by 
private teachers. He wrote for papers in Trenton 
and wsA correspondent of the New York Tribune^ 
186&-65; and was admitted to tho bar in New 
York city in 1866, but at once resumed journal- 
ism. He was oonnected with the New York 
World as associate editor and Washington cor- 
respondent, 186^70 ; was associate editor of the 
Brooklyn Eagle from January, 1870, to August 15, 
1878, and editor-in-chief of the Albany Argu9 
thereafter till December, 1885. He then returned 
to the Brooklyn Eagle as editor-in-chief. He was 
elected by the legislature a regent for life of the 
University of the State of New York in 1883. 
He received the honorary degrees of A.M. from 
Colgate in 1888 ; LL.D. from Syracuse in 1890 ; 
L.H.D. from Union, in 1897 ; and D.C.L. from St. 
Lawrence in 1898. He was elected an honorary 
member of the Long Island and Suffolk County 
historical societies, the Society of Medical Juris- 
prudence, and the Albany Institute ; a director 
of the American Social Science association, and 
a member of the American Institute of Arts and 
Letters. He became a voluminous writer and 
a frequent lecturer on educational, economic and 
ethical subjects. He was married in 1867 to 
Eleanor Hutchison of Boonville, Mo., who died 
in 1884 ; and secondly in 1888 to Virginia Brooks 
Thompson, daughter of Samuel W. Thompson of 
New York city. 

McKENDRBB, William, M.E. bishop, was bom 
in King William county, Va., July 6, 1757, son 
of John and Mary McEjendree. His father was 
a planter and shortly after the commencement 
of the Revolutionary 
war William joined 
the American army 
as a private, was 
advanced to the office 
of adjutant, and later 
placed ill the com- 
missary department, 
and was present at 
tlie surrender of Com- 
wallis at Yorktown. 
He engaged as a 
school teacher and 
was received into 
the Virginia con- 
ference of the Me- 
thodist church on 
trial in 1787. He was appointed to the Meck- 
lenburg circuit by Bishop Asbury in 1788, and to 
the Cumberland circuit as an assistant to John 
Barker in 1789. He was ordained a deacon in 




^^^&.*^^^ut. 



McEENNA 

1790, and aerred on the Portsmouth and Amelia 
oircnits until the close of 1791, when he was 
ord^n«d an elder and appointed to the Ore«ii- 
Tille circuit, where he labored until NoTember, 
1792. He served on various circuits in Virginia 
and on the Union circuit in South Carolina until 
1796. He was then appointed presiding elder of 
the Richmond district, and in 1799, of the Balti- 
more district, returning to the Richmond district 
ia 1600. In September, 1800, he was appointed 
presiding elder of the Kentucky district, and in 
1804 presided over the conference at Mt. Oarretson, 
Kj.. in the abaenoe of the Bishops Aabury and 
Whatooat. He was transferred to the Cumber- 
land district in Jllinois in 1605, and in 1807 
preached in Ohio, Kentucky and Missouri. He 
was a delegate to the Oeneral conference in Bal- 
tfmore, Md., in May, 1608, and was there elected 
bishop to take the place of Bishop Whatcoat, who 
died in 1606. He was consecrated in the Light 
Street church, Baltimore, Md., May 17, 1608, by 
Bishop Asbury assisted hy Elders Qarretaon, 
Bruce, Lee and Ware. In 1808-09 he travelled 
with Bishop Asbury, visiting nearly all the states 
and a part of Canada. He also drew up the by- 
laws which were adopted by all the conferences 
in 1810-11. After the death of Bishop Asbury iu 
1816, and on the election of Enoch Qeorge and 
Robert R. Roberts as bishops, the districts of the 
bishops were defined. Id 1818 he visited the ex- 
treme western conferences and Indian mission. 
His health failing he was released from active 
labor in the conferences in 1830, and continued 
to travel in the west among the Indians. He also 
attended important conferences in the different 
states, and presided at the general conference at 
Baltimore, Md., in 1834, and Pittsburg, Pa., in 
1828. In 1829 he retired from his labors and re- 
aided with his father's family who had removed to 
Sumner county, Tenn., in 1810. He resumed his 
duties in 1830, in New Orleans, La., and in October, 
1830. attended the Kentucky conference at Rus- 
sellville. He attended the Qeneral conference in 
Philadelphia, Pa., in 1882, where he conseciated 
Bishops Andrews and Emery, and in 1884 he 
made a southern tour, returning to Nashville, 
Tenn. He attended the Tennessee conference at 
Lebanon in 1834, and then returned to the resi- 
dence of his brother, Dr. James McKendree, in 
Tennessee. Bishop Robert Paine wrote Life and 
Timet of Bishop McKendree (2 vols., 1859). He 
died in Sumner county, Tenn., March 5, 16S5. 

McKENNA, Joseph, jurist, was born in Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., Aug. 10, 1643 ; son of John and 
Hary McKenna. He attended St. Joseph college 
and removed with his parents to California iu 
January, 1855, and located at Benicia, Solano 
oounty, where he attended the public schoob 
and waa graduated from Benicia Collegiate insti- 



McKENNEY 

tute in 1865. He studied law with Professor 
Abbott and was admitted to the bar iu 1866. H« 
was district attorney of Solano county, 1866-68; 
was married in ISKS to Amanda F. Bornemau of 
San Francisco, removed to Suisun, Gal., and en- 
gaged in the practice 
of his profession. He 
was a representative 
in the state legis- 
lature, 1875-76, an 
unsuccessful candi- 
date for represent- 
ative in the 45th and 
46th congresses, 1670 
and 1878, and was a 
Republican represent- 
ative in the 40th-63d 
congresses, 1885-93. 
He resigned in 1898 
to accept the ap- 
pointment hy Pres- 
ident Elarrison, of 

judge of the U.S. circuit court, and served in 
that capacity from 18J(2 till March 4, 1896, when 
he was made attorney-general in the CAbinet of 
President McKinley. On Deo. 16, 1807, he was 
appointed by President McKinley associate justice 
of the U.S. supreme court as successor to Justice 
Field, retired, and he took his seaton the supreme 
court bench, Jan. 26, 1896. 

McKBNNANi Tliomas McKc«n Thompson, 
representative, waa bom at Dragon Neck, New- 
castle county, Del., March 81, 1794 ; son of Capt. 
William and Elizabeth (Thompson) McKennan. 
He was graduated from Washington college. Pa., 
in 1810, was admitted to the bar in 1814, and 
practised law in Washington, Pa. He was mar- 
ried, Deo. 6, 1815, to Matilda, daughter of Jacob 
Bowman of Washington, Pa. He was deputy 
attorney-general for Washington county, 1815- 
17 ; and a Whig representative in the 22d, 23d, 
24th, 25th and 27th congresses, 1831~S9 and 1841- 
43. He was a presidential elector on the Harri-^ 
son and Tyler ticket in 1840, on the Taylor and 
Fillmore ticket in 1848, and president of the elec- 
toral college in 1849. He was appointed secretary 
of the interior by Pre«dent Fillmore in 1860, but 
after one month's service resigned and returned 
to his practice in Washington, Pa. He received 
the degree LL.D. from JeSerson college. Pa., in 
1848; and was a trustee of Washington college, 
1816-52. He died in Reading, Pa.. July 9, 1852. 

McKBNNBY, James Hall, clerk of thesupreme 
court of the United States, was bom near Bel- 
air, Md., July 12, 1637 ; son of John and Mary J. 
(Hall) McKenney ; grandson of John and Mary 
(Hanna) McKenney and of James and Jane 
(Bowman) Hall ; and a descendant of John 
McKenney, who came from the north of Ireland 



McKENNEY 



MACKENZIE 



and settled in Scarborough, Maine, in 1668. His 
paternal grandfather removed from Massachu- 
setts to Maryland in 1791, and his father was 
editor of the Independent Citizen, Belair. He 
attended Hartford academy, removed to Wash- 
ington, D.C., in 1845, was a student at Rugby 
academy, and in 1853 became assistant to the 
clerk of the U.S. circuit court .Washington, D.C. 
On Nov. 15, 1858, he was appointed junior assist- 
ant to Mr. Carroll, clerk of the supreme court of 
the United States, and in 1868, on the appoint- 
ment of Mr. Middleton as clerk, became acting 
deputy. In 1873 he was appointed deputy clerk 
of the supreme court of the United States, and 
on May 10, 1880, by the unanimous vote of the 
full bench of justices, he was elected clerk as 
successor to Mr. Middleton. He was secretary to 
the electoral commission in 1877. He was mar- 
ried to Virfi:inia D. Walker, and of their sons, 
Frederic Duncan became a lawyer and Charles 
Albert a civil engineer. 

McKENNEY* Thonuis Lorraine* author, was 
born in Hopewell, Somerset county. Md., March 
21, 1785. He attended school at Chestertown, 
Md., and engaged in mercantile business in 
Washington, D.C. He was appointed superin- 
tendent of the U.S. Indian trade by President 
Madison, April 2, 1816, as successor to Gen. John 
Macon. In 1819 an act of congress prevented the 
President from appointing officers for the trade 
department without the consent of the senate 
and he was re-appointed and confirmed. On 
March 11, 1824, a bureau of Indian Affairs was 
organized in connection with the war depart- 
ment and he was appointed chief of the bureau. 
In 1822 charges of favoritism and a corrupt abuse 
of his trust were preferred against liim. The 
case was tried before a committee of congress, 
where he was completely vindicated. He was a 
special commissioner with Gen. Lewis Cass in 
1826 to negotiate an important treaty with the 
Chippewa Indians at Fond du Lac, Mich. Ty., and 
he also visited various tribes and induced them to 
remove their settlements west of the Mississippi 
river in 1827. He was dismissed from office, 
Oct. 1 , 1829, by President Jackson. It was gen- 
erally believed that he was in default, but in 
1833 all his accounts were settled in full. He is 
the author of : Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes, 
of the Character and Ctistoms of the Chippewa 
Indians and of the Incidents Connected with tlie 
Treaty of 'Fond du Lac (1827); A History of the 
Indian Tribes (witli James Mall, 3 vols.. 1838-44); 
Essays on the Spirit of'Jacksonianism as Exem- 
plified in its Deadly Hostility to the Bank of the 
United States (1835), and Memoirs, Official and 
Personal, with Sketches of Travels among the 
Northern and Southern Indians (1846). He died 
in New York city, Feb. 19, 1859. 




McKENZIEy Alexander* clergyman, was born 
in New Bedford, Mass., Dec. 14. 1830; son of 
Daniel and Phebe Mayhew (Smith) McKenzie ; 
grandson of Martin McKenzie, and a descendant 
of the Nantucket Ck>ffins and Watermans. He 
was graduated from 
Harvard A.B., 1859, 
A.M., 1862, and from 
Andover Theological 
seminary in 1861. He 
was ordained to the 
Congregational min- 
istry, Aug. 28, 1861 ; 
was pastor of South 
church, Aug^usta, 
Maine, 1861-67, and 
in 1867 became pastor 
of the First church 
(Ck)ngregational) in 
Cambridge, Mass. He 
was married, Jan. 
24, 1865, to Ellen H., 
daughter of John H. Eveleth of Augusta, 
Maine. He was a lecturer on Biblical theo- 
logy at Andover seminary, 1881-82 ; on the 
theology of the New Testament at Harvard Di- 
vinity school, 1882-83 ; and a preacher to Harvard 
university, 1886-89. He lectured before the 
Lowell Institute, Boston, 1897-98, on ** The Divine 
Force in the Life of the World." He was a mem- 
ber of the board of overseers at Harvard, 1872- 
84, and in 1875 was elected secratary of the 
board. He was elected president of the board of 
trustees of Wellesley college ; a trustee of Phillips 
academy, Andover, Mass., and of the Hampton 
Institute, Virginia ; president of the Boston Sea- 
man's Friend society, and a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical society. He received the 
degree of D.D. from Amherst in 1879 and from 
Harvard in 1901. He is the author of : Two Boys 
(1870); Lectures on the History of the First Church 
in Cambridge (1873); Cambridge Sermons (1883); 
Some Things Abroad (1887); Christ Himself 
(1896); A Door Opened (1898); The DiHne Force 
in the Life of the World (1899); and numerous 
sermons published in pamphlet form. 

MACKENZIE, Alexander Slidell, naval officer, 
was bom in New York city, April 6, 1803 ; son of 

John and (Mackenzie) Slidell, and brother 

of Senator John Slidell. He adopted his mother^s 
surname as his own in 1837 upon the request of 
his maternal uncle. He was warranted midsliip- 
man in the U.S. navy in 1815 : accepted the com- 
mand of a merchant vessel in 1822 in order to 
advance his seamanship ; was commissioned 
lieutenant in 1825 ; commander in 1845, and served 
in the Mediterranean, the West Indies, 'Brazil 
and on the Pacific. He commanded the Dolphin 
during the siege of Bahia and was present at the 



MACKENZIE 



MACKENZIE 



surrender. He commanded the brig Somers, 
manned almost entirely by naval apprentices, 
and while at sea in 1842, discovered an intended 
mutiny on board. The principals of this plot 
were immediately placed in close confinement, 
and after a careful investigation by the officers 
of the ship, three of the leaders, including a son 
of John C. Spencer, secretary of war, were exe- 
cuted at sea, Dec. 1, 1842. Upon his arrival at 
New York, a court of inquiry investigated Com- 
mander Mackenzie's conduct and approved of 
his act. Subsequently a court martial held at his 
own request also acquitted him. He was sent 
to Cuba on a private mission by President Polk 
in May, 1846, and thence sailed for Mexico where 
he served as ordnance officer at Vera Cruz and 
commanded a detached division of artillery at 
Tobasco. He is the author of : A Tear in Spain 
by a Young American (1829); Popular Essays on 
Naval Subjects (1883) ; The American in Eng- 
land (2 vols., 18a5); Spain Revisited (2 vols., 
1836); Life of John Paul Jones (2 vols., 1841); Life 
of Commodore Oliver H, Perry (2 vols. 1841); Life 
of Stephen I>ecafur( 1842) ; The Case of the Somers 
(1843); and left in manuscript a journal of a 
tour in Ireland. He died at Tarry town, N.Y., 
Sept. 13, 1848. 

MACKENZIE, Alexander SUdell, naval officer, 
was born in New York city, Jan. 24, 1842 ; son of 
Com. Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, U.S.N. He 
was appointed acting midshipman U.S.N. , Sept. 
29. 1855, and promoted midshipman, June 9, 1859 ; 
lieutenant, Aug. 81, 1861, and lieutenant-com- 
mander, July 29, 1865. He was on board the Kineo 
during the bombardment and surrender of Forts 
Jackson and St. Philip in 1862 and served on the 
Imnsides during the first attack on Fort Sumter 
in 1863 by the squadron off Charleston. During 
an expedition against the savages of the island of 
Formosa, China, he was mortally wounded, June 
13, 1867. A tablet to his memory was placed on 
the walls of the U.S. Naval academy. He died 
at Formosa, China, June 13, 1867. 

MacKENZIE, James A., representative, was 
born in Christian county, Ky., Aug. 1, 1840. He 
matriculated at Centre college^ Danville, Ky., 
in the class of 1858, but was not graduated. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1861 and engaged in 
practice, but subsequently abandoned it for 
agricultural pursuits at Longview, Ky. He was 
a representative in the state legislature, 1867-71 ; 
a presidential elector for the state at large on the 
Democratic ticket in 1872, and was a representa- 
tive from the second Kentucky district in the 
45th, 46th and 47th congresses, 1877-83. He was 
appointed U.S. minister to Peru, by President 
Cleveland in 1893, served until the close of the 
Democratic administration in 1897, and then 
resumed farming at Longview. 



MACKENZIE* James Cameron* educator, was 
born in Aberdeen, Scotland, Aug. 15, 1852. His 
early life was spent in Wilkesbarre, Pa. , wliere 
he first attended school. He was prepared for 
college at Phillips Exeter academy, entered 
Lafayette, was editor of Lafayette College Jour- 
nal, 1877-78, and was graduated valedictorian, 
A.B., 1878, A.M., 1881. He was founder and 
principal of the Harry Hillman academy, Wilkes- 
barre, 1878-82 ; was a special student at Prince- 
ton Theological seminary, 1882, and was ordained 
by the presbytery of Lackawanna, April 21, 1885. 
He organized and for seventeen years was head 
master of the Lawrenceville school, 1882-99 ; 
studied educational methods in Europe, 1899, and 
in September of that year accepted the director- 
ship of the Jacob Tome institute. Port Dupont, 
Md., established through a bequest of (5,000,000 
made by Jacob Tome (q.v.) and originated the 
plans for the buildings, grounds and an advanced 
organization of the school originally commenced 
in 1894. He received the degree of Ph.D. from 
Lafayette in 1882 ; was a founder and in 1897 
president of the Head Masters' association ; pres- 
ident of the Association of Colleges and Prepa- 
ratory schools, and president of the congress on 
International Secondary Education, Chicago, 
1893, by appointment of the Secretary of the 
Interior. 

MACKENZIE, Ranald Slidell, soldier, was 
born in Westchester county, N.Y., July 27, 1840 ; 
son of Commander Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, 
U.S.N. He was graduated from the U.S. Mili- 
tary academy, June 17, 1862, and promoted 
second lieutenant in the engineer corps. He 
served as assistant engineer, 9th army corps, in 
the northern Virginia compaign. He was bre- 
vetted 1st lieutenant, Aug. 29, 1862, for *' gallant 
and meritorious services at the battle of Ma- 
nassas, Va., " where he was wounded. He was 
attached to the engineer battalion in the Mary- 
land campaign, being engaged in repairing 
bridges, and subsequently participated in the 
battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862, as engi- 
neer of General Sumner*s grand division. He 
was promoted 1st lieutenant, (;orps of engi- 
neers, March 8, 1863, was brevetted captain. 
May 8, 1863, ** for gallant and meritorious serv- 
ices at the battle of Chancellorsville, Va." ; 
served in the Pennsylvania campaign as com- 
mander of an engineer company, engaged in 
laying bridges over the Occoquan river, June 14, 
1863, and across the Potomac at Edwards Ferry, 
June 21, 1863. He was brevetted major for 
Gettysburg, Pa., and was engaged during the 
Rapidan campaign in repairing and guarding 
bridges. He was promoted captain of the corps 
of engineers, Nov. 6. 1863, and participated in 
the Richmond campaign in command of the 



MACKENZIE 



MACKEY 



engineer company. He commanded the 2d Con- 
necticut artillery in Upton's brigade, Russeirs 
division, Wright*s corps, in the Richmond cam- 
paign, and was wounded at the siege of Peters- 
burg. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, 
June 18, 1864, '*for gallant and meritorious 
services before Petersburg, Va."; and com- 
manded the 2d Connecticut heavy artillery, 6th 
army corps, in the Shenandoah campaign, Aug. 
15 to Oct. 19, 1864, participating in the battles of 
Opequan and Fisher's Hill. At Cedar Creek, Oct. 
19, 1864, he commanded the 2d brigade, 1st di- 
vision, 6th army corps, after Col. J. E. Hamblin 
Tq.v.), was wounded, and was himself wounded. 
He was brevetted colonel, Oct. 19, 1864, for 
Cedar Creek, and on Oct. 19, 1864, was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He com- 
manded the 2d brigade, Wheaton's division, 6th 
corps at Petersburg and Richmond, Dec. 81, 1864 ; 
Mackenzie's cavalry division in the Appomat- 
tox campaign ; was brevetted brigadier-general 
U.S.A. and major-general of volunteers, March 
18. 1865, " for gallant and meritorious services in 
the field during the rebellion," and engaged in 
the battle of Five Forks, the pursuit of Oen. 
Lee's army, and was present at the surrender at 
Appomattox, April 9, 1865. He continued in 
command of Mackenzie's cavalry division from 
April to August, 1865, and was mustered out of 
the volunteer service, Jan. 15, 1866. He engaged 
in the construction of the defences of Portsmouth 
harbor, N.H., from February, 1866, to May, 1867. 
He was promoted colonel, March 6, 1867, briga- 
dier-general, Oct. 26, 1882, and was placed on the 
retired list, March 24, 1884. He died on Staten 
Island, N.Y., Jan. 19, 1889. 

MACKBNZIB, Robert Shelton, author, was 
born at Drew's Court, Limerick, Ireland, June 
22, 1809 ; son of Capt. Kenneth Mackenzie, author 
of a volume of Gaelic poetry (Glasgow , 1796) . He 
was graduated from Dublin university, M.D., 
1825 ; taught school in Fermoy, 1825-27 ; be- 
came editor of a county journal in Staffordshire, 
England, and was employed in general literary 
work. He was the English correspondent of the 
New York Evening Star , 1834-51, editor and part 
proprietor of a railway journal in London, 1845- 
51, and an active member of Lord Brougham's 
Law Amendment society in 1847. He came to 
the United States in 1852, engaged in literary 
work in New York city, and became foreign and 
literary editor of the Philadelphia Press in 1857, 
and continued his connection with that publica- 
tion during his lifetime. He received the de- 
gree of LL.D. from Glasgow university in 1834, 
and that of D.C.L. from Oxford in 1844. He 
edited and published several works in London. 
His American publications include : ShieVs 
Sketches of the Irish Bar (2 vols., 1854) ; TIw 



Noctes AmbrosiancB of Blackwood's Magcueine 
(5 vols., 1854); De Quincey's Klosterhdm (1655); 
Life of Curran (1855); Bits of Blarney (1855) ; 
Lady Morgan*s O'Briens and (y Flaherties {% 
vols., 1857); Dr. Maginn's MiseeiUaneiotis Work9 
(5 vols., 1855-57) ; TressUian and His Friends^ 
(1859) ; Memoirs of Robert Houdin (1859) ; Life of 
Charles Dickens (1870), and Sir Walter Scott .- 
the Story of his Ufe (1871). He died in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Nov. 80, 1880. 

McKBONy Johny representative, was bom ii^ 
Albany, N.Y., in 1807. His father, Clapt. Jamee^ 
McKeon, a member of the United Irishmen, 
came to the United States directly after the* 
rebellion of 1798, settled in Albany, N.Y., waa 
a soldier in the war of 1812, and removed to New 
York city soon after. John was graduated 
from Columbia, A.B., 1825, A.M., 1831. He 
studied law in the office of his brother James in 
New York before entering college, and in th» 
office of Judge John L. Macon, 1825-28. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1828 ; was a member of 
the state assembly, 1832-34, and a Democratic 
representative in the 24th congress, 1835-87 ;. 
was defeated for the 25th and 26th congresses by 
the Native American candidate, and was a repre- 
sentative in the 27th congress, 1841-43. He was- 
appointed district attorney for the city and 
county of New York in 1845, and the office 
having become elective in 1847, was retained in 
the office, serving, 1846-51. He visited Europe in 
1851, and in 1853 was appointed by President 
Pierce U.S. attorney for the southern district of 
New York, to fill out the unexpired term of 
Charles O'Conor, resigned. He resumed practice 
in New York city, and in 1858 associated himself 
with Frederick Smyth in practice. He was a 
delegate to the Democratic national convention 
at Chicago, Aug. 29, 1864, and to the Union con- 
vention in Philadelphia, 1866. He was again^ 
elected district attorney for the city and county 
of New York in 1881, and held the office until 
his death. He was married to Mrs. Whitney, 
daughter of Rear- Admiral John D. Sloat, U.S.N. 
He died in New York city, Nov. 23, 1883. 

MACKEY, Albert Gallatin, author, was bom^ 
in Charleston, S.C, March 12, 1807 ; son of Dr. 
JohnMackey (1765-1831), an educator, physician* 
and editor. He attended the public schools, taught 
school to pay his tuition in the medical depart- 
ment of the College of South Carolina, and was 
graduated M.D., 1832. He settled in practice m 
Charleston, S.C, was demonstrator of anatomy 
in the medical department of the University of 
South Carolina, 1838-44, and in 1844 abandoned- 
medicine and devoted himself to literature and 
to the study of the Greek, Latin, Hebrew andi 
continental languages. He established and con- 
ducted The Southern and Western Masonic Mis- 



MACKET 



McKIBBEN 



eeUanyy a weekly publication, in 1849-52, and a 
Masonic quarterly, 1858-60. He is the author of : 
A Lexicon of Freemasonry (1845 ; 8d ed., 1855); 
The Mystic Tie (1849) ; Book of the Chapter (1858) ; 
A History of Freemasonry in South Carolina 
(1861); A Manual of the Lodge (1862); Cryptic 
Masonry (1867); Masonic Ritualist (1867); Sym- 
boiism of Freemasonry (1869) ; A Text-Book of 
Masonic Jurisprudence (1869); Masonic Parlia- 
mentary Law (1875); Encyclopcedia of Free- 
masonry (1874). He died in Fort Monroe, Va., 
June 20, 1881. 

MACKEY, Edward W. M., representative, 
was bom at CJharleston, S.C., March 8, 1846. He 
was preparing for college when the civil war 
broke out, and his studies were interrupted. In 
September, 1865, he was appointed assistant 
assessor of internal revenue in the second collec- 
tion district of South Carolina, and while holding 
this position he studied law and was admitted to 
the bar in 1868. He was a delegate to the state 
constitutional convention in November, 1867 ; 
was sheriff of Charleston county, 1868-72 ; was 
elected an alderman of Charleston, 1868, 1878 and 
1875 ; was editor and proprietor of the Charleston 
Republican^ 1871-72 ; was a representative in the 
state legislature, 1874 and 1877, being speaker of 
the house in 1877 ; was a delegate to every Re- 
publican state convention from the organization 
of the party in South Carolina in 1868, and sev- 
eral times president of the convention ; a dele- 
gate to the Republican national conventions of 
1872 and 1880, being chairman of the South Car- 
olina delegation in 1880 ; was a representative in 
the 44th and 47th U.S. congresses, 1875-77, and 
1681-83 ; claimed to have been elected to the 
46th congress, and contested M. P. O^Ck)nnor's seat 
without success ; and was assistant U.S. attorney 
for South Carolina, 1878-81. He died in Charles- 
ton, S.C. 

MACKEYv Levi Augustua, representative, 
was born in White Deer township. Union county, 
Pa., Nov. 25, 1819 ; son of Thomas S. and Cath- 
erine (Angstatt) Mackey, both of Berks county, 
Pa. In 1829 he removed with his parents to 
Milton, Pa., was prepared for college by the Rev. 
David Kirkpatrick, and was graduated from 
Union college, N.Y., A.B., 1887, with highest 
honors, A.M., 1840. He studied law under the 
Hon. James Pollock, and at the law school of 
Dickinson college ; was admitted to the bar in 
1840, and in 1841 settled in practice at Lock 
Haven, Pa. He was married in 1847 to Mary, 
daughter of Samuel Hepburn, of Milton, Pa. He 
was a delegate to the Whig national convention 
at Baltimore, June 16, 1852 ; was the Democratic 
candidate for representative in the 41st congress 
in 1868, being defeated by W. H. Armstrong ; 
was the first mayor of Lockhaven, 1870 ; a dele- 



gate to the Democratic national convention at 
Baltimore, July 9, 1872, and was a representative 
in the 44th and 45th congresses, 1875-79. He 
was president of the Central Normal School asso- 
ciation of Pennsylvania. He received the hon- 
orary degree of LL.D. He died at Look Haven,. 
Pa., Feb. 8. 1889. 

McKlBBIN, Chambers, soldier, was bom in 
Pittsburg, Pa., Nov. 2, 1841 ; son of Chambera 
and Jane (Bell) McKibbin. He enlisted in the 
U.S. army as a private, Sept. 22, 1862 ; was pro- 
moted 2d lieutenant, 14th U.S. infantry, Sept. 24, 
1862 ; 1st lieutenant, June 10, 1864, and was bre- 
vetted captain, Aug. 18, 1864, for gallant servicea 
in the battle of North Anna River, Va., and dur- 
ing the operations on the Weldon railroad. He 
was transferred to the 82d U.S. infantry, Sept» 
21, 1866 ; was promoted captain in the 85th U.S. 
infantry, July 28, 1866, and was transferred to 
the 15th U.S. infantry, Aug. 12, 1869. He waa 
promoted major of 25th U.S. infantry, April 25, 
1892 ; lieutenant-colonel of 21st U.S. infantry, 
May 1, 1896, and colonel of 12th U.S. infantry, 
April 1, 1899. At the outbreak of the war with 
Spain he accompanied General Shaf ter's army to 
Cuba, and was engaged in the battle of Santiago 
de Cuba, July 1, 1898. He was made brigadier- 
general of volunteers, July 8, 1898, and was 
appointed military governor of Santiago de Cuba. 
He commanded successively the 2d brigade, 2d 
division, 5th army corps ; the 1st brigade, 2d divi- 
sion, 5th army corps, and the 1st brigade, 1st divi- 
sion, 2d corps, Sept. 22, 1898. to April 1, 1899. He 
was honorably discharged from the volunteer serv- 
ice. May 12, 1899, and assumed command of the 
Department of Texas, June 6, 1899. 

McKIBBEN, George Fitch, teacher, was born 
in Lima, Ohio, Oct. 2, 1851 ; son of John and 
Mary (Kendall) McKibben, and grandson of 
William and Anne (Moore) McKibben and of 
Simon and Elizabeth (Kent) Kendall. His pater- 
nal great grandfather emigrated from the north of 
Ireland about 1750, and settled in Pennsylvania. 
His maternal ancestors emigrated from England 
to New England before 1650. G^rge attended 
the public schools of Lima, was graduated from 
Denison university, Granville, Ohio, A.B., 1875, 
A.M., 1878, and from the Baptist Union Theologi- 
cal seminary at Morgan Park, Chicago, 111., B.D., 
1881. He waa^married, Dec. 21, 1882, to Mary 
Elizabeth Stilwell, of Dayton, Ohio. He was a 
student at the University of Leipzig, 1881-82, and 
at Paris, 1891-92. He was a teacher in the district 
and public schools of Lima, and in Licking 
county, Ohio ; was tutor of Greek and Latin in 
the preparatory department of Denison univer- 
sity, 1876-79, and was elected professor of French 
and German in the university in 1882. He was 
elected a member of the American Philological 



MACiaE 

association in 1884, and of the Modern Langu^e 
aaaociation of America in 1886. He is the author 
of numerous articles and papers in various peri- 
odicals and journals. 

MACKIE, John Milton, author, was bom in 
Wareham. Masa.. Dec. 19, 1S!3. He was grad- 
uated from Brown univei'sitiy, A.B., 183S, A.M., 
1835 ; studied at Andover Theological seminary, 
1833-83, in the UniveraJt; of Berlin. 1838-34, and 
was a tutor in Brown universitf , 1834-35. He 
then settled in Oreat Barrington, Mass., and en- 
gaged in cultivating a farm. He contributed 
articles on Oerman history and literatuie to re- 
vfews and is the author of : Life of Qodfrey von 
Leibnitz (1845); LAfe of Samuel Gorton in 
" Spar ks's American Biography" (1848); Cosatde 
EtpaHa, or Qoing to Madridvia Barcelona (1848); 
Life of Sehamyl. the CircoMiait Chief (18.W) ; Life 
of Tai-Ping-Wang, Chief of the Chinese Inmtrrec- 
tion (I8'>7); From Cape Cod to Dixie and the 
Tropiet (1864). He died in Great Harrington, 
Mass., July 37, 1894. 

McKIM, AiexondM', representative, was bom 
at Baltimore, Md., Jan. 10, 1748 ; son of Thomas 
and Agnes (M<;Morny) McKim, and grandson of 
John McKini of Londonderry, Ireland, who oame 
to PennsylTania. then removed to Baltimore, and 
afterward purchased a tract of land on the 
Brandywine in Delaware, where he served fifteen 
years as one of the justices of the courts of New- 
castle county. He finally settled in Baltimore, 
where his descendants became prominent and in- 
fluential citizens. Aleiander McKim acquired a 
good education and in 1778 was elected a repre- 
sentative in tlie Maryland assembly. During the 
Revolution he served in tlie field with the Balti- 
more Independent Cadets, which, as mounted in- 
fantry, accompanied Lafayette on his campaign 
into Virginia in 1780. In 1791 he waa vice-presi- 
dent of the Maryland Society for the Abolition 
of Slavery ; in 1704 was a member of the board of 
health, when the yellow fever was epidemic in 
Baltimore ; in 17!)7 was a member of a committee 
to divide the city into wards, and in 1805 was 
one of the charter members of the Baltimore 
water company. He was elected to tlie state 
senate in 18U6, and was re-elected in 1808, and 
served as a Jefferson Democrat or an ti- Federalist 
in the Uth, 12lh and 13th congresses, 1809-15. 
With his brother Robert in 1614, he was the first 
to erect steam mills in Baltimore for the manu- 
facture of cotton goods. They owned the 
Dolphin, a privateer, during the war of 1813. 
When Qeneral Lafayette visited Baltimore in 
1825, Mr. McKim wason the reception committee, 
and was the only surviving member of the Balti- 
more company that served under tliat officer in 
the Revolution. He was the first president of the 
Merchant's National bank of Baltimore. Ue was 



McKIM 

married to Catharine Sarah Davy, and had three 
daughters: Eliza, who married (Japt. David 
Heath, U.S.H., Agn^, who married Nicholas 
Dubois, and Catharine Haria, who married 
Charles Singleton. Alexander HcBUm died in 
Baltimore, Md., Jan. 18, 1832. 

McKIM, Cbories Pollen, architect, was born 
in Chester county, Pa., Aug. 24, 1647; son of 
James Miller and Barali Allibone (Spealunan) 
McEim. He was a student at the Lawrence 
scientific school. Harvard, 1866-47, and at the 



Ecole dee Beaux Arts, Paris, 1867-70. He settled 
in New York city as an arcliitect in 1873, and 
formed a partnership with William R. Mead and 
Stanford White in 1877. This firm soon took 
rank among the foremost architects in the coun- 
try. The buildings executed by them are mostly 
derived from the purest style of classic architec- 
ture. Mr. McKim's name is associated witli the 
buildings of Columbia univertiity; Rhode Island 
stale capital ; Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences; Walker Art Gallery of Bowdoin college ; 
the Department of Architecture of Harvard uni- 
versity ; Beaton Music Hall ; Boston Public Li- 
brary : Agriculturatand New York state buildinga 
of the Chicago World's Fair ; Newport and Nar- 
ragansett casinos ; the University. Harvard, Cen- 
tury and German clubs. New York ; Bowery Bank; 
Bank of Montreal ; cimrches at Stockbridge, 
Mass., and Morristown. N.J., besides works of 
monumental and memorial character and the de- 
sign of many city and country resideuces in 
New York city, Newport, R. I., Boston. Mass., 
and on the Hudson river at Hyde Park. He 
was elected, 1899, a member of the Accademia di 
San Luca, of Rome, the oldest art aociety in Italy. 
He was made a member of the art c«mmissio[i 
of New York, and of the commission appointed 
by congress for the improvement of the Wash- 
ington park system ; a member of the American 
Institute of Architects, and of numerous societies 
in New York and elsewhere. He was one of the 
founders of the American academy in Rome, 
Italy. He received the honorary degree of A.M. 
from Harvard university in 1890, and from Bow- 
doin college in 1894. 



McKIM 



McKIM 



McKIM* Isaac* representative, was born in 
Baltimore, Md., July 21, 1775; son of John and 
Margaret (Duncan) McKim, and grandson of 
Thomas and Agnes (McMorny) McKim. In 1706 
he engaged in business with his father as a 
shipping mercliant in Baltimore, and later was 
also in the copper business. He was extensively 
engaged in the South American trade, in which 
he amassed a large fortune. He owned the 
clipper Ann McKiin, one of the fleetest and 
most noted vessels of that day. In 1812 Isaac 
McKim advanced to the city of Baltimore $50,000 
to aid in improving its defences, and when the 
British army approached Baltimore in September, 
1814, he became a volunteer aide on the staff of 
€kn. Samuel Smith, and took part in the battle 
of North Point with the Maryland militia. He 
was an active politician of the Jeffersonian 
school. He served one term in the Maryland 
senate ; and he was a representative from Balti- 
more in the 17th, 18th, 23d, 24th and 25th con- 
gresses, 1821-25. and 1833-39. In congress he was 
known as the advocate of sailors' rights. He was 
active in the early banking interests of his native 
city, and was also a promoter of the Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad, serving as a member of its 
first board cf directors. His father late in life 
joined the Society of Friends, and donated land 
for the founding of a free school in Baltimore. 
Isaac and his brotlier, William D. McKim, in 
order to carry out their father's plan, erected on 
the land the McKim building, in which a school 
was conducted under the auspices of the Friends 
and was still in existence in 1901. He was mar- 
ried to Ann Hollius and left no descendants. He 
died in Baltimore, Md., April 1, 1838. 

McKIM, James Miller, abolitionist, was bom 
near Carlisle, Pa., Nov. 14, 1810 ; son of James 
and Catharine (Miller) McKim, and grandson of 

James McKim (1756- 
1794), the first emi- 
grant to America, 
who came from the 
north of Ireland. He 
was graduated at 
Dickinson college, 
1828 ; studied medi- 
cine at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, 
and theology at 
Princeton, 1831, and 
at Andover, 1832. In 
October. 1835, he 
became pastor at 
Womelsdorf, Pa., and 
a year later a lec- 
turing agent of the American Anti-Slavery 
society. In 1840 he married Sarah Allibone 
Speakman, and having withdrawn from the 




,^^ 






Presbyterian church and devoted himself to the 
anti-slavery cause, he removed to Philadelphia 
to become publishing agent of the Pennsylvania 
Anti-Slavery society, and later corresponding 
secretary, serving until 1862. In November, 
1862, he called a public meeting of the citizens 
of Philadelphia to decide upon the disposition of 
the 10,000 slaves that had been suddenly liberated 
in South Carolina, and to provide for their im- 
mediate wants. The Philadelphia Port Royal 
Relief Committee was organized as an outcome 
of this meeting. Mr. McKim early advocated 
the enlistment of the freedmen in the army, 
through the Union League club of Philadelphia, 
of which he was a member, and aided in the es- 
tablishment of Camp William Penn and in re- 
cruiting eleven negro regiments. Upon the en- 
larging of the Port Royal Relief Committee into 
the Pennsylvania Freedman's Relief Association 
in November, 1863, he was made its correspond- 
ing secretary, and was active in establishing 
schools for negroes at the South. In 1865 he be- 
came corresponding secretary of the American 
Freedman's commission, with headquarters in 
New York, and so continued till its disband- 
ment on his motion in 1869. He was a founder 
and proprietor of the New York Nation in 1865. 
He died in Llewellyn Park, N.J., June 18, 1874. 
McKlM, John, second missionary bishop of 
Tokyo, and the 167th in succession in the Ameri- 
can episcopate, was bom in Pittsfield, Mass., July 
17, 1852. He was graduated at Nashotah House, 
Nashotah, Wis., in 1879, having been ordered a 
deacon at All Saints* Cathedral, Milwaukee, Wis., 
June 16, 1878, by Bishop Brown, who advanced 
him to the priesthood in 1879. He worked in the 
diocese of Chicago for a brief time and then 
joined the workers in the missionary district of 
Tokyo, Japan, in charge of the Rt. Rev. Channing 
Moore Williams. He founded seventeen stations 
and sub-stations from his headquarters at Osaka, 
and in March, 1893, he was elected to the bish- 
opric by the House of Bishops assembled in New 
York city. He was consecrated in St. Thomas's 
church. New York city, June 14, 1893, bj' Bishops 
Littlejohn, Lyman, Dudley, Scarborough, Kin- 
solving and Dr. Alfred Barry, primate of Aus- 
tralia. On his return to Japan he assumed the ad- 
ministration of the missionary district of Tokyo 
as successor to the Rt. Rev. C. M. Williams, who 
had resigned in October, 1889. In 1898 the gen- 
eral convention divided the Japan mission into 
two missionary districts, Tokyo and Kyoto, the 
latter being under the charge of the Rt. Rev. C. 
M. Williams up to the time of the election of 
the Rev. Sidney Catlin Partridge, who was con- 
secrated in 1900. Bishop McKim received the 
honorary degree of D.D. from Nashotah House 
and Trinity college in 1893. 



McKIM 

McKIM, Randolph Honiaon, clergyman, was 
born in Baltimore, Hd., April IS, 1842; Bon 
of John S. and Catherine Lilbume (Harrison) 
HcKim; grandson of John and Margaret (Telfair) 
MoKim and of Randolph and Harj R. Harrison 
of Clifton, Ta., and a descendant of Benjamin 
Harrison of Surrej', Va. (16S5). He was grad- 
uated from the University of Virginia in 1861 
and nas admitted to the diaoonate of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal church in 1864 and to the priest- 
hood in 1866. He served during the civil war in 
the Confederate army, first as private soldier, 
afterward as staff officer, and upon the close of 
the war he became assistant rector of Emmanuel 
church, Baltimore, Md. He subsequently served 
as rector of churches at Portsmouth and Alexan- 
dria, Va.; Harlem, New York city ; New Orleans, 
La., and in 1889 became rector of Epiphany 
cliurch, Washington, D.C. He is the author of : 
A Findicafion of Protestant Principles (1879) ; 
37w Nature of the Christian Miniatry (1880); Fu- 
ture PKniskment (1883); Bread in the Desert and 
Other Sermons (1887); Christ and Modem Unbe- 
lief (1893); Leo XIII at the Bar of Hittory (1897); 
Present Day PrfMerns of Christian Thought 
(1900). 

Mckinley. Ida Soxton, wife of President 

McKinley, was born in Canton, Ohio, in June, 

1847 ; daughter of James Asbury and Catherine 

(Dewalt) Saxton, and granddaughter of John 

Saxton, founder in 181S and for fifty-five years 

proprietor of the Ohio 

Repository, published 

at Canton. Both the 

Saxtons and the De- 

walts were among the 

earliest settlers of 

Canton. Ida Saxton 

was educated at 

schools in Cleveland 

and at Brook Hall 

seminary, Media, Pa. 

She visited Europe 

for six months in 

1869, and soon after 

her return became 

bank in Canton. She 
was a member of the Presbyterian church 
of Canton and was married from that church 
to Maj. William McKiuley, Jan. 85, 1871, re- 
ceiving from her father as a wedding gift a 
handsome bouse in Canton. Theirfirst child, Ida, 
bom Dec. 85, 1871, lived to the age of four, and 
their second child, Catherine, died in infancy. 
The shock attending the death of her children 
and that of her mother, which occurred soon 
after, resulted in a nervous disease which left 
Ucs. McKinley an invalid for life and able to 



Mckinley 

walk only with the aid of a supporting arm. 
She was a resident of Washington during her 
husband's service as representative in congress, 
1877-91, and during his gubernatorial terms she 
resided at Columbus. As mistress of the White 
House during his administration of national af- 
fairs, notwithstanding her physical itlnesx, she 
successfully dispensed the hospitality demanded 
from her position. Mr. and Mrs. McKinley both 
became members of the First Methodist church 
in Canton, and while in Washington attended 
the Foundry church. While on a visit to Cali- 
fornia in 1901 she was suddenly prostrated and 
the contemplated trip was consequently aban- 
doned in San Francisco. She was taken to her 
home in Canton where she so far regained her 
accustomed health as to be able to return to the 
Whito House and in September, 1001, to accom- 
pany her husband to the Pan-American exposi- 
tion at Buffalo, N.Y., where she was his compan- 
ion and the chief object of his solicitude m his 
dying hour. As the widow of the martyr Presi- 
dent she returned with his body to Canton, Sept- 
18, 1901. 

McKlNLEV, John, jurist, was bom in Cul- 
peper county, Va., May, 1780. He engaged in the 
practice of law in Louisville, Ky., until aft«r 1819, 
when he removed to Alabama and established 
himself as a lawyer in Huntsville. He was a 
representative in the Alabama legislature, and 
was elected to the U. S. senate as a Jackson 
Democrat in place of Isaac Pickens, the latter 
appointed by Gov. John Murphy to succeed 
Henry Chambers, who was elected to the office 
but died Jan. 35, 1686, before taking his seat. 
Mr. McKinley assumed office, Dec. 81, 1836, and 
served till March 8, 1831. He removed to Flor- 
ence, Ala., in the meantime, and served as a 
representative in the 23d congress, 183S-S5. He 
was associate justice of the U.S. supreme court, 
1837-.')2. He died in Louisville. Ky., July 10, 1858. 

McKlNLEV,WILLlAM,twenty-flfth President 
of the United Stales, was bom in Niles, Ohio, 
Jan. 39, 1843; son of William (1807-1803) and 
Nancy Campbell (Allison) McKinley ; grandson 
of James (bom 1783) and Mary ("Polly") (Rose) 
McKinley, and of Abner and Ann (Campbell) 
Allison ; great-grandson of David (1755-1840) and 
Hannah C. (Rose) (1757-1840) McKinley and of 
Andrew Rose, an ironmastor of Bucks county. 
Pa., who was sent home from the Revolutionary 
army to make cannon and bullets ; greats-grand- 
son of John (1728-1779) and Margaret McKinley ; 
and great'-grandson of David and Esther Mc- 
Kinley, who came from Dervock House, county 
Antrim, Ireland, to New Castle, Del. , in 174S, with 
their three sons, John, David, and Stephen, and 
one daughter. Mary (who married Samuel Gor- 
don), and settled on 816 acres of land in what be- 



Mckinley 

came Cbanceford township, York oounty. Pa. 
David, the irnmigrant, a weaver by trade, died in 
1759. His eldest son, John, was a wagonmaster 
for the uonuoittee of safety, and died on his eetate 
(the homestead purchased from the heirs), Feb. 
18, 1779, and his widow married Tliomas Mo- 
Culloch and died in the winter of lT8t. John's 
onljr son David was born on the homestead. May 
16, 1755. He enlisted in Captain Reed's uoropany 
of fenymen in the war of the Bevolution and was 
-drafted several times for active service, and after 
the cloee of the war became an ironmaster in 
"Westmoreland county. He married Hannah C. 
Kose, who was born in 1757 and died in Chatfleld, 
Crawford county, Ohio, in 1S40. He purchased a 



iarm in Crawford county, Ohio, in 1814, and died 
there in 1840. David's son James, bom Sept. IB, 
1783, married Mary(" Polly '■} Rose, of Pine town- 
ship, Mercer county. Pa., about 1805, and re- 
moved to Lisbon, Columbiana county, Ohio. 
His son William was born in Pine township. Nor. 
15, 1807, was married in 1820 to Nancy Camp- 
bell Allison (who died at Canton, Ohio, Dec. 13, 
1697) and was an ironmaster at New Wilming- 
ton, Ohio, and at Niles. Ohio, where William, 
the President, was born, the seventh of a family 
«f nine children. He attended Union seminary, 
Poland, Ohio, until 1860, when he entered 
the juuior class of Allegheny college, Meadville, 
Pa., but before closing his class year was obliged 
to leave on account of a severe illness. He then 
^taught a district school and was clerk in the 
Poland post^fflce. On June 11, 1861, he enlisted 
as a private in Company E, 23d Ohio volunteer 
infantry, Rutherford B. Hayes being lieutenant- 
colonel of the regiment. He was inspected and 
mustered in by Oen. John C. Fremont, served in 
western Virginia, and saw his ilrst battle at 
■Camifei Ferry, Sept. 10, 1861. On April 13, 1863, 
he was promoted commissary sergeant while in 
camp at Fayetteville, western Virginia, and lie 
■served in the battle of Antietam with such con- 
flpiouous gallantiT as to win for him promotion, 
Sept. 33, 1862, to the rank of 2d lieutenant of 
Company D. On Feb. 7, 1863, he was made 1st 
lieutenant of Company E, and on July 35, 1864, 



Mckinley 

was raised to the rank of captain of Company O 
for gallantry at the battle of Kemstown, Jnly 34, 
1864. He served suooeseively on the staffs of 
Generals Hayes, Crook, and Hancock, and his 
engagements after Carnif ex Ferry were : Clarke's 
Hollow, May 1, 1863; Princeton, W. Va., May 
16, 1863 ; South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1863 ; 
Antietam, Sept 17, 1863; BulBngton Island, O., 
in Morgan's raid, July 19, 1863 ; Cloyd's Moun- 
tain, W. Va., May 9, 1864; New River Bridge, 
Va.,HayB, 1864 ; Buffalo Gap, Va., Juno 6. 1861 ■ 
Lexington, Va., June 10, 1864 ; Buchanan, Va. ; 
June 14, 1864 ; Otter Creek, Va., June 16, 1864 ; 
Buford's Oap, Va., July 31, 1864 ; Kernstown, 
Va., July 24, 1864; Berryville. Vs., Sept. 8,1864; 
WinoheHter.Va.,Sept. 19, 1864; Fisher's Bill, Va.. 
Sept. 23. 1864, and Cedar Creek, Va., Oct. 10. 
1864. He was brevettod major, March 18, 1865, 
for gallantry at Opequon, Cedar Creek and 
Fisher's Hill, and was serving as acting assistant 
adjutant-general on the staff of Oen. Samuel 
3. Carroll, commanding the veteran reserve corps 
(1st division, first army corps) at Washington, 
D.C., when he was mustered out with bis regi- 
ment, July 20, 1865. He returned home and 
studied law at Youngstown, Ohio, and at the 
Albany Law school, 1866-67. and was admitted to 
the Ohio bar at Warren in March, 1867. and 
settled in practice in Canton, Ohio, through the 
advice of an elder sister, then teaching school in 
that place. He was elected by the Republicans 
of Stark county prosecuting attorney, and served 
1870-71, but was defeated for re-election. He 
was oiarried. Jan. 35, 1871, to Ida, daughter of 
James A. and Catherine (Dewalt) Saxton of 
Canton, Ohio. He was a rei»«sentative from the 
seventeenth district of Ohio in the 45th congress 
(1877-79), defeating Leslie L. Lanbom ; from 
the sixteenth district in the 46Ch congress (1679- 
81). defeating Oen. AquilaWiley, and from the 
seventeenth district in the 47th congress (1881- 
83). defeating Leroy D. Thoman. His party 
claimed that he was elected from the eighteenth 
district to the 48th congress in 1883 by a majority 
of eight votes, and he was given the oertiflcateof 
election, but his seat was successfully contested 
by Jonathan H. Wallace, of Columbiana county, 
who was seated in June. 1884. Mr, McKinley 
was elected in 1884 a representative from the 
twentieth district to the 40t]i congress (1885-87), 
defeating David R. Paige, and iu 1886 and 1888 
was elected from the eighteenth district to the 
EOth and 51st GOngresses, defeating Wallace H. 
Phelps and George P. Ikert, respectively, serving 
1887-91, but was defeated in the sixteenth dis- 
trict for representative in the 53d congress in 
1890byJohna. Warwick, of Massillon, Democrat, 
by 302 votes. The changes in the congressional 
dbtricU were due to political expedients used by 



Mckinley 

the Democratic legislature, and Mr. McKinley, 
while always a reaident of Stark county, was in 
this way obliged to meet tlia conditions caused 
by tlie combinations of contiguous counties in the 
effot-ts of the opposition to defeat him. He was 
appointed by Speaker Randall in 1677 to a place 
on the judiciary committee, and he succeeded 
Representative James A. Garlteld on the n-ays 
and nit^ans committee in E>ecember, 18S0. In the 
45th congress be was apiKiinted on the house 
committee of visitors to the U.S. Military acad- 
emy, and in 1881 he was chairman of the com- 
mittee having in charge the Qarfield memorial 
exercises in the house. In congress he supported 
a high protective tariff, making a notable speech 
on the subject, April 6, 18S3 ; and his speech on 
the Morrison tariff biU, April 30, 1884, was said to 
be the most effective argument made against it. 
On April 16, 1S90, as chairman of the committee 
on ways and means, as successor to Judge 
Kelly, he introduced the general tariff measure 
afterward known by his name, and his speech 
before the house. May 7, ISW, fully established 
his reputation as a atateflman and an orator. 
The bill passed the house May 21, and the 
senate after a protracted debate, September 11, 
and became a law Oct. 8, 181HI. Among bis 
notable congressional speeches not already 
mentioned, are : " Arbitration as a Solution 
of Labor Troubles," April 3, 1886 ; his reply. 
May 18, 1888, to Representative Samuel J. Ran- 
dall's argument in favor of the Mills tariff bill, 
of wliich millions of copies were circulated bj 
the manufacturing interests of the country ; his 
speech of Dec. 17, 1889, introducing the customs 
administration bill to simplify the laws relating 



to the collection of revenue, and his forceful 
address sustaining the civil-service laws, April 
S4, 1890. On the organization of the 51st con- 
gre^, Dec. 3. 1889. he was a candidate for 
speaker, but was defeated in the Republican 
caucus on the third ballot by Thomas B. Reed, 
In 1880 he was chairman of the Republican state 
cftnvention and was chosen by the Republican 
national convention at Chicago in June, 1880, as 
the Ohio member of the Republican national 



Mckinley 

committee. In this capacity, during the cartvas» 
of Garfield and Arthur, he spoke with General 
Garfield in the principal nortliern and western 
states. He was delegate-at-large from Ohio to 
the Republican national convention that met at 
Chicago, June S, 1884, was a member of the com- 
mittee on resolutions, read the platform to the 
convention and supported the candidacy of James 
Or. Blaine. During the canvass of that year he 
spoke with the Republican candidate on his cele- 
brated western tour and afterward in West 
Virginia and New York. In the Republican 
national convention that met at Chicago. Juno 

15, 1888, he was again a delegate-at-large from 
Ohio, and as chairman of the committee o 
lutions again reported the platform to the a 
tion, and he supported the candidacy of John 
Sherman, although there was a strong effort to 
have him consent to the use of his own name as 
a candidate. In the Republican national con- 
vention that met at Minneapolis, June 7, 1802, he 
was for the third time a delegate-at-large from 
Ohio, and was elected permanent chairman of tli0 
convention. He advocated the renomination of 
President Harrison ; received 183 votes for the 
presidential nomination, but refused to consider 
the action of his friends, left the chair, and 
moved that the nomination of President Harrison 
be made unanimous, and was chairman of the 
committee to notify the President of his re- 
nomination. He took an active part in the pre.'i- 
dential campaign, travelling over 16,000 miles 
and averaging seven speeches perday for a period 
of over eight weeks, during which time it was 
estimated that he addressed over 3,000,000 voters. 
He was governor of Ohio, 1893-96, receiving 
21,511 plurality in 1891 over Gov. James E. 
Campbell, who sought re-election, and 80,995 
in 1803 over Lawrence T. Neal, Democrat, the 
issues of the canvass being entirely national. As 
governor his sympathies were with the laboring 
men in their contests with capitalists, and he 
recommended to the legislature additional pro- 
tection totheemployees of railroads. During his 
second administration of the state government 
he was obliged to call out 3000 members of the 
national guard to suppress threatened labor 
riots, and he was able to prevent what appeared 
to be inevitable mob violence attended by lynch- 
ing. He also personally supervised the distribu- 
tion of funds and provisions to the starving 
miners in the Hocking valley. "When the Repub- 
lican national convention met at St. Louis, June 

16, 1896, his name was again before the conven- 
tion, and on the first ballot made, June 18, he re- 
ceived 661i votes to 844 for Thomas B. Reed of 
Maine, 00| forMattiiewS. Quayof Pennysylvania, 
58 for Levi P. Morion of New York, and 85} for 
William B. Allison of Iowa. During the PreM- 



Mc-KINLEY 



dential canvass oF 1806 he remained in Canton 
and received between June 19 aud November 2 
over 750,000 visitors, who jouniOfed tram all 
parts of ibe Union to make liiD acquaintance and 
listen to informal apeechcs delivered from his 
piazza, Mr. McKinlej speaking in this waj over 
300 different times. He was elected President of 
the United States, Nov. 3, lS9fl, tlie McKinley 
and Hobart electors receivinu 7,106,1M votes 
to 6,502, S85 tor the Bryan and Sewall electors, 
and the electors of the minority candidates, 
Levering and Johnson, Prohibition, receiving 
133,000 votes ; Palmer and Buckner, National 
Democrat, 133.148 votes ; Matchett and Ma^ire, 
Social Labor, 36,374 votes, and Bentley and 
SouChgate, Nationalist, 13,969 votes. William 
HcKinley was formally announced by the eleo- 
toral college as the choice of that body for Presi- 
dent of the United States by a vote of 371 to 176 
for W. J. Bryan, and he was inaugurated March 
4, 1897, Chief-Justice Fuller administc^ring the 
oath of office. He at ono« announced his cab- 
inet as follows : John Sherman of Ohio, secre- 
tary of state ; Lyman J . Gage of Illinois, secre- 
tary of the treasury ; Russell A. Alger of 
Michigan, secretary of war ; Cornelius N. Bliss 
of New York, secretary of the interior ; John D. 
Long of Massachusetts, secretary of the navy; 
James Wilson of Iowa, secretary of agriculture ; 
James A. Oary of Maryland, poatmaster-gener&l. 



and Joseph McEenna of California, attorney- 
general. On Dec. 17, 1897, Attorney-General 
McKenna resigned to accept the position of 
associate justice uf the U.S. snpreme court and 
President McKinley appointed John W. Griggs 
of New Jersey attorney-general, Jan. 21, 1S98. 
The administration was represented at foreign 
courts as follows ; ambassador to Great Britain, 
John Hay of Ohio, succeeded in 1890 by Joseph 
H. Clioate of New York ; to France, Horace 
Porter of New York ; to Austria and Austria- 
Hungary, Charlemagne Tower of Pennsylvania, 
succeeded in 1800 by Addison C. Harris of In- 
diana ; U.S. minister to Russia. Ethan A. Hitch- 
cock of Missouri, raised to ambassador in 1808 
and succeeded In 1899 by Charlemagne Tower ; 
r to Germany, Andrew D. White of 



MuKlNLEV 

New York; ambassador to Italy, William F. 
Draper of Massachusetts, succeeded in 1901 by 
George von L. Meyer of Massachusetts ; ambas- 
sador to Spain, Stewart L. Woodford of New 
York, who served till ofScial relations were 
broken off, April, 1898, and in April. 1800. he 
was succeeded by Bellamy Storer of Ohio. The 
changes in President McKinley's cabinet were 
the resignation of John Sherman from the state 
department, April ST, 1898, and the promotion of 
William R. Day, assistant secretary of state, who 
resigned Sept. 18, 18B8, and was succeeded by 
John Hay, recalled from the court ot St. James ; 
the resignation of Gen. Uussell A. Alger from 
the war department, Aug. 1, 1899, and the ap- 
pointment of Elihu Root of New York as his 
successor ; the reslguutiou of Cornelius N. Bliss 
from the interior department, Dec. 23, 18S8. to 
be succeeded by Ethan A. Hitchcock, recalled 
from St, Petersburg ; the resignation of James 
A. Gary from the post-office department, April 
31, 1808, and the appointment of Charlee Emory 
Smith ot Pennsylvania to that office, and the res- 
ignation of John W. Griggs from the office of 
attorney-general in March, 1901, to be succeeded 
by Philander Chase Knox of Pennsylvania. The 
President called an extra session of congress to 
assemble March 15, 1807, and the Dingley tariff 
bill was passed and became a law by receiving 
his signature July 34, 1807. On May 17 he sent 
to congress a special message asking for an ap- 
propriation tor the aid of suffering American 
citisens in Cuba and secured ^.000 for that 
purpose. The treatment of the Cuban patriots 
then struggling for freedom aroused the sym- 
pathies of the people of the United States and 
the demands of the U.S. minister at Madrid for 
more humane treatment were disregarded. Tlie 
destruction of the U.S. cruiser Maine in Havana 
harbor, Feb. IS, 1808, resulting in the death of 
364 U.S. officers and men and in the wounding of 
60 others, aggravated the condition of affairs and 
on March 8-9, 1898, congres.s authorized the 
raising of two new regiments of artillery ; voted 
$.50,000,000 for national defence, placing the 
amount in the hands of the President for disi)osa1 
at his discretion, and authorized the contingent 
increaseot the army to 100,000 men. On March 33, 
1898, the President sent his ultimatum to Spain 
respecting tlie treatment of the Cubans, and on 
Slarch 28 he officially reported to congress the 
destruction of the U.S. battleship Miiitie. He 
advised congress on April II not to recognize 
the Cuban government, but advocated interven- 
tion to put a stop to Spanish cruelty. On April 
13, 1898. congress gave the President full author- 
ity to act in the matter of the difflculties with 
Spain, nnd on April 16 paRsed a resolution ac- 
knowledging Cuban independence. The Preai- 



Mckinley 



Mckinley 



<lent signed the joint resolutions of congress 
declaring the people of Cuba free and directing 
the President to use the land and naval forces of 
the United States to compel Spain to withdraw 
from the island. On April 23 a call for 125,000 
volunteers was issued by the President. On 
April 24 Spain also declared war against the 
United States and the next day the President 
recommended a formal declaration of war by 
•congress and issued a call for 75,000 more volun- 
teers. On April 80 congress authorized an issue 
of $500,000,000 in bonds, which issue was speedily 
taken up by prominent financiers. In his proc- 
lamation of April 26, 1898, the President adopted 
the essential principles as laid down by the 
Declaration of Paris of 1856, as to rights of 
neutrals in naval warfare, although neither the 
United States nor Spain was a party to that agree- 
ment between the nations. The victory of the 
U.S. navy in destroying the Spanish fleet at 
Manila on May 1, 1898, followed by the still more 
decisive victory over the Spanish fleet at San- 
tiago, July 8, 1898, marked the beginning and 
end of the war, the other incidents of the cam- 
paign of historic import being the battle of El 
Oaney and San Juan, where on July 1-2, 1898, the 
U.S. army lost 280 killed, 1284 wounded and 79 
missing, and gained a decisive victory over the 
Spanish troops. On July 26 the French minister 
at Washington made known the desire of Spain 
to negotiate for peace and President McKinley 
named the conditions that the United States 
would insist upon as a basis of negotiations. 
These included the evacuation of Cuba, the 
ceding of Porto Rico and other Spanish islands 
in the West Indies, and that the city, bay and 
harbor of Manila should be continued in the pos- 
session of the United States pending the conclu- 
sion of the treaty. These terms were accepted 
by Spain, Aug. 9, 1898, the peace protocol was 
signed on August 12 by Secretary Day and the 
French ambassador Cambon, and the Cuban 
blockade was raised, October 1 following being 
named as the time for the meeting to arrange the 
details of settlement. On August 26 the Presi- 
dent appointed William R. Day, Cushman K. 
Davis, William P. Frye, Whitelaw Reid and 
Edward D. White, peace commissioners, and on 
September 9 George Gray was substituted for 
Mr. Justice White. They met in Paris, Oct. 1, 
and adjourned Dec. 10, 1898. The treaty, signed 
on the latter date, provided the relinquishment 
by Spain of all claims of sovereignty over and 
title to Cuba, the surrender of all other of the 
West India islands held by Spain, and of the island 
of Guam in the Ladrone group, and the cession 
of the Philippines to the United States. The 
United States agreed to pay to Spain for the islands 
$20,000,000, to repatriate all Spanish soldiers at 



its expense, and to various minor proTisions. On 
Jan. 4, 1899, the President transmitted the treaty 
to the senate, which body referred it to the 
committee on foreign affairs and it was ratified 
Feb. 6, 1899. Meantime hostilities had broken 
out in the Philippine islands between the natives 
and the U.S. troops, and the President appointed 
Admiral George Dewey, Gen. El well S. Otis. 
President J. G. Shurman, of Cornell university. 
Dean C. Worcester of the faculty of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, and Charles Denby, former 
U.S. minister to China, a commission to study 
the situation there and advise as to the best 
method for governing the newly acquired terri- 
tory. The President approved the joint resolu- 
tion of congress providing for the annexation of 
Hawaii, July 7, 1898, and in the same year he 
appointed a delegation to represent the United 
States at the peace-conference called by the 
Czar of Russia in 1898, to meet at The Hague in 
May, 1899. The delegation was as follows: 
Andrew D. White, U.S. ambassador to Germany ; 
Stanford Newel, U.S. minister to the Nether- 
lands; Seth Low, president of Columbia uni- 
versity ; Capt. A. T. Mahan, U.S.N, (retired), 
and Capt. William Crozier, U.S.A.; with Frederick 
W. Holls as secretary and counsel. On March 
4, 1900, the President signed the gold standard, 
currency act. In 1897-98, when the whole com- 
mercial world was watching the Russian and 
German governments, looking for relief from 
industrial depression through some excuse to 
invade northern China, and thus prepare the 
w^ay for unlimited expansion, President Mc- 
Kinley saw the danger that threatened Amer- 
ican commerce should the integrity of the 
Chinese empire be endangered, and in 1900 he 
promptly met the condition that was presented 
by the acts of the Chinese themselves in allow- 
ing the uprising of the Boxers, and adopted what 
proved to be the only plan of action possible for 
the United States to preserve its commercial 
interests. He did not hesitated to assume the 
responsibility thrust upon him, and by ordering; 
an advance on Pekin without waiting to learn if 
he would have the co-operation of the other 
powers, he solved the problem of preserving 
peace by acting as an ally of the Chinese gov- 
ernment and preventing other nations, led by 
Germany, from carrying out their purpose of par- 
tition. The action of the United States relieved 
the legations before the German marshal arrived, 
and the President took the next step in diplo- 
macy by removing the army of occupation and 
leaving the nations opposed to his policy unsup- 
ported. The Republican national convention, 
which met at Philadelphia, June 25, 1900, gave 
President McKinley every one of the 980 votes of 
the delegates for renomination as the party 



Mckinley 

candidate for President, and Theodore BooBevelt 
of Neir York reoeived B29 Totes for the candi- 
d&oj' for Tioe-President, the single Tote missing 
being the delegate vote of Theodore Boosevelt. 
In the election of Nov. 6, IWkt, President Mo- 
ElnlejF was re-elected hj the largest popular 
majoritj ever given to any presidential candidate, 
the Bepublican electors receiving 7,306,677 pop- 
ular votes to 6.374,397 for the Bryan and Ste- 
venson electors, and the popular votes for tha 
minority candidates standing as follows ; Wool- 
ley and Metcalf, Prohibition, 308,S55 ; Barker 
mnd Donnelly, Anti-Fvuion People's, 50,837 ; 
Debs and Harriman, Social Democrat, 84,003 ; 
Ualloney and Remmel, Social Labor, 89,S37 ; 
Leonard and WooUey, United Christian, 1,060, 
and EUis and Nicholas, ITnion Reform, 6,698. 
The electoral vote stood 393 for McKinley and 
Roosevelt and 155 for Bryan and Stevenson. The 
saccessful Republican candidates were inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1901, and the President made no 
changes in his cabinet. He visited California 
with his wife and members of hia cabinet in the 
spring of 1901, making numerous speeches and 
receiving enthusiaatio welcome from the cit- 
izens of the southern and southweBtem states 
through which he passed, and he intended to 
make the tour extend to the principal cities of 
the northwest, but the serious illness of Mrs. 
MuEinley forced him to return to Washington 
after reaching San Francisoo, The management 
of the Pan-American exposition at Buffalo, N.Y., 
invited the President to visit that city, which he 
did, accompanied by Mrs. McKinley and his 
official family, inclading part of his cabinet. On 
September 6, while in the midst of a throng of 



expectant citiiiena assembled in tbe Temple of 
Music anxious to familiarly greet their Presi- 
dent, be took the hand of one of the men In line 
in friendly confidence, when with the other hand 
the assassin, who proved to be an avowed anar- 
ohist of foreign biith, shot the President twice. 
Til. — 13 



MCKINLEY 

producing a mortal wound. He was conveyed 
to the home of John Q. Milburn, president of the 
exposition, whose guests Mr. and Mrs. MoKinley 
were, and lingered till the early morning of Sept. 
14, 1001, when at 2.15 be diecL Shortly before 
bis death he said, " Good-bye, all ; good-bye. It 
Is Ood's way. His will be done, not ours." His 
last words, spoken to his wife, were " ' Nearer, 
my Qod, to Thee, e'en though it be a cross,' has 
been my constant prayer," He was a member 
of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Union 
Veteran Legion, and other military organiza- 
tions. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from Western Reserve university and McKendree 
coU^e In 1697, from the University of Chicago 
and Yale university in 1698 ; from Smith college 
in 1699 (being the second person and the first 
man to receive an honorary degree from that 
institution) and from the University of California 
in 1901 ; and that of D.C.L. from Mt. Eolyoke in 
1609. He was invited to visit Harvard university 
in June, 1901, and the corporation voted him the 
honorary degree of LL.D., to be bestowed on tbe 
occasion, but the serious illness of Mrs. HcKinley 
prevented his presence. The notable speeches 
delivered by Mr. McKinley and not already men- 
tioned include : the address in Canton, Ohio, 
before the Ohio state grange Deo. 13, 1867, on 
" Tbe American Farmer," in which he opposed 
the holding of American lands by aliens, and 
urged the farmers to be true to tbe principles of 
protection ; the address at the Home Market 
club in Boston, Feb. 9, 1698, in which he per- 
suaded the New England representatives to 
abandon the policy of allowing the introduction 
of raw material duty free ; the speech at tbe 
Lincoln banquet in Toledo, Ohio, Feb. 13, 1891, 
in which be answered President Cleveland's 
address on " American Citizenship," delivered 
on the occasion of the seventieth anniversary 
of the birthday of Allen G. Thurman at Colum- 
bus, Ohio, Nov. 13, 1690 ; the oration delivered 
on Feb. 33, 1894, before the Union League club, 
Chicago, 111., on the life and public services of 
Oeorge Washington, and his last speech, at the 
Pan American exposition, Buffalo, Sept. 6, 1901, 
the day before his assassination, in which he 
outlined the policy of the administration in ite 
efforte te give greater security to the commercial 
and industrial life of the republic, in the following 
words : '' Our capacity to produce has devel- 
oped so enormously and our products have so 
multiplied that the problem of more markets re- 
quires our urgent and immediate attention. 
Only a broad and enlightened policy will keep 
what we have. No other policy will get more. 
In these times of marvellous business energy and 
gain we ought to be looking to the future, 
strengthening the weak places in our industrial 



1 



Mckinley 



Mckinley 



and oommercial systems, that we may be ready 
for any storm or strain. By sensible trade ar- 
rangements which will not interrupt our home 
production, we shall extend the outlets from our 
increasing sui'plus. A system which provides a 
mutual exchange of commodities is manifestly 
essential to the continued and healthful growth 
of our export trade. We must not repose in fan- 
cied security that we can forever sell everything 
and buy little or nothing. If such a thing were 
possible it would not be best for us or those 
with whom we deal. We should take from 
our customers such of their products as we 
can use without harm to our industries and labor. 
Reciprocity is the natural outgrowth of our won- 
derful industrial development under the domestic 
policy now firmly established. What we produce 
beyond our domestic consumption must have a 
vent abroad. The excess must be relieved through 
a foreign outlet, and we should sell anywhere we 
can and buy wherever the buying will enlarge 
our sales and productions and thereby make a 
greater demand for home labor. The period of 
exclusiveness is past. The expansion of our 
ti*ade and commerce is the pressing problem. 
Commercial wars are unprofitable. A policy of 
good will and friendly trade relations will prevent 
reprisals. Reciprocity treaties are in harmony 
with the spirit of the times ; measures of retalia- 
tion are not. If perchance some of our tariffs are 
no longer needed for revenue or to encourage and 
protect our industries at home, why should they 
not be employed to extend and promote our mar- 
kets abroad ? . . • Next in advantage to having the 
thing to sell is to have the convenience to carry 
it to the buyer. We must encourage our mer- 
chant marine. We must have more ships. They 
must be under the American flag, built and 
manned and owned by Americans. These will not 
only be profitable in a commercial sense ; they 
will be messengers of peace and amity wherever 
they go. We must build the Isthmian canal, 
which will unite the two oceans and give a 
straight line of water conununication with the 
western coasts of Central and South America and 
Mexico. . . . Let us .ever remember that our inter- 
est is in concord, not confiict, and that our real 
eminence rests in the victories of peace, not those 
of war. ... Our prayer is that God will graciously 
vouchsafe prosperity, happiness, and peace to all 
our neighbors, and like blessings to all the peoples 
and powers of the earth." By a special proclam- 
ation, the day of the funeral, September 19, was 
made a day of mourning and prayer throughout 
the United States, all business being suspended 
and memorial services being generally held. In 
foreign countries the recognition of the Presi- 
dent's death was unprecedented. By command 
of King Edward VII. a memorial service was held 



in Westminster Abbey and was attended by be- 
tween 2000 and 8000 persons, including many dis- 
tinguished Americans, Edward VII., being rep- 
presented by Lord Pembroke. As a further mark 
of respect all the exchanges in the kingdom 
were closed, the government buildings had their 
flags at half-mast and many stores were draped in 
black. A memorial service attended by six thou- 
sand people, and conducted by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Dean Gregory and fourteen other 
clergymen was held in St. PauFs Cathedral, Lon- 
don. Unusual honors were paid the President's 
memory in all the foreign capitals and impressive 
memorial services were held in St. Petersburg, 
Brussels, Vi- 
enna, Berlin, 
Rome, Paris, 

Constantino- -^^^^.^-'— :— ^^^^^^^^ 
pie, Pekin, W^^W/ -^S^HI^^H^ 

Bombay, and 
elsewhere, at- 
tended by 
high dignitar- 
ies. At the 
service in Ber- 
lin all the im- 
perial and 
Prussian cabi- 
net ministers 
were present 
except Chan- 
cellor von BCl- 
low, who was absent from the city ; and all the 
foreign ambassadors' and ministers in the city 
were also in attendance. Emperor William order- 
ed the flags to be half masted throughout the navy. 
The public manifestations of grief that followed 
the death of President McKinley were unprece- 
dented in the history of the world. The scenes in 
Buffalo ; en route to Washing^n ; in the East 
room of the White House ; on the passage of 
the funeral cortege from the President's house 
through Pennsylvania avenue ; around the body 
resting in state for one day in the rotunda of the 
Capitol ; at the state funei*al attended by accred- 
ited representatives from all the governments of 
the world ; on its last journey to Canton attended 
by President Roosevelt and his cabinet ; in his 
home and home church, where the solemn rites 
of religion were pronounced, previous to final 
sepulture, are a part of history. When the 
i;ime arrived for the body to be committed to 
the grave in Westlawn Cemetery, Canton, Ohio, 
the whole country was for a few moments 
undisturbed by motion created by the hand of 
man. The hum of industry was hushed, trans* 
portation was brought to a halt, and a nation 
^tood with uncovered heads, bowed in grief. 
Ihe Piesident died in Buffalo, N.T., Sept 14, 1901. 




McKlNLY 

McKINLY, John. Ist president ot the Dela- 
ware state, was born in Ireland, Feb. S4, 1721. He 
immigTated to the United atates in 1742 and setr 
tied at Wilmington, Del., where he was a prac- 
titioner in physic. He was married about 1761 
to Jane Richardson. He was sheriff of New- 
oastleoountf, 1737-60; chief burgess of Wilming- 
ton, 1759-77, and on Feb, 21, 1777, he was elected 
the first president ot Delaware. He held this 
office until Sept. 11 , 1777, when the British troops 
fresh from the battlfl of Brandywine entered Wil- 
mington and took him prisoner, and he was buo- 
oeeded in office by Thomas McEean (q.v.). He 
was exchanged in October, 1778. He was briga- 
dier-general of the state militia during the Revo- 
lution, and in December, 1783, he filed a Statement 
showing that he had sustained a loss of £1,055 in 
damage to his property at the time of his arrest. 
He was a founder of the Delaware Medical so- 
ciety in 1780 ; and was a trustee of the First 
Presbyterian church, 1789-96. There is supposed 
to be no portrait of him in existence. He died 
in Wilmington, Del., Aug. 31, 1706. 

McKINNEY, John Prank, representative, was 
born in Piqua, Ohio. April 12, 1827 ; son of John 
and Jane (Scott) McKinney, and grandson of 
James McKinney. He matriculated at the Ohio 
Wesleyan uniTersity, Delaware, Ohio, but left 
at the close of his first year to study law. He 
iras admitted to the bar in 1851 and practised in 
Fiqua, Miami oounty. He was a Democratic 
representatiTe from the fourth Ohio district in 
the 38th and 42d congresses, 1863-65 and 1871-78, 
and was defeated in 1864 by William Lawrence. 
He oontinaed the practice of law at Piqua. 

iHcKINNEY, Luther Pnutklln, representative, 
was born near Newark, Ohio, April 25, 1941. He 
was brought up on a farm and attended and 
taught district schools. He served in the civil 
war as sergeant in the Ist Ohio cavalry, 1861-68 ; 
and was discharged on account of disability in 
February, 1863. He engaged in farming and 
teaching sohool in Iowa, 1865-67, and in 1867 en- 
tered the theologiool department of St. Lawrence 
university. Canton, N.Y., and was graduated in 
1870. He was pastor of a Universalist church in 
Maine, 1870-73, and in tbe latter year removed to 
Hanohester, N.H., where be became actively in- 
terested in politics. He was an unsuccessful 
candidate for representative in the 4Dth congress 
inlSS4; was elected a Democratic representative 
in the 50th congress, 1887-60 ; was defeated for 
tiie 5lBt, and was elected to the 52d congress, 
1891-93. He was the defeated candidate for gov- 
ernor of New Hampshire in 1803. He was ap- 
pointed by President Cleveland in 1893 envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to 
Colombia and served throughout the administra- 
tion. On bis return in 18B7 he removed to Bridg- 



McKINNET 

ton, Maine, and in 1808 was .nominated for repre- 
sentative in tbe 56tb congress, and yaa defeated 
by Thomas B. Reed. 

JHcKINNEY, Mordecal, lawyer, was bom near 
Carlisle, Pa., in 1796, son of Mordecai and Mary 
(Chambers) McKinney, and a grandson of Col. 
William Chambers, fie was graduated from 
Dickinson college. Pa., in 1814, studied law with 
Judge Duncan of Carlisle, was admitted to the 
Dauphin county bar in May, 1817, and settled in 
practice in Harrisburg, Pa. He wa-s district at- 
torney of Union county. Pa., 1821-24; clerk to 
the county commissioners of Dauphin county. Pa., 
1824^37, and was appointed associate judge of 
Dauphin county by Governor Shulze, Oct. 23, 
18S7. He subsequently turned his attention to the 
compilation and publication of law books. He 
wasmarried to Rachel, daughter of William Gray- 
don, of Harrisburg, Pa. He is the author of -. 
The Penntglvania Justice of the Peace (2 vols., 
1839) ; A Digest of the Acta of Ataembly of Penn- 
ryivania from 1700 to IS40 (1841) ; The United 
Stateg Constitutional Manual (l&4,'j) ; TJie Amer- 
ican Magistrate and Civil Offleer (1850, new ed., 
2 vols., 1858); Pennsylvania Tax Lawt (1850) j 
A Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania relative to 
Banfcs-and Bankers (1854), and Our Oovemment: 
A ifanuat for Popular Use (1856). He died at 
Harrisburg, Pa., Dec. 17, 1867. 

JWcKINNEY, Philip Watkln», governor of Vir- 
ginia, was bom in Buckingham county, Va., 
March 17, 1832 ; son of Charles and Martha (Quer- 
rant) McKinney. His father was a farmer. Hewaa 
graduated from Hampden-Sidney college in 18S1 ; 
studied at tbe law 
school of Judge 
Brookenborough in 
Lexington, Va., 1861 
-52 ; was admitted to 
the Virginia bar in 
1853 ; represented 
Buckingham county 
in the Virginia legis- 
lature, 1855-61 ; and 
in 1863 was captain 
of the Buckingham 
troop, a company 
in the 4th Virginia 
cavalry. He served 
until wounded at 
Brandy Station, June 

0, 1863 ; and on his recovery, being incapao- 
itated for field duty, he commanded a military 
post at Danville. Va. At the close of the war he 
resumed his law practice at Farmville. He Ailed 
tbe office of prosecuting attorney several terms 
and was the defeated Democratic candidate for 
attorney-general of Virginia in 1881. He was a 
presidential elector at large on the Cleveland 



?. ioM%.t*^ 



MoKINNON 



Mcknight 



ticket in- 1884 and 1888 and a delegate to the 
Democratio national convention at St. Louis, 
Mo., June 5, 1888. He was defeated in the Dem- 
ocratic state convention as candidate for gov- 
ernor by Fitzhugh Lee in 1885, and was elected 
in 1889, serving 1890-94. He was married in 
1854 to Nannie, daughter of Robert Christian of 
New Kent county, Va. Slie died in 1859, leaving 
one son, Robert Christian McKinney. He was 
married secondly, Dec. 25, 1884, to Annie, 
daughter of James Lyle of Farmville. He died 
in Farmville, Va., March 1, 1899. 

McKlNNON, Luther, educator, was born in 
Richmond county, N.C., Oct. 31, 1840; son of 
Daniel and Margaret (McKay) McKinnon ; grand- 
son of Murdock and Sarah McKinnon and of 
Archibald and Margaret McKay. He was gradu- 
ated at Davidson college, salutatorian, 1861, and 
studied at Columbia Theological seminary, 1861- 
62 ; was licensed by the presbytery of Fayette- 
ville, 1863, was chaplain in the Confederate 
army, 1864-65 ; and principal of Floral college, 
N.C., 1866-67. He was ordained evangelist in 
1866 ; was pastor at Goldsboro, N.C., 1867-71 ; at 
Concord, N.C., 1871-83 ; and of the First Presby- 
terian church, Columbia, S.C., 1883-85. He was 
president, of Davidson college and professor of 
ethics. Christian evidence and Bible studies, 1885- 
88, and retired in 1888 on account of ill health. 
He received the honorary degree of D.D. from 
the University of North Carolina, and from the 
Southwestern Presbyterian university, Clarks- 
ville, Tenn., in 1886. 

McKlNSTRY, James Paterson, naval officer, 
was born in Hillsdale, Columbia county, N.Y., 
Feb. 9, 1807 ; son of David Charles and Nancy 
Whiting (Backus) McKinstry ; grandson of 
Charles andTabetha (Paterson) McKinstry, and 
great-grandson of Capt. John and Jane Dickie 
(Belknap) McKinstry, John McKinstry, born in 
Amagh, Ireland, an officer in the British army, 
came to Boston, Mass., about 1740, removing to 
Londonderry, N.H. James Paterson McKinstry 
entered the U.S. navy as a midshipman, Feb. 1, 
1826 ; was promoted passed midshipman, April 
28, 1882, and lieutenant, Feb. 9, 1837. He com- 
manded the mail steamer Georgia^ 1854-55 ; was 
promoted commander, Sept. 14, 1855, and served 
as a lighthouse inspector, 1858-59. He was mar- 
ried, Jan. 23, 1858, to Mary W. Smart, daughter 
of Gen. J. R. Williams of Detroit, Mich. He was 
attached to the Dakota of the blockading squadron 
in 1861 ; was promoted captain, July 16, 1862, 
and commanded the Monongahela of the Western 
Gulf blockading squadron, and participated in 
the engagements at Vicksburg and Port Hudson. 
He was severely injured at Port Hudson, where 
the bridge on which he was standing was shot 
away and this incapacitated him from further 



active service during the civil war. He was pro- 
moted commodore, July 25, 1866, commanded the 
naval station at Sacket Harbor, N.Y., and was 
retired, Feb. 9, 1869. He died in Detroit, Mich., 
Feb. 11, 1873. 

McKNlQHT, Charles » surgeon, was bom in 
Cranbury, N.J., Oct. 10, 1750 ; son of the Rev- 
Charles and Elizabeth (Stevens) McEInight, and 
a grandson of the Rev. John McKnight, a Presby- 
terian clergyman of the north of Ireland, and of 
Richard Stevens of New Jersey. His father was 
educated in Ireland, fitted for the ministry, came 
to America, and settled in New Jersey, where he 
joined the New Brunswick presbytery in 1741, 
was ordained in 1742 and installed at Cranbury 
and Allentown in 1744. By opposing the crown 
he displeased the Tories and in 1777 they burned 
his church at Middletown Point, and imprisoned 
him as a disloyal subject. He was soon after re- 
leased, but died from the effects of his treatment 
in 1778. Charles McKnight was graduated from 
the College of New Jersey in 1771 with first 
honors. He studied medicine with Dr. William 
Shippen of Philadelphia, Pa., but at the outbreak 
of the Revolutionary war entered the army be- 
fore he completed his professional course. He 
soon attracted the attention of Greneral Wash- 
ington and on April 11, 1777, he was appointed 
senior surgeon of the flying hospital of the Middle 
Department. He sei*ved on the Hudson River at 
New Windsor as surgeon-general and was with 
Washington's army, 1779-82. After the war he 
became one of the original members of the Society 
of the Cincinnati ; practised in New York city, 
lectured on anatomy and surgery and was pro- 
fessor of anatomy at Columbia college, 1785-91. 
He was appointed a regent of the University of 
the State of New York, Nov. 26, 1784 ; was a 
trustee of Columbia college, 1784-87, and post- 
surgeon of New York, 1781-91. He was married, 
April 22, 1778, to Mary, daughter of Gen. John 
Morin Scott (q. v.), and widow of Col. John 
Litchfield, and their son, John Morin Scott Mo- 
Knight, became a celebrated physician in New 
York city. Dr. Charles McKnight died in New 
York city, Nov. 10, 1791. 

McKNlOHT, Harvey Washington, educator, 
was born in McKnightstown, Pa., April 3, 184S ; 
son of Thomas and Margaret Hemming (Stewart) 
McKnight, and grandson of David and Mary 
Stewart. He joined the Pennsylvania volunteers 
as sergeant in 1863, and was promoted captain. 
He was graduated from Pennsylvania college, 
Gettysburg, in 1865, and from the Evangelical 
Lutheran Theological seminary in 1867. He was 
married, Nov. 12, 1867, to Mary Catherine, 
daughter of Solomon and Jane Welty of Gettys- 
burg, Pa. He was pastor at Zion Lutheran 
church, New ville, Pa., 1867-70, and during the 



Mcknight 



McLANE 




yean 1870-72 was disabled by sickness from 
holding a charge. He was pastor at St. Paul's 
church, Easton, Pa., 1872-80 ; of the First English 
Lutheran church, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1880-84, and 
of Trinity Lutheran church at Hagerstown, Md., 

a few months in 1884. He 
was elected president of 
Pennsylyania college, (Gettys- 
burg, Pa., in 1884, and also 
'served as president of the 
general synod of the Luth- 
eran church of the United 
States, 1889-91. He was one 
of the founders of the Pennsylvania Chautauqua. 
He received the degree of D.D. from Monmouth 
college, 111., in 1888, and that of LL.D. from La- 
fayette college. Pa., in 1889. He is the author of : 
Historical Address at the Semi-Centennial of Penn- 
sylvania CoUege (1892); Inaugural Address (1884). 
McKNIQHTy Robert* representative, was bom 
in Pittsburg, Pa., Jan. 27, 1820; third son of 
William and Catherine (McClurg) McEnight. 
He was prepared for college by the Rev. Hugh 
McMillan of Xenia, Ohio, and was graduated 
from the College of New Jersey, A.B., 1889, A.M., 
1842. He was admitted to the bar in 1842, and 
settled in practice in Pittsburg, where he was a 
member of the common council, 1847-49, and 
president of that body, 1848-49. He was a Re- 
publican representative in the 36th and 87th con- 
gresses, 1859-63, and as a member of the com- 
mittee on foreign affairs he addressed the house 
in favor of the bill for the recognition of Haiti 
and Liberia. He was married. May 27, 1847, to 
Elizabeth 0*Hara, daughter of the Hon. Harmar 
Denny (q. v.), and granddaughter of James 
0*Hara, the first quartermaster-general in the 
United States. Mr. McKnight was for many 
years a ruling elder in the Presbyterian church 
and a member of the general assembly of that 
church in 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869 and 1878. In 
June, 1884, he was a commissioner to the Pan 
Presbyterian council at Belfast, Ireland. He died 
in Pittsburg, Pa., Oct. 25, 1885. 

McLACHLANy James, representative, was 
born in Argyllshire, Scotland, in August, 1852. 
His parents settled in Tompkins coimty, N.Y., in 
1855, where James attended school, worked on a 
farm, began teaching in 1868, and prepared him- 
self for college. He was graduated from Hamil- 
ton in 1878 ; was commissioner of public schools 
in Tompkins county, 1878-81 ; was admitted 
to the bar in 1881, and practised in Ithaca, N.Y., 
1881-88. He removed to Pasadena, Cal., in 1888, 
and established himself in law practice. He was 
district attorney of Los Angeles county, 1890-94, 
was a Republican representative in the 54th con- 
gress. 1895-97 ; and he was re-elected to the 57th 
and 58th congresses, 1901-05. 



McLAIN, Prank Alexander, representative^ 
was born in Amite county, Miss., Jan. 29, 1858. 
He was graduated from the University of Missis* 
sippi in 1874 ; studied law, and began practice in 
Liberty, Miss., in 1880. He was a representative 
in the state legislature, 1881-83 ; district-attorney, 
1883-95, and a member of the state constitutional 
convention in 1890. He removed to Gloster, 
Miss., and resumed his law practice. He was a 
Democratic representative in the 55th congress 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of William 
Franklin Lore, Oct. 17, 1898, and was re-elected 
to the 56th, 57th and 58th congresses, 1899-1905. 

McLANAHANy James Xavleft representative, 
was born in Antrim township, Pa., in 1809 ; son 
of William and Mary (Gregg) McLanahan, and 
grandson of James McLanahan and of Senator 
Andrew Oregg. He was graduated from Dick- 
inson college. Pa., in 1826, and studied law in 
Carlisle and Chambersburg. He settled in prac- 
tice in Chambersburg in 1830, and was a state 
senator, 1840-43, and Democratic representative 
in the 31st and 32d congresses, 1849-53. He was 
chairman of the judiciary committee in the 32d 
congress. He was married in 1843 to Anne M., 
daughter of James McBride, a merchant of New 
York city, and in 1901 had living : a son, George 
William McLanahan of Washington, D.C., a 
grandson, James Xavier McLanahan, and a great- 
grandson, Duer McLanahan of New York city. 
He removed from Chambersburg to New York 
city in 1856 and died there, Dec. 16, 1861. 

McLANBf LouUy cabinet ofiicer, was born in 
Smyrna, Del., May 28, 1786 ; son of Allan Mc- 
Lane (1746-1829), a soldier in the American 
army, 1775-83, and collector of the port of Wil- 
mington, Del., 1808-29. Louis was warranted a 
midshipman in the U.S. navy in 1798, and served 
under Com. Stephen Decatur on the frigate 
Philadelphia, 1798-99. He left the navy in 1801 
in accordance with the wishes of his mother 
and was graduated from Newark college, Dela- 
ware ; studied law in the office of James A. 
Bayard ; was admitted to the bar in 1807 and 
practised in Smyrna, Del. He was married in 
1812 to Catharine Mary, daughter of Robert and 
Sally (Jones) Milligan. During the war of 1812 
he was engaged on the fortifications of the town 
and joined CsBsar A. Rodney's company of volun- 
teers, organized for the defence of Baltimore, 
in 1814. He was a Democratic representative 
in the 15th-19th congresses, 1817-27. He was 
opposed to the admission of slavery into the 
newly admitted state of Missouri, and although 
instructed by the legislature of his state to vote 
in favor of the measure, he cast his ballot 
against it. He was U.S. senator from Delaware, 
1827-29, and resigned in 1829 on being appointed 
U.S. minister to the court of St. James, England. 



UcLANE 

In 1881 he was recalled, leaving the offlue with 
Washington Irving, cliarge d'affaires, and was 
appoint«d secretary of the treasury in Jackson's 
cabinet, holding office until May, 1833, when in 
consequence ol haying refused in liis official 
capacity to permit the removal of the govern- 
ment deposits from the U.S. bank, lie was trans- 
ferred to the department of state. Ue retired 
from the cabinet in 1834 and removed to his 
estate in Cecil county, Kid. He was president 
of die Baltimore and Ohio railroad, 1837-17 ; was 
appointed U.S. minister to England by President 
Polk in 1845 and remained abroad until the settle- 
ment of the Oregon boundary negotiations in 
1846 when lie resigned and was succeeded by 
George Bancroft. After serving as a delegate to 
the Maryland constitutional convention, 1850-51, 
he retired from public life. He died in Balti- 
more, Md., Oct. 7, 1857. 

McLANE, Robert Mllllsan, statesman, was 
bom in Wilmington, Del., June 29, 1815 ; son of 
Louis and Catharine Mary (Milligan) McLaae. 
He attended St. Mary's college, Baltimore, 1827- 
26, and the College Bourbon. Paris, France, in 
1839-31. He was grad- 
uated from the U.S. 
Military academy in 
183T and assigned to 
the 1st artillery. He 
took part in the 
Seminole war in 
Florida in 1837 and 
in 1838 served under 
Gen. Winfleld Scott 
in the Cherokee dis- 
turbances in Georgia. 
In 1839 he was en- 
gaged in a military 
survey of the north- 
ern lakes under Capt. 
Augustus Canileld. 
He studied law and practised for a short period 
in the District of Columbia. He was married, 
Aug. 2, 1841, to GeoTgine, daughter of David 
Urquhart, a planter of Louisiana. He was 
sent to Europe in 1841 to examine the system 
of drainage and dykes in Italy and Holland. In 
1643 he resigned his oommission in the army and 
practised law in Baltimore, Md, He was a Dem- 
ocratic representative in the 30th and S\at 
congresses. 1847-31. where lie ably sustained tlie 
Mexican war. He went to California in 1851 
where, with Robert J. Walker, lie defended the 
claimants to the qui<;ksilFer mines of New 
Almaden. He was a delegate to the Democratic 
national convention at Baltimore. June 1, 1853, 
and the same year was appointed chairman of 
the Democratic national committee. In 1853 
President Pierce appointed him U.S. 



McLaren 

sioner with the powers of minister plenipoten- 
tiary to Ciuna, Japan, Siam, Korea and Cocliin 
China, where, in connection with Commodore 
Perry, be accomplished important treaties. Ue 
was counsel for the first projectors of Lhe 
Pacific railway and as such visited California, 
and Europe in 1854-55. He was a delegate to tlie 
Democratic national convention at Cincinnati, 
June 2, 1856 ; was appointed U.S. minister to 
Mexico in 1859, where lie signed the treaty uf 
1860, and in 1801 he returned to Baltimore and 
took an active part in the secession proceedings 
of the state and after its failure retired from 
public life and devoted himself to bis profession. 
He was counsel for the Western Pacific railroad 
for several years. He was a delegate to the Dem- 
ocratic national convention that met in St. 
Louis, June 28, 1876 ; was state senator, 1877-78 ; 
a Democratic representative in the 46th and 47th 
congresses, 1879-63 ; governor of Maryland, 
1683-65, and U.S. minister to France by appoint- 
ment of President Cleveland. 1.883-8&. He died 
in Paris, France, April 18, 1698. 

McLaren, Oonald, chaplain, was born in 
Caledonia, N.Y., March 7, 1834 ; son of the Rev. 
Dr. Donald Campbell (q.v.)and Jane (Stevenson] 
McLaren. He was graduated at Union college in 
1853 and at Princeton Theological seminary in 
1857. He was ordained by the presbytery of New 
Brunswick, July 1, 18-57, was pastor of Tennent 
church. Freehold, N.J., 1857-63, and was com- 
missioned a chaplain in the U.S. navy, March 10, 
1863. He was married July 14, 1858, to Elizabeth 
Stockton, daughter of Prof. Jacob Green, of 
Jefferson Medical college, and granddaughtt^ of 
the Rev. Ashbel Green, D.D. (q.v.). After enter- 
ing tl)e navy, he acted as professor of ethics at 
the Naval academy, Newport, R.L, 1863-65. He 
subsequently made cruises in difi'erent parts of 
the world and served at various naval stations in 
the United States. He waschaplain ofthe Naval 
academy, Annapolis, Md., 1867-71. He received 
the honorary degree of D.D. from Wooster 
university, Oiiio, in 1689. Having reached tbe 
age fixed by law he was placed on the retired list, 
U.S.N,, as chaplain in 1896. 

McLaren, Donnld Campbell, clergyman, was 
born in New York city. Oct. 3, 1794 ; son of Pin- 
lay and Margaret (Canipbell) McLaren, and grand- 
son of Donald MacLaren of Balquhidder, Scot- 
land. His parents came to New York from Cal- 
lander. Scotland, in 1793. Finlay McLaren was 
a merchant in Callander and in Onondaga, N.Y., 
where lie died in 1810. Donald Campbell was 
graduated at Union college, 1813, studied theol- 
ogy under the Rev. John M. Mason, New York 
city ; and was pastor of the Associate Reformed 
Presbyterian churches in Cambridjre. N.Y., 1817- 
27^ and Caledonia, N.Y., I»27-38. After re- 



HCLARSN 

aiding In Rocbeeter for two years he removed to 
Qeneva, N.Y., where he remained during the rest 
of his life. The first year of his residence he was 
acting pastor of the Associate Reformed Presby- 
terian church. He was moderator of the general 
assembly of the Associate Reformed church at 
ita meeting in Pittsburg, Pa., when the Asso- 
ciate chui-ch and tlie Associate Reformed church 
united, thus forming the United Il^sbyterian 
church. He received the honorary degree of 
D.D. from JeSerson college, Pa., in 1U57. He is 
the author of pamphlets on a variety of subjects 
and of a metrical version of the " Book of Psalms'* 
(IflH). He died in Geneva, N.Y., May 7, 1883. 

McLaren, John I^nby, clergyman, whs bom 
inManlius. N.T., Feb. 7, 1803 ; sonof Finlay and 
Margaret <Campbell) McLaren. He was grad. 
uat«d from Union college In 182S and from 
Princeton Theoli^ioal seminary in 1828, and was 
-ordained by the Associate Reformed presbytery, 
Caledonia, N.Y., Jan. 7, 1830. He was stated 
supply at Geneva, N.Y., 1838-80, pastor there, 
1830-45 ; editor of the Ckrittian Magazine, 1832- 
43 ; pastor at Hagerstown, Md., 1845-46 ; pastor 
of the First church, Pittsburg, Pa., 1846-51 ; 
Agent of the Board of Domestic Missions, 1851- 
55 ; president of the Western University of Penn- 
sylvania, 1855-58 : stated supply at Pine Creek, 
1855-62 ; chaplain of the 10th Pennsylvania Rft- 
serves, U.S.A., 1863-64 ; and stated supply in the 
Presbytery of Detroit, Mich., 1868-74. His 
-daughter Margaret was married to the Rev. Dr. 
A. A. Hodgu (q.v.) and Dr. McLaren resided with 
her in Princeton, 1878-88. He received the hon- 
orary degree of D.D. from Geneva college in 
1849. He .lied in Princeton, N.J., March 14, 1888. 

McLARBN, Robert Neil, soldier, was bom in 
Caledonia. N.Y., April 9, 1828 ; son of the Rev. 
Dr. Donald Campbell (q.v.) and Jane (Stevenson) 
McLaren. He matriculated at Union collage 
with the class of 1852, but left before completing 
hb course and removed to Oregon, where he 
was amerohantand partner of Henry W. Corbett 
(q.v.). Returning east he lived in Red Wing, 
Minn., where he engaged as a grain commission 
merchant, 1856-63, aftor which his home was in 
8t. Paul. He was married, May 10, 1857, to 
Anna, daughter of Archibald MacVean of Wheat- 
land. N.Y. In 1859 and 1860 he was member of 
the Minnesota senate. In 1863 he helped to raise 
the 6th Minnesota regiment at St. Paul, and 
was commissioned captain and later major. He 
served with Gen. Henry H. Sibley against tiie 
Sioux Indians, and after making a journey across 
the northwestern plains he engaged in a similar 
expedition with Qen. Alfred Sully in 1863-^. 
He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, 
Dec- 14, 1865. He was post commandant at Fori) 
Snelling, Minn., collector of internal revenue four 



^rUO. 



McLaren 

years ; U.S. marshal four years and chairman of 
the Republican state central committee. Ha 
died in St. Paul, Minn., July 80, 1886. 

McLaren, Willlam Edward, third bishop of 
Chicago and 114th in succession in the American 
episcopate, was bom in Geneva, N.Y., Dec. IS, 
1881 ; son of the Bev, Dr. John Finlay (q.v.) and 
Mary (McKay) McLaren. He was giaduated 
from Jefferson col- 
lege, Canonsburg, 
Pa., in 18S1, taught 
school, 1851-53, and 
engaged in joumal- 
tetic work in Qeve- 
land, Ohio, and Pitts- 
burg, Pa., 1852-67. 
He was graduated 
from the Weetem 
Theological semin- 
ary, Allegheny, Pa., 
B.D.,in 1860,andwas 
ordained the same 
year by the presby- 
tery of Alleghen]' 
City and engaged in 
missionary work in New Granada, 1860-68. He 
was pastor of the Second church, Peoria, 111., 
1863-67, and of Westminster church, Detroit, 
Hich., 1867-73, He was ordered deacon in the 
Protestant Episcopal church, in St. John's church, 
Detroit, Mich., July 20, 1872, and ordained priest 
in the same church, Oct. SO, 1872, by Bishop Mc- 
Coskry. He was rector of Trinity church, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, 1872-76 ; and was elected bishop of Illi- 
nois in September. 1875, succeeding Bishop Whito- 
house. He was consecrated in the cathedral 
church of SS. Peter and Paul, Chicago, III., by 
Bishops MoCoskry, Bedell, Whipple, J. C. Talbot, 
Clarkson, Spalding. Gillespie and Welles, Dec. 8, 
1875. The diocese of Illinois was divided In 1877, 
and two new sees, Quincy and Springfield, 
created. Bishop McLaren continued as bishop of 
Illinois, which embraced the northern section of 
the state, the name of which in 1883 was changed 
to the diocese of Cliicago. He founded the West- 
em Theological seminary in Chicago in 1681, 
with an endowment of $825,<X)0, and Waterman 
Hall for girls at Sycamore, 111., in 1S85, with an 
endowment of $200,000. He called together the 
first dioceaan retreat for clergy held in the Amer- 
ican church, served as primus of the provincial 
synod of Dlinois, 1878-1901, and became president 
of the board of trustees of St. Mary's school. 
Knoxville, 111., and of the institutions of his own 
founding. He was appointed by the presiding 
bishop in 1898 to investigate the field in Porto 
Rico with a view to the promotion of church 
work in the newly acquired colony. He received 
the honorary degree of D.D. from Racine in 1878 



McLAUGHLfiN 



McLAURIN 



and D.C.L. from the University of the South in 
1884. He 18 the author of : Catholic Doffma, the 
Antidote of Doubt (1883) ; Inner Proofs of God 
(1884) ; Analysis of Pantheism (1885) ; The Prac- 
tice of the Interior lAfe (1897) ; The Holy Priest 
(1899) ; The Essence of Prayer (1901), and poems, 
addresses and occasional sermons. 

McLAUOHLEN, Nafwleoa Bonapartev soldier, 
was born in Chelsea, Vt., Dec. 8, 1823. He en- 
listed in the U.S. army in 1849 ; was assigned to 
the 2d U.S. dragoons, May 27, 1850, and was honor- 
ably discharged, April 28, 1859. He rejoined the 
army as 2d lieutenant in the 1st U.S. cavalry, 
March 27, 1861 ; was promoted 1st lieutenant, May 
8, 1861, and transferred to the 4th U.S. cavalry in 
August, 1861. He was promoted captain, July 
17, 1862, and colonel of the Ist Massachusetts 
volunteers, Oct. 1, 1862. He served in the Ist 
brigade, 2d division, 8d army corps, in the battles 
of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
and Locust Grove, 1862-63. He was in the 
Ist brigade, 4th division, 2d corps, in the Wilder- 
ness campaign, and at Spottsylvania, May 8-12, 
1864. He was mustered out of the volunteer 
service, May 28, 1864, and rejoined the 4th U.S. 
cavalry at Atlanta, Ga., in June, and on Sept. 
14, 1864, was appointed colonel of the 57th Mas- 
sachusetts veteran volunteers. He commanded 
the Ist division in Willcox*s 9th corps. Army of 
the Potomac, at the siege of Petersburg, and the 
battle of Poplar Grove church, and the 3d bri- 
gade in the defence of Forts Haskell and Stedman, 
March 25, 1865, where he was captured while at- 
tempting to rally the infantry in the trenches 
between the two forts, and confined in Libby 
prison, Richmond, Va. He was bre vetted ma- 
jor. May 8, 1863, and lieutenant-colonel in the reg- 
ular army, July 2, 1863, for Chancellorsville and 
Gettysburg; brigadier-general of volunteers, Sept. 
30, 1864, for Poplar Grove church, Va., colonel, 
U.S.A., March 13, 1865, for the assault on Fort 
Stedman, and brigadier-general, U.S.A., March 
13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious service in 
the field during the war. He was mustered out 
of the volunteer service, Aug. 10, 1865 ; com- 
manded the post of Grand Ecore, La., was pro- 
moted major and transferred to the 10th cavalry, 
May 17, 1876, and was retired June 26, 1882. He 
died in Middletown, N.Y., Jan. 27, 1887. 

Mclaughlin, Andrew Cunningham, edu- 
cator, was born in fieardstown. 111., Feb. 14, 1861 ; 
son of David and Isabella (Campbell) McLaugh- 
lin. He was graduated from the University of 
Michigan, A.B., 1882, LL.B., 1885, A.M., 1895; 
and remained there as instructor in Latin, 1886- 
87, instructor in history, 1887-88, assistant pro- 
fessor of history, 1888—91, and professor of 
American history from 1891. He was married 
in June, 1890, to Lois Thompson, daughter of 




James Burrill and Sarah S. (Caswell) Angell. 
He was editor of ** Cooley's Principles of Con- 
stitutional Law" and associate editor of 7%e 
American Historical Review (1898); and is the 
author of : History of Higher Education in 
Michigan (1891) ; Lewis Cass in ** American States- 
men Series " (1891) ; Civil Qovemmentof Middgan 
(1892); History of the American Nation (1899)- 

McLAURlNt Anaelm Josepht governor of 
Mississippi, was born in Brandon, Miss., March 
26, 1848 ; son of Lauchlin and Ellen (Tullus) 

McLaurin, and grandson of Lauchlin and 

(McLaurin) McLaurin, and of William and 
Martha (Loudon) Tullus. He 
was brought up on a farm, 
and attended the neighbor- 
ing' schools and the Sum- 
merville Institute until Aug- 
ust, 1864, when he joined the 
Confederate army. He was 
again a student at the Sum- 
merville Institute in 1865-67 and then returned 
to the farm. He studied law in the evenings* 
was admitted to the bar in July, 1868, and 
began practice in Raleigh,' Miss. He was mar- 
ried, Feb. 22, 1870, to Laura Ranch of Trenton, 
Miss. He was district attorney for the fifth 
district of Mississippi, 1871-76 ; removed to 
Brandon, Miss., March 19, 1876 ; was a repre- 
sentative in the state legislature in 1879 ; pres- 
idential elector for the state at large on the 
Democratic ticket in 1888; a delegate to the 
state constitutional convention in 1890 ; and U.S. 
senator, 1894-95, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of Senator Walthall. He was 
elected governor of Mississippi in November, 
1895, taking his seat, Jan. 21, 1896, and serving^ 
until Jan. 16, 1900, when he was elected to the 
U.S. senate, for the term ending March 4, 1907. 

McLAURIN, John LoundeSt senator, was 
born in Red Bluflf, Marlboro county, S.C., May 9, 
1860 ; son of Philip B. and Tommie Jane (Weath- 
erly) McLaurin ; grandson of John L. McLaurin 
and of Thomas C. Weatherly, and a descendant 
of the McLaurins who emigrated from Scotland 
during the eighteenth century. He attended the 
village schools of Bennettsville, S.C. ; Bethel 
Military academy, Warrenton, Va., Swarthmore 
college, Philadelphia, Pa., the Carolina Military 
institute and the University of Virginia. He 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1882 and 
practised in Marlboro county. He was a repre- 
sentative in the state legislature in 1890 ; attorney- 
general of the state in 1891 ; a Democratic repre- 
sentative in the 52d, 53d and 54th congresses, 
1891-97, and was appointed U.S. senator by Gov- 
ernor Ellerbe, May 27, 1897, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Joseph H. Earle, and took 
his seat, June 1, 1897. After a campaign, in 



McLAWS, 



MACLAY 



w^hich the question was submitted to the people 
of the state, he was elected to fill out the unex- 
pired term ending March 8, 1903. On July 25, 
1 90 1 , the Democratic state execut i ve comm i t tee 
of South Carolina asked him to tender his resig- 
nation as United States senator, which request 
he ignored. On July 11, 1902, President Roose- 
velt ofiFered him the position of judge of the 
United States court of claims, which position he 
declined, July 22. 1902. 

McLAWSy Lafayette, soldier, was bom at 
Augusta, Ga., Jan. 15, 1821. He attended the 
University of Virginia, 1837-38, and was grad- 
uated from the U.S. Military academy in 1848, 
and promoted brevet 2d lieutenant, 6th infantry, 

U.S.A., July 1, 1842. 
He served on frontier 
and garrison duty in 
Indian Territory, 
Mississippi, Louis- 
iana, Florida and 
Texas, 1842-46 : was 
promoted 2d lieu- 
tenant, 7th infantry, 
March 16, 1844, and 
served in the war 
with Mexico, 1846-47, 
being engaged in the 
defence of Fort 
Brown, May 3-9, 1846; 
the battle of Mon- 
terey, Sept. 21, 1846, 
and the siege of Vera Cruz, March 9, 1847. He 
was promoted 1st lieutenant, Feb. 16, 1847 ; was 
on recruiting duty, 1847-48 ; was acting assistant 
adjutant-general of the department of New Mex- 
ico, 1849-51 ; was promoted captain, Aug. 24, 
1851, and was on frontier and garrison duty in 
the west, 1852-61. He resigned his commission 
in the U.S. army, March 23, 1861. On returning 
to Georgia, he joined the state forces gathered 
by Governor Brown and was commissioned major 
of infantry. He entered the Confederate army, 
March 28, 1861, as colonel of the 10th Georgia 
regiment and was promoted brigadier-general, 
Sept. 25, 1861. He was on the Lower Peninsula, 
Va., under Magruder, and distinguished himself 
at Lee's Mills, April 16, 1862, and in the seven 
days* battles before Richmond, where he com- 
manded the 2d division of Magruder's command, 
June 25- July 1, 1862. He was ordered to Har- 
per's Ferry, Va., by General Lee in September, 
1862, and with his own and Anderson's divisions 
gained MaryUnd Heights, Sept. 18-14, 1862, and 
with Walker's division on London Heights, and 
T. J. Jackson's on Bolivar Heights soon forced 
the surrender of the place. He joined Lee's 
army during the battle of Sharpsburg, September 
17, and commanded his division in Longstreet's 




z On "^oCiAAof 



corps in the remainder of the battle, restoring 
the shattiared Confederate line and covering the 
safe retreat of Lee's army across the Potomac, 
Sept. 19, 1862. He commanded his division at 
Fredericksburg, Dec. 18, 1862, and held the ground 
at Marye's Heights, with 5000 men against 40,000, 
and his stand cost the Federal army in killed and 
wounded more than double the force he com- 
manded. At Chancellorsville, Longstreet being 
absent with Hood's and Pickett's divisions, he 
commanded the corps as well as his own division. 
At Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863, his division held 
the right of the line of battle. After the retreat 
into Virginia, with Longstreet's corps he joined 
Hood's army in Tennessee, and at Chickamauga, 
Sept. 19-20, 1863, he commanded Longstreet's 
corps when Longstreet took the command of 
the left wing after Hood was wounded. In 
the investment of Knoxville, Nov. 17 — Dec. 4, 
1863, he held the right of Longstreet's corps and of 
the line of battle. He was then ordered to the 
command of the district of Georgia, where he 
had charge of the defences of Savannah, and in 
the campaign through the Carolines in pursuit of 
Sherman he commanded a division in Hardee's 
corps and reinforced Hoke's division at Benton- 
ville, March 20, 1865. He surrendered with John- 
ston, and after the war engaged in business in 
Augusta, Ga. In 1875 he was appointed U.S. 
collector of internal revenue for the district of 
Savannah, and he was also appointed postmaster 
at Savannah in 1876. He delivered his lecture, 
•• The Maryland Campaign," in 1886-87, in various 
cities in the United States and is the author of : 
The, Confederate Left at Fredericksburg in ** Bat- 
tles and Leaders of the Civil War," vol* iii., p. 89- 
94. He died in Savannah, Ga., July 24, 1897. 

MACLAY, Archibald, clergyman, was born at 
Killearn, Scotland, May 14, 1776. His father died 
in 1785 and Archibald became the sole support 
of his family. He removed to Glasgow where he 
was educated for the ministry of the Congrega- 
tional church through the liberality of Robert 
Haldane. He attended the University of Edin- 
burgh, and in 1802 began preaching in Kirkcaldy. 
In 1805 he immigrated with his family to Amer- 
ica, settled in New York city, and organized a 
Congregational church on Rose street, but in 
1809, with most of his congregation he joined the 
Baptist church and organized what subsequently 
became the Tabernacle Baptist church, of which 
he was pastor, 1809-37. He retired in 1837 and 
became general agent of the American and For- 
eign Bible society. He was instrumental in the 
organization of the American and Foreign Bible 
Union of which he became general agent, and 
subsequently president. He procured the dona- 
tion of large sums of money for the purpose of 
revising the English Bible, and for the endow- 



MAGLAT 



MACLAY 



ment of Maclay college. In 1856, becoming dis- 
satisfied with the management of the Bible 
Union, he withdrew, publishing his reasons for 
so doing. He was a trustee of the University 
of the City of New York, 1830-38, and secretary 
of the board, 1832-38. He was twice marrie'^ 
first to Mary, daughter of William Brown oi 
Glasgow, Scotland, and secondly to Jul' 
Walker. He compilef* a Hymn Book supple- 
mental to '* Watts J Psalms and Hymns." He 
died in New York city, May 2, 1860. 

MACLAY, Edgar StantODt author, was bom 
in Foochow, China, April 18, 1863 ; son of the 
Rev. Dr. Robert Samu ' <»aa Henrietta Caroline 
(Sperry) Maclay. He was a student at Syracuse 
university, 1881-85, and received his A.p. degree 
from there in 1886, and that of A.M. on examina- 
tion in 1888. He studied in Germany, France, 
and England, 1885-86, with special reference to 
preparing a naval history of the United States. 
He engaged in newspaper work on the Brooklyn, 
N.Y., TimeSy 1886-90 ; on the New York Tribune^ 
1890-93 ; on the editorial staff of the Tribune, 
1893-95, and also on the editorial staff of the 
New York Sun, 1894-95. He was lighthouse 
keeper at Old Field Point, Long Island, 1895-1900, 
and on Sept. 7, 1900, was api>ointed to a position 
in the U.S. navy yard, Brooklyn, N.Y. He was 
married, Dec. 22, 1894, to Katherine Koerber. 
He gained considerable notoriety in 1901 on the 
appearance of the third volume of " A History 
of the United States Navy," which in its first 
two volumes was adopted as a text-book in the 
U.S. Naval academy. The new volume included 
the Spanish- American war after the capture of 
Manila, and in his account of the naval operations 
in Cuban waters Mr. Maclay, in a series of para- 
graphs, reflected on the conduct of Rear- Admiral 
Schley. These reflections resulted in a court of 
inquiry on the conduct of the Admiral, held in 
Washington in September, 1901, followed by are- 
quest from the secretary of the navy for Maclay's 
resignation, Dec. 23, 1901. The volume in which 
the offensive article appeared was ordered to be 
withdrawn from the Naval Academy, and the 
legislature of Maryland had it removed from 
the state library in 1902. Mr. Maclay edited 
Journal of U.S. Senator William Maclay (1889), 
and is the author of : History of the Maclay 
Family (1888) ; A History of the United States 
Navy (1894 ; rev. ed., 2 vote., 1898 ; new ed., 8 
vols., 1901) ; Reminiscences of the Old Navy 
(1898) ; The History of American Privateers 
(1899), and articles in the Century , Harper's, and 
other magazines. 

MACLAY, Robert Samuel* missionary and 
educator, was bom in Concord, Pa., Feb. 7, 
1824 ; son of Robert and Arabella (Erwin) Mac- 
lay. He was graduated at Dickinson college, A. B. , 



1845, A.M., 1848 ; entered the ministry of tlie 
Methodist Episcopal church in 1846, and on Oct. 
18, 1847, sailed as a missionary to Foochow, 
China. He was married, July 10, 1850. to Hen- 
rietta Caroline Sperry, at Hong Kong, China, 
te assisted in translating the New Testament in 
le Foochow dialect and was superintendent and 
'rer of the Foochow mission, 1852-72. He 
wa^ . »f «»rred to the Japan mission in 1872 as 
superintendent and treasurer ; assisted in trans- 
lating the New Testament into Japanese ; was 
a delegate from Japan to the ecumenical con- 
ference, London, England, 1881, and helped to 
found the Anglo-Chinese college at Foochow, 
China, 1881. He was married secondly in San 
Francisco, Cal., June 6, 1882, to Sarah Ann Barr. 
He obtained permission from the king of Korea 
to establish Christian missions in his kingdom in 
1884. He established the Anglo-Japanese col- 
lege, Tokyo, 1888, and was its president, 1883-87 ; 
established the Philander Smith Biblical insti- 
tute, Tokyo, 1884, and was its dean, 1884-87. He 
was ministerial delegate from Japan to the 
general conference of the M.E. church. New 
York, 1888, and was dean of the Maclay College 
of Theology, San Fernando, Cal., 1888-93. He 
retired from active educational work in 1898 and 
continued his home at San Fernando. Dickinson 
conferred upon him the degree of D.D. in 1861. 
He is the author of : Life among the Chinese 
(1861) ; Dictionary of the Chinese Language 
(1871), and sketches of the Japan M.E. missions 
for Reid's History of Methodist Missions. 

MACLAY, Samuel, senator, was born in Cum- 
berland county, Pa., June 7, 1741 ; son of Charles 
and Eleanor (Query) Maclay. He assisted his 
brother William in surveying the o£Scers' grant 
on the Susquehanna. He served during the 
Revolutionary war in the Northumberland 
county troops as lieutenant-colonel, and was as- 
sociate judge of the county, 1793-95 ; representa- 
tive in the 4th congress, 1795-97 ; state senator, 
1797-1802, and speaker, 1801-0^. During his term 
of office as state senator he presided over an im- 
peachment trial against the protest of the opposi- 
tion. He was U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, 
1803-08, and resigned before the end of his term 
on account of failing health. He died in Noitli- 
umberland county. Pa., Oct. 5, 1811. 

MACLAY, William, senator, was bom in New 
Oarden, Pa., July 20, 1737; son of Charles and 
Eleanor (Query) Maclay, and grandson of John 
Maclay and of William Query. His father immi- 
grated to America in 1734, lived at New Garden, 
Chester county, 1784-40, and in 1740 removed to 
Cumberland county. William was a pupil of the 
Rev. John Blair, at Big Spring, and served as 
a lieutenant in Gren. John Forbes's expedition to 
Fort Duquesne in 1758, and in Oen. Henry Bou- 



MACLAY 

quet'a march to Fort Pitt and engagement at 
Busily Run in 1T59. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1760, and was a surveyor of the land on thd 
Susquelianna granted to officers of the army, 
and acquired a considerable grant. He visi^d 
the proprietors in England, and entered the sei • 
ice of the Fenn family as deputy surveyor c 
Bucks county. He was married in ITBO to V 
daughter of John Harris, the proprieji"- ., ,.jr- 
risbui^. In 1773, upon the organization of 
Northumberland county, lie was made prothono- 
tary and cleric of the courts, and assisted in laying 
out the town of Sunbury, Pa. He was active 
in raising and equipping troops for the Conti- 
nental service, participated in the battles of 
Trenton and Princeton and served as commis- 
^ary. He was elected a member of the provin- 
-cial assembly in ITtil; was Indian commissioner, 
judge of common pleas, and a member of the 
executive council. He was elected in Janu- 
ary, 1788, with Robert Morris, to the U.S. senate, 
and in determining his term of service drew the 
short term ending March 3, 17t)l. He was a 
leader of the opposition to the administration of 
Washington, to the funding of the national debt 
and to the establishing of a U.S. bank, and was 
prominent in the movement that terminated in 
the establishment of the Anti-Federal party. At 
the expiration of his term he retired to his farm 
at Dauphin. Pa. ; was a representative in the 
state legislature in 1795; a presidential elector 
for Thomas Jefft-rson in 179fl; county judge, 
1801^3. and a repri'sentative in the state legisla- 
ture, 1803-04. He wrote : Sketchea of Debate 
in the First Senate of the United Slates. 1783-91. 
His Joamal was publislied by E!dgar S. Maclay 
in 18»9. He died in Dauphin, Pa.. April 16, 1804. 

MACLAY, William, representative, was born 
in Lorgan township, Franklin county. Pa., 
March 23, 1765 ; son of John and Jane (Dickson) 
Maclay, and grandson of Charles and Eleanor 
(Query) Maclay and of David and Catherine 
<Ureenlee) Dickson; He was married, Dec. 32, 
1789, to Margaret, daughter of Alexander Cul- 
bertson. He was a member of the Pennsylvania 
assembly in 1807 and 1808 ; a repreeentative in 
the 14th and 15th congresses, 1815-19, and was 
an associate judge for the district composed of 
Adams, Cumberland and Franklin counties. He 
4ied in Franklin county. Pa., Jan. 4, 1825. 

MACLAY, WlllUm Brown, representative, 
was bora in New Yorkoity, March 20, 1813 ; son of 
the Rev. Archibald and Mary (Brown) Maclny. 
He was graduated at the University of the City 
<if New York in 1836 and became acting professor 
-of the Latin language and literature as substi- 
tute for Prof. John Proudfit. He was a member 
of the council of the university, 1838-81. and 
served as secretary of the board, 18S8-6S. Hewas 



McLEAN 

married, Aug. 22, 1838, to Antoinette, daughter 
of Mark Walton of New Orleans, La. He prac- 
tised law in New York city, 1838-81 ; was a 
Democratic member of the state assembly, 
1840-43, and as chairman of the committee of 
-J)ools and colleges 
MO introduced the 
■ Va<!t in relation 

passed April 11, 1343, 
which was the found- 
ation of the public 
school system of tbit 
state. He was also 
chairman of the lit- 
erature committee 
and was instrumental 
in causing the un 
published journals of 



the 



provincial con- -^iTTi'^^'^^'^ 
gress of New York *^ ' ■' y^.^ 

for the season of 

1775 and 1776 to be printed. He was a repre- 
sentative from New York in the 38th, 29tli and 
80th congresses, 1843-49, where he advocated the 
annexation of Texas, the admission of Oi'egon, 
the claims of the heirs of John Paul Jones and 
advocated free homesteads on all public lands to 
actual settlers. He was one of the original 
trustees of the New York and Brooklyn Bridge, 
and a member of the American Geographical 
society of New York, and of varioas social clubs. 
He died in New York city, Feb. IB, 1882. 

MACLAY, William Plunk^t, represenUtivp. 
was bora in Northumberland county. Pa., Aug. 
38, 1774; son of Samuel Maclay (q.v.). He was 
prothonotary of Mifflin county, 1808-16; filled the 
unexpired term of Thomas Burnside in the I4th 
congress and was a representative in the 15th 
and ]6th congresses, 1817-31. He was a delegate 
to the state constitutional convention but declined 
to sign the constitution as it did not extend the 
right of suffrage to negroes. He died in Milroy, 
Mifflin county. Pa., Sept. 2, 1843. 

McLBAN, Alney, representative, was born in 
Burke county. N.C., Sept. 5, 1779. He settled in 
the practice of law at Greenville, Ky., about 
1805 ; represented Muhlenburg county in the 
legislature, 1813-13, and commanded a company 
of Kentucky volunteer riflemen in the battle of 
New Orleans, Jan. 8, 1815, where he distinguished 
himself. He was a representative in the Nth and 
16th congresses, 1815-17 and 1819-31. He was 
appointed by President Monroe U.S. circuit 
judge for Kentucky in 1831, and held the office 
until his death. He was a district elector on the 
Clay ticket in 1834, and from the state at large 
on the Clay ticket in 1833. He died at Green- 
ville, Ky. 



McLEAN 



McLEAN 



McLBANv Daniel Veech, educator, was bom 
in Fayette county, Pa., Nov. 24, 1801; son of 
Alexander and Mary (Veech) McLean and grand- 
son of James McLean. He was brought up near 
Chillicothe, Ohio, graduated from Ohio univer- 
sity, 1824, and studied at Princeton Theological 
seminary, 1827-29. He taught in Chambersburg, 
Pa., 1825-26; was ordained an evangelist in 
Miami, Ohio, June 29, 1881 ; was stated supply at 
Lebanon, Ohio, 1831-32; pastor of Tennent 
church, Freehold, N.J., 1832-36, and of the Vil- 
lage church, Freehold, which he had organized, 
1838-50. In 1851 he was inaugurated president 
of Lafayette college, and at once undertook to 
raise a permanent endowment of $100,000 by the 
sale of scholarships, the sum of $100 entitling the 
subscriber to the tuition of his own son, or of the 
son of any person to whom he might transfer the 
certificate. He pushed this work with untiring 
energy and the full amount was pledged by Janu. 
ary, 1854. He resigned the presidency in 1857, 
travelled in Europe, 1858, and spent four years in 
London, England, where he preached frequently, 
and on his return he served as pastor of First 
church, Plainfield, N.J., 1862-68, and at Bedbank, 
N.J., 1863-69. He was a trustee of Lafayette 
college, 1853-65, and a director of Princeton The- 
ological seminary, 1848-60. The honorary degree 
of D.D. was conferred on him by Lafayette college 
in 1848. He died at Redbank, N. J., Nov. 23, 1869. 

McLEAN, Emily NeUon (Ritchie), regent, 
D.A.R., was born in Prospect Hall, Frederick, 
Md., Jan. 28, 1859 ; daughter of Judge Jolm and 
Bettie (Maulsby) Ritchie ; granddaughter of Dr. 
Albert and Katharine Lackland (Davis) Ritchie 
and of Judge William Pinkney and Emily (Nel- 
son) Maulsby ; great granddaughter of General 
Roger and Betsy (Harrison) Nelson, and a descen- 
dant on the paternal side from William Burgess, 
deputy governor of Maryland, who inmiigrated 
in 1650 and settled on South River, Md. She was 
graduated from Frederick seminary (now 
Woman's college) in 1878, and took a post-graduate 
course in language, history and mathematics. 
She was married, April 24, 1883, at Frederick, 
to Donald McLean of New York. She was one 
of the charter members of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution and was chosen regent of 
the New York city chapter in 1894. During the 
Cotton States and International exposition of 
1895-96 she served as commissioner from New 
York, and she was appointed commissioner to the 
South Carolina exposition of 1901-02. She deliv- 
ered public addresses throughout the country on 
educational and patriotic subjects. In 1901 she 
was appointed head of the Victorian Interna- 
tional society. A scholarship in Barnard college, 
a woman's college connected with Columbia 
university, New York, bears her name. 



MacLEAN, George Edwin, educator, was 
bom in Rockville, Conn., Aug. 31, 1850; son of 
Edwin W. and Julia H. (Ladd) MacLean. ^e 
was graduated at Willliams college A.B., 1871, 
A.M. , 1874, and at Yale Divinity school B.D. , 1874, 
and was ordained by the presbytery of Columbia 
in 1874. He was married. May 20, 1874, to 
Clara S., daughter of Charles J. Taylor of Great 
Barrington, Mass. He was pastor at New Lebanon, 
N.Y., 1874-77, and of the memorial church, Troy, 
N.Y., 1877-81. He studied at the universities of 
Berlin and Leipzig, 1881-83, and received the 
degree Ph.D. from Leipzig in 1888. He collated 
several old English manuscripts in the British 
Museum and at the Universities of Cambridge 
and Oxford, made a tour of Europe, and returned 
to the United States in 1884. He was professor 
of the English language and literature in the 
University of Minnesota, 1884-94, with the excep- 
tion of the year 1891, when he made a second visit 
to England, and studied in the British museum. 
He visited Paris in 1894, and made researches in 
the Bibliotheque Nationale, and in 1895 waa 
elected chancellor of the University of Nebraska 
and president of the University senate. He 
directed the work of the U.S. agricultural ex- 
periment station at the University of Nebraska, 
and in 1889 visited England, Holland and Germany 
for the purpose of investigating the work done 
at the various agricultural stations. He was made 
a member of the Philological society of London 
and of the American Philological society in 1891. 
He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Williams college in 1895. He edited uSlfrica 
Anglo-Saxon version of Alcuini Interrogationea 
Sigewulfi Presbyteri in Genesin (1833) ; An 
Old and Middle English Reader by Zupitza (1886) ; 
An Introductory Course in Old English (1891), 
and is the author of : A Chart of English Litera- 
ture with References (1892); An Old and Middle 
English Reader with Introduction^ Notes and 
Glossary (1893). 

McLEAN, George Payne, governor of Con- 
necticut, was born in Simsbury, Conn., Oct. 7^ 
1857 ; son of Dudley B. and Mary (Payne) McLean, 
grandson of the Rev. Allen McLean, and a descend 
ant of Governor Bradford of Massachusetts and 
of Capt. John Mason of Ck>nnecticut. He waa 
graduated from the EUiitford high school, served 
as a reporter on the Hartford Evening Post, was 
admitted to the bar in 1881, and settled in prac- 
tice in Hartford. He was a republican represent- 
ative in the general assembly, 1883-84 ; was in- 
strumental in establishing the board of pardona 
in 1883, and was clerk of the board. 1883-1900 ; 
was elected state senator in 1888 ; was U.S. dis- 
trict attorney, 1882-96, and in 1900 succeeded 
George E. Lounsbury (q. v.) as governor of Con- 
necticut, for the term ending Jan. 4, 1908. 



UacLEAH 

Maclean, Junes A., eduostor, was bom in 
3£ayfair, Ort., Aug. 2. 1868 ; son of Alexander 
SlacLeaii. He attended the Collegiate institute 
at Siratliroy, Ont.. and wss graduated from the 
Univereitj' of Toronto in 1893. He studied law, 
18»2-M ; was professor of political science at the 
University of Colorado, 18M-1900, and was elected 
president of the University of Idaho in Septem- 
ber, 1900. He wa« a uniTeraity fellow at Colum- 
bia, 1893-94, receiving the degree of A.M. in 1B98 
and that of Ph.D. in 1894. He is the author of 
essays on tlie Financial History of Canada 
(1894). 

MACLEAN, Jobn, chemist, was born in QUs- 
gow, Scotland, March 1, 1T71 ; son of Dr. John 
and Agnes (Lang) Maclean, and grandson of 
Archibald Maclean, minister of the parish of 
Eilflniuhen. He was left an orphan and became 
the ward of Qeorge Macintosh, and when thirteen 
years old was admitted to the University of Qlas- 
gow, where, in addition to the arts, he pursued a 
course in chemistry and in 1TS6-8T attended the 
lectures of Dr. Alexander Stevenson on anatomy, 
midwifery and botany. He went to Edinburgh in 
1787 to hear Dr. Black on chemistry ; studied 
surgery in London and Paris; received his M.D. 
degree in Glasgow in 1791 and practised tliere as 
a member of the faculty of physicians and sur- 
geons, 1793-95. He immigrated to America in 
April, 1795, and settled in Princeton, N.J.,on the 
advice of Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia, 
&nd became a partner of Dr. Ebenezer Stockton. 
He delivered a course of lectures on the Lavoi- 
sierian theory of chemistry at the College of New 
Jersey ; was professor of chemistry and natural 
history there, 1795-^ ; professor of matliematics 
and natural philosophy, 1797-1804 ; professor of 
natural philosophy and chemistry, 1804-08 ; and 
professor of mathematics, natural philosophy and 
chemistry, 1808-13. He was married, Nov. 7, 
1T98. to Phoebe, eldest daughter of Absalom and 
Mary (Taylor) Bainbridge of Middletown, N.J., 
and sister of Commodore William Bainbridge, 
U.S.N. He was professor of natural philosophy 
and chemistry at the College of William and 
Uary in 1813-13, but was compelled to resign in 
1913 on account of ill health, caused by bilious 
fever, from which he never recovered. His chem- 
ical instructions included the practical application 
of chemistry to agricultureand manufacture, and 
hiscbaiiat Princeton was the first chair of chem- 
istry in the United States. He was elected a 
member of the Academy of Medicine of Philadel- 
phia in June, 1799, and a member of the American 
Philcaophical society in January, 180S. He was 
admitted to Amerioan citizenship in E)eoember, 
1807. He is the author of Lecture* on Cambu*- 
Hon (1797), and many articles on the philogin- 
tio (beoiy of oombuation in the New York Medicai 



HoLEAN 



. controversy with Dr. Joseph Priest- 
ley. See " Memoir " by hia son, Dr. John Mao- 
Iean(1876). He died in Princeton, Feb.l7, 1814. 
McLEAN, John) jurist, was bom in Morris 
oounty, N.J., March 11, 178S ; son of Fergus 
and Sophia (Blookford) McLean. His father, a 
weaver by trade, emigrated from Ireland to New 
Jeioey, removed to Morgautown, Va., in 1789, to 
Jessamine, Ky., soon _^ 

after, to Mayslick, 
Ky., in 1793, and to 
Lebanon, Ohio, in 
1799, where he died 
in 1889. John attended 
school as the oppor- 
tunity present«d it- 
self, and in 1801 he 
had earned enough i 
money to pay for I 
private tuition. In 
1803 he went to Cin- 
cinnati and obtained 
employment in the 
office of the clerk of 
Hamilton county. He 
studied law with Arthur St. Clair, was admitted 
to the bar in the fall of 180? and practised in 
Lebanon, Ohio. He was a representative in the 
13th and 14tb congresses, 181S-I7 ; was a Arm 
supporter of President Madison ; advocated the 
war against England ; was a membeT of tlie com- 
mittee on foreign relations and of the committee 
on publio lands. He was appointed by joint bal- 
lot of the legislature, judge of the supreme court 
of the state of Ohio in 1816 and served until 1833 
when he was appointed by President Monroe com- 
missioner of the land office and in 1823 post- 
master-general, which office he also held through 
President J. Q. Adams's administration. Upon 
the election of President Jackson, President 
Adams appointed him a justice of the U.S. su- 
preme court and he was assigned to the seventh 
circuit, which atthat time embraced the districts 
of Tennessee, Kentucky and Ohio, He held the 
justiceship, 1839-61, and until the last two years 
of his life was never absent from bis duties a 
single day. He was opposed to slavery but was 
impartial in hie decisions on thequestion. In his 
opinions on the Dred Scott decision, he said : " If 
a citizen of a free state shall entice or enable a 
slave to escape from the service of his master, the 
law holds him responsible for the loss of that 
slave, and he is guilty of a misdemeanor, and lam 
bound to say that I have never found a jury in 
my circuit that have not sustained that law," 
In 1881, at the Anti-Masonic national convention 
held in Baltimore in September, his name was 
suggested for the candidacy for President but he 
declined in favor of William Wirt, and in 1886 he 



Mclean 



McLean 



was urged to accept the nomination on the Whig 
ticket, but he again refused. His name was con- 
sidered for president by the Free Soil party at 
Buffalo, Aug. 9, 1848; and by the Whig national 
convention at Baltimore, June 16, 1852 ; and by 
the Republican national convention at Chicago, 
May 16, 1860. He was twice married, first in 1807 
to Rebecca, daughter of Dr. Edwards of Virginia, 
who died in December, 1840, and secondly in 1843 
to Sarah Bella (Ludlow) Garrard, widow of Col. 
Jephtha Garrard and a daughter of Israel and 
Charlotte (Chambers) Ludlow. The honorary de- 
gree of LL.D. was conferred on him by Wesleyan 
university. Conn., in 1835, and by Harvard col- 
lege in 1839. He was made an honorary mem- 
ber of the New England Historic Genealogical 
society, Oct. 15, 1850 He delivered many ad- 
dresses, and published Reports of the United 
States Circuit Court (6 vols., 1829-55). He died 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 4, 1861. 

McLBAN, John^ senator, was bom in North 
Carolina in 1791. He received a limited education 
in the schools of Logan county, Ky., where he 
had removed with his father in 1795. He was 
admitted to the bar and practised in Shawnee- 
town. 111., 1815-30. He was the firat representa- 
tive from Illinois elected to congress and served 
in the 15th congress, 1817-19. He was a repre- 
sentative in the state legislature in 1820 and upon 
the resignation of Vivian Edwards from the U.S. 
senate in 1824, he was appointed by Governor 
Morrow to fill the vacancy and served, 1824-25. 
He was elected in 1829 U.S. senator for a full 
term to expire March 3, 1835, by the unanimous 
vote of the legislature, and took his seat Dec. 7, 
1829. He died in Shawneetown, 111., Oct. 4, 1830. 

MACLEAN, John, educator, was born in Prince- 
ton, N.J., March 3, 1800; son of Dr. John (b. 
1771) and Phoebe (Bainbridge) Maclean. He was 
matriculated in 1818 and was graduated from the 
College of New Jersey, Princeton, A.B., 1816, 
the youngest man in his class, receiving his A.M. 
degree in 1819. He taught at Lawrenceville 
classical school, the Rev. Isaac V. Brown, prin- 
cipal, 1816-17 ; attended the Princeton Theological 
seminary, 1818-21 ; was a tutor in the College 
of New Jersey, 1818-22 ; declined a professorship 
at Dickinson, 1822 ; was professor of mathematics 
and natural philosophy at the College of New 
Jersey, 1822-23 ; and professor of mathematics 
there, 1823-29, when by reason of injudicious 
exercise of discipline the college had lost all but 
seventy-five of its pupils and the income had be- 
come crippled. He was then made vice-president 
of the college, the faculty was re-constructed and 
prosperity followed the changes, which included 
the addition to the faculty of Joseph Henry, 
Arnold Guyot and Stephen Alexander. He was 
ordained by the presbytery of New Brunswick, 




Feb. 5, 18258. He was professor of languages at 
the College of New Jersey, 1829-30 ; professor of 
ancient languages and literature, 1830—36 ; of 
Greek, 1836-47, and of Greek language and liter- 
ature, 1847-54. In 1854 he succeeded Jamee 
Camahan as presi- 
dent of the college, 
having practically 
had charge of the 
administration of its 
affairs from 1860. Up- 
on his retirement in 
1860 the permanent 
funds of the college, 
which were (15,000 
when he assumed 
control, were over 
$250,000. A residence 
on Canal street, 
Princeton, N.J., was 
purchased and pre- 
sented to him by 

the college on his resignation. He was a 
director of the Princeton Theological semi- 
nary, 1861-86 ; a regent of the Smithsonian 
Institution ; president of the American Coloni- 
zation society and a member of the Foreign 
Missionary society. The honorary degree of D.D. 
was conferred on him by Washington college. 
Pa., in 1841 and that of LL.D. by the University 
of the State of New York in 1854. He published 
A School System for New Jersey (1829); which 
was originally a lecture delivered by him before 
the Literary and Philosophical Society of New 
Jersey in 1828 and the plan of which was closely 
followed by the legislature of New Jersey when 
the common school system of the state was estab- 
lished. He contributed many articles to the 
Princeton Review and the Predyyterian. He is 
the author of : Review of the Proceedings of the 
Oeneral Assembly for 1837 (1838); Eaoamination 
of the Essays on Ba>cchus and anti-Bacchus (1841); 
Letters on the Elder Question (1844); Letters on 
the True Relation of Church and State to Schools 
and Colleges (1853) ; Plan for the Endoicment oj 
of the College of New Jersey (by Prof. M. B. Hope 
with notes by Maclean); Inaugural Address 
(1854) ; Brief Narrative of the Work of Grace in 
the College of New Jersey (1856); Sermons (1846 ; 
1857: 1858; 1859); Address before the American 
Colonization Society (54tli annual report): Memoir 
of John Maclean, M,D, (1876); History of the 
College of New Jersey (2 vols., 1877); Address to 
Senior Class of Princeton Theological Seminary^ 
May U. 1884, (1885). He died in Princeton, N.J., 
Aug. 10, 1886. 

McLEAN, John Roll, journalist, was bom in 
Cincinnati. Ohio. Sept. 17, 1848 ; son of Wash- 
ington and Mary L. McLean. He attended a 



MCLEAN 



McLENE 



priyate schools in Cincinnati, and Harvard college, 
and after studying in Germany he returned to 
Cincinnati and purchased his father's interest in 
the Inquirer, He owned half the paper in 1873 
and became sole owner in 1881. He was closely 
connected with Democratic politics, both state 
and national, being delegate-at-large from Ohio to 
the Democratic national conventions of 1884, 1888, 
1892, 1896 and 1900, and the Ohio member of the 
Democratic national committee. In 1885 he was 
the party candidate for U.S. senator. In 1899 he 
was the Democratic candidate for governor of 
Ohio and in November, 1899, was defeated by 
George K. Nash, the Republican nominee. 

McLEAN, Nathaniel Collins, soldier, was bom 
in Warren county, Ohio, Feb. 2, 1815 ; son of 
Judge John and Rebecca (Edwards) McLean. 
He was graduated at Augusta college, Ky., A.B., 
1834, took a post graduate course at Harvard, 
1834r-d6, and was graduated from the Harvard 
law school, LL.B., 1838. He was married in 1888 
to a daughter of Judge Jacob Burnet, and began 
to practice his profession in Cincinnati. He 
enlisted in the Federal army in 1862, as colonel 
of the 75th Ohio volunteers ; was ordered to west- 
em Virginia, and assigned to Milroy's brigade, 
Schenck's army, at the battle of MacDowell, May 
8, 1863, where he led his regiment up the side of 
the mountain and drove the entrenched army of 
Gen. T. J. Jackson over the crest. He served in 
Schenck's brigade, Fremont*s army, in the en- 
gagements of June 1-9, 1862, and on Nov. 29, 1862, 
was commissioned brigadier-general of volun- 
teers. In the battle of Chancellorsville, May 1-5, 
1863, he commanded the 2d brigade, 1st division, 
11th army corps, and when Gen. Charles Devens 
was wounded, succeeded to the command of the 
division. He resigned his commission, April 20, 
1865, and resumed the practice of law in Cincin- 
nati and subsequently made his home in Bell- 
port, N.T., where he was still living in 1901. 

McLEANy Samuel* delegate, was born in 
Summit Hill, Carbon county, Pa., Aug. 7, 1826 ; 
son of Alexander and Elizabeth (Swan) McLean; 
and grandson of James and Martha (Leslie) Mc- 
Lean, who came from county Antrim early in 
the nineteenth century and settled in the Wyo- 
ming Valley, Pa. His maternal grandparents, 
Samuel and Mary (Smith) Swan, came from the 
north of Ireland in 1720 and were staunch Scotch- 
Iriali Presbyterians. He was matriculated at 
Lafayette college in the class of 1848 ; studied 
law, and was admitted to the bar in 1849, prac- 
tising in Mauch Chunk. He went to California 
in 1849 by way of Cape Horn and returned to 
Pennsylvania in 1854, where he was married, Jan. 
23, 1855, to Jane Wilson of Easton. He was dis- 
trict attorney of Carbon county, 1855-60 ; attor- 
ney-general of the provisional government of 



Colorado in 186^ and one of the founders and 
the first delegate from Montana Territory to 
congress, serving in the 38th and 39th congresses, 
1863-67. He served as colonel of a border regi- 
ment against the Indians and was several times 
wounded. He named Helena, Mont., for his 
infant daughter Helen. He received the honor- 
ary degree of A.M. from Lafayette in 1857. He 
purchased a plantation in Nottoway county, Va., 
in 1869, and removed his family to Burkeville, 
Va., where he died, July 16, 1877. 

McLEAN, Sarah Pratt. See Greene, Sarah 
Pratt McLean. 

McLEANt William, representative, was bom 
in Mon-is county, N.J., before 1789; son of Fer- 
gus and Sophia (Blackford) McLean. Hia 
father, a native of Ireland, immigrated to New 
Jersey, removed first to western Virginia in 
1789, thence to Kentucky, and in 1799 to a farm 
in Warren county, Ohio. William attended 
school and in 1818 settled in Piqua, Miami county, 
Ohio, where he held the office of receiver of 
public moneys. He was a representative in the 
18th, 19th and 20th congresses, 1823-29, and it 
was through his efforts that a subsidy of 500,000 
acres of land was procured for building the Ohio 
canal from Cincinnati to Cleveland. He subse- 
quently engaged in the mercantile business in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, where he died, Oct. 12, 1839. 

McLELLANy lAaac* poet, was born in Port- 
land, Maine, May 21, 1806. He prepared for col- 
lege at Phillips Andover academy, was graduated 
from Bowdoin, A.B., 1826, A.M., 1829; was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and practised in Boston for a 
number of years. He was associate editor of the 
Boston Daily Patriot and published the Monthly 
Pearl, He removed to New York city in 1851 
and devoted himself to literary pursuits. He 
was an enthusiastic sportsman and was widely 
known as the *' poet sportman." He is the author 
of : The Death of Napoleon (1822) ; Tlie Fall of the 
Indian, with other Poems (1830); Jlie Year, with 
other Poems (1832); Journal of a Residence in 
Scotland and a Tour through England and France 
(1834); Mount Auburn (1843) ; Poems of the Rod 
and Gun (1886); New Poems {1S9S); Haunts of 
Wild Game ; The Trout Brook ; New England's 
Dead ; The Notes of the Birds, and War Poems, 
He died at Greenport, L.I., N.Y., Aug. 20. 1899. 

McLENEt James, delegate, was born in New 
London, Chester county. Pa., Oct. 14, 1730. He 
attended the academy at Thunder Hill, Md.; re- 
moved to Cumberland county. Pa., in 1753 ; waa 
a member of the state constitutional convention 
in 1776; a member of the state assembly, 1776-78, 
and speaker in 1778 ; a member of the supreme 
executive council of Pennsylvania, 1778, and 
1783-84 ; delegate to the Continental congress, 
1778-80 ; a member of the council of censors^ 



McLENE 



McLURE 



1783-86 ; of the board of property, 1786-87; and of 
the second state oonstfbutional convention in 
1790 and justice of the peace of Franklin county, 
1800-06. He died in Antrim, Pa., March 13, 1806. 

McLBNB» Jeremiahy representative, was bom 
in Cumberland county, Pa., in 1767. He served 
in the American army during the Revolutionary 
war and in 1790 removed to Ohio, settling in Chil- 
licothe. He was a representative in the state 
legislature, 1807-08, and secretary of the state, 
1808-31. He removed to Columbus, Ohio, in 1816, 
when that city became the state capital. He 
was a Democratic elector from Ohio, in the elec- 
toral college of 1833 and a Democratic represent- 
ative from Franklin county in the 23d and 24th 
congresses, 1833-37. He died In Washington, 
D.C., March 19, 1837. 

McLEODy Alexandert clergyman, was born 
in the Island of Mull, Scotland, June 12, 1774 ; 
son of the Rev. Niel McLeod. He was prepared 
for college in Scotland, immigrated to the United 
States and was graduated from Union college, 
N.Y., in 1798. He was installed as pastor over 
Reformed Presbyterian churches in Wallkill, 
N.Y., and in New York city in 1799. He soon 
after gave up the charge at Wallkill devoting 
his whole time to the First Reformed Presbyte- 
rian church in New York, which he served up to 
the time of his death. The honorary degree of 
A.M. was conferred on him by the College of New 
Jersey in 1802 and that of D.D. by Middlebury 
college, Vt., in 1809. He was a fellow of the 
Royal Society of London ; was an editor of the 
Christian Magazine for a number of years, and is 
the author of : Negro Slavery Unjtuttifiahle (1802); 
The Messiah (1803) ; Ecclesiastical Catechism 
(1807); On the Ministry (1808); Lectures on tlie 
Principal Prophecies of the Revelation (1814); 
View of the Late War (1815) ; Tlie Life and Power 
of True Oodliness (1816), and The American 
Christian Expositor (2 vols., 1832-33 )'. See 
** Memoir" by Rev. Dr. Samuel B. Wylie (1855). 
He died in New York city, Feb. 17, 1833. 

McLURB» Williain, geologist, was born in 
Ayr, Scotland, in 1763 ; son of David and Ann 
McLure. He was educated in Ayr, under the 
tuition of a Mr. Douglass, and in 1782 visited 
the United States, on mercantile business. As 
partner in the firm of Miller, Hart & Co. , London, 
he acquired a large fortune. He came to the 
United States in 1796, but in 1803 returned to 
Europe, having been appointed with John Fenton 
Mercer and Cox Barnet commissioners to settle 
the French spoliation claims. On his return to 
America he began a geological survey of the 
United States, and for this purpose crossed the 
Alleghany mountains fifty times, and made ob- 
servations in almost every state and territory 
from the St. Lawrence river to the Gulf of Mex- 




•^ir W^ITCD ^TATCS IN 180ft 



ico. In 1809 he presented his observationa to the 
American Philosophical society and they were 
printed that year in the Transactions. He ex- 
tended and completed his geological survey, 
which he presented to the Philosophical society. 
May 16, 1816. This 
gained for him the 
title of ** father of 
American geology . *' 
He was elected a 
member of the Aca- 
demy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadel- 
phia, soon after its 
organization in 1813, 
and served as its pres- 
ident, 1817-40. Under 
his auspices the Jour- 
nal of the Academy was inaugurated, and he 
continued to direct its policy and to make fre- 
quent contributions to its columns during his life- 
time. Prior to 1819, he presented the library of 
the institution with nearly fifteen hundred vol- 
umes, the larger part of his library collected in 
Europe. He visited the West Indies during the 
winter of 1816-17, and the results of his obser- 
vations were published in the Journal of the Acad- 
emy on his return. He went to Europe in 1819, 
and after visiting France proceeded to Spain, 
where he established an agricultural school for 
the benefit of the poorer classes on 10,000 acres of 
government land near Alicant which he pur- 
chased for this purpose, but when the Constitu- 
tional government was overthrown, his land 
reverted to the church from which it had been 
confiscated. He returned to the UniteU States 
in 1824, and purchased extensive tracts of land at 
New Harmony, Ind., for the purpose of carrying 
out his agricultural system in the United Stat^«. 
The school did not fulfil the expectations of its 
founder, and he relinquished it in 1827 and went to 
Mexico. On Nov. 17, 1828, he presided at a meeting 
held in New Haven, Conn. , by the American Geo- 
logical society of which he had been president 
many years. He spent the remainder of his 
life in Mexico. In 1834 he gave to the Acad- 
emy of Natui*al Sciences a second library of 
nearly 2500 volumes and in 1837-38 the sum of 
120,000, with which the society built a new fire- 
proof building. The American Greological society 
also benefited by his gifts of books and specimens. 
He contributed to the American Journal of 
Science and to the Journal of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and is the author 
of : Observations on the Geology of the United 
States of America with some Remarks on the 
Nature and Fertility of Soils (1817), and Opinions 
on Varioits Sitbjects (2 vols., 1837). He died at 
San Angel, Mexico, March 23, 1840. 



HcUAHON 

McMAHON, JamM, R.C. priest, and philao- 
thropiat, was bora in countj Tyrone, Ireland, in 
1817. Ha waa educated for the priesthood at tlie 
CoU^e and Seminarf of Maynootli, Ireland, 
after wbioli be entered the Order of St. Sulpice, at 



Issj, Paris, and two jeara later was assi^ed to 
the missions of theeociety in Montreal. In 1846 he 
went to New York city, where he was appointed 
assistant to the Very Rev. William Storrs, and 
soon became pastor of St. Mary's, where he 
served, 1843-50, He was pastor of the parish of 
St. John the Evangelist. 1850-76. and in 1876 was 
transferred to the church of St. Andrew. He 
had a private fortune, which he invested in 
npper New York real estate, and in 1890 he re- 
signed his parish and retired to the Catholic Uni- 
versity of America, Washington, D.C.. with the 
intention of devoting his wealth to that institu- 
tion. His gift of $400,000 was accepted by the 
trustees in April, 1891. and MoMahon Hall was 
erected for the schools of philosophy and the 
social soienoee, and was opened in October, 
1805. In 1900 he gave to the university the 
properly which he had accumulated in Washing- 
ton, and this was devoted to the further advance- 
ment of the institution. The title of monsignor 
was conferred upon him by Pope Leo XIII. in 
1801, in recognition of his services to the univer- 
sity. He died at the Catholic university in 
Washington, D.C.. April 15, 1901. 

McMAHON, John A., representative, waa 
born in Frederick county, Md., Feb. 19, 1833 ; 
son of John Van Lear and Elizabeth (Gouger) 
UcMahon. His father was a graduate of the Col- 
lege of New Jersey, 1817; LL.D. St. John's col- 
lege, Maryland, 1869 ; member of the Baltimore 
bar ; author of " An Historical View of Mary- 
land " (1831) : removed to Ohio in 1855. and died 
in Maryland June 15. 1871. John A. McMahon 
waa graduated at St. Xavier's college. Cincin- 
nati, in 1849 ; studied law with C. L. Valandig- 
bam, and was admitted to the bar in 1854. He 
praotiBed in Dayton, Ohio ; was a delegate to the 
VIL— 13 



UoMAHON 

Democratic national convention at Baltimore, 
July 0, 1672, and a representative from the fourth 
Ohio district in the 44th, 46th and 46th con- 
gresses, 1875-81. He waa practising law in Day- 
ton, Ohio, in 1901. 

McMAHON, Lawrence Stephen, R.C. biahop, 
was bom at St. John, N.B., Dec. 26, 1835. He 
came to the United States in 1839 ; attended the 
Boston schools, the College of the Holy Cross in 
Worcester, Mass. ; academies in Baltimore and 
Montreal, and studied theology at the College of 
Aix, in France and in Borne. He was ordained at 
St. John's Lateran, Rome, by Cardinal Patrizzi, 
vicar-general of Rome, March 24, 1860, and was 
stationed at the cathedral in Boston, Mass. He 
was chaplain of the 28th Mos